Theory and practice of conflict resolution – Vilniaus Universitetas – University of Pavia




      MATTIA FERRARI


     ...
Conflict Origins : the island division



     • Tribes and clans shared the same
       destiny till the modern age



  ...
Conflict Origins : the island division /2



     • In 1801 Ireland is included in the “United
       Kingdom of Great Bri...
Conflict Origins : the island division /3

     • The colonization produced political, religious
       and cultural diffe...
Conflict Origins : the island division
Conflict Set-up and escalation


    • In Northern Ireland began a period of
      discriminations and the abolition of pr...
Conflict Escalation : Bloody Sunday

    In 1972, 13 unarmed people were killed by
      British paratroops, while peacefu...
Conflict
Peace Process : the UK-Ireland tryout
    Besides some talks between some conflict
      protagonists, a real peace proces...
Peace Process : the UK-Ireland tryout /2

       – 1999 :
             – December : after 20 months the newly domestic pow...
Nationalism? GB and Ireland sport teams


    • In Great Britain each of the 4 parts has its own
      national team compe...
Peace Process : Conflict Transformation

       – During the different stages of the conflict
         several events modi...
Peace Process : the EU influence

       – The integration process within the EU
         helped in the NI conflict transf...
Peace Process : the EU influence /2


       – EC functioned as new example of political
         model, particularly for ...
Peace Process : the EU influence /3


       – In Habermas‟ words, the EU saw as a
         “postnationale Konstellation„ ...
Peace Process : the EU influence /4


       – There are at lest 3 empirical reasons for a
         leading role of EU in ...
The EU programs “Peace” I & II


       – It represented EU commitment to helping
         alleviate ethnic conflict in tw...
The eligible areas of Peace Programs
The EU influence in Belfast Agreements


    The Good Friday agreements has 2 principal
      aspects in common with EU ag...
The EU influence in Belfast Agreements /2

    In the agreement chapter: “Rights, Safeguards And
       Equality Of Opport...
The EU influence in Belfast Agreements /3


    2 new institutions were created that can be used
      as example of class...
A crucial node in the Belfast Agreements


    The Good Friday agreements contains a fundamental
      commitment to const...
Conclusions

    • Since the early 1990s the EU is not viewed simply as
      an economic organization. EU can play an act...
An open question…




    • Is the EU intervention applicable to other
      conflict areas? f.e. Palestine, Cyprus, Kosov...
Bibliography


      – Hayward, Katie. Reiterating National Identities - The European
        Union Conception of Conflict...
Filmography


     –   Comerford, Joe. High Boot Benny, 1993
     –   Levinson, Barry. An Everlasting Piece, 2000
     –  ...
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European Union and Northern Ireland conflict

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European Union and Northern Ireland conflict

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  • What your research left out was the Population changes in Northern Ireland. The republic of Irelands population growth rate is quite high as is the Catholic population of Northern Ireland whom are with in 20 years of forming a Majority Status just on Birth Rate. If the flip side of the Aging society kicks in in the next 15 years, ie when death rates plateu then it might even come sooner given that the Catholic Birth Rates have been naturally higher for such a long time. The good friday aggreement allows for a referendum at 50% + 1 which will be similar to the Border Poll. Hopefully this happens in an Irish Eu Council Presidency year for securities sake. This is one aspect of the EU that shits me. Its all well and good sending troops to Serbia and Africa when there is conflict but only the UK have ever sent troops to NI and this is ussually under the Auspice of people like Margret Thatcher whom have recently been linked to MI6 and Unionists whom are registered as Terrorists. Its not just the IRA that are the Problem in NI and the tone set by your work is typical of the Bias in literature that never shows a clear picture of the conflict. Its like the UK want it both ways. With Scotland and Wales for example they prefer Unity and with Ireland they expect segregation though you might think they would also prefer the republic of Ireland to rejoin the Commonwealth of Nations. However given the last Border Pole you can see that the Unionists actually would vehemently oppose that to. The only good points however is that the majority of the UK seem to be less in favor of double standards and will likely be in support of a United Ireland once a majority is achieved. This is just my opinion. I have reservations about how this will work out with a most likely scenario being conflict on the land border side of NI where the majority is Sinn Fein and SDLP which will ultimatley end up in an Annex where a land swap and people swap ensues with the Unionist being vanquished to Antrim and parts of Down. The last Border Poll clearly outlines that this is the most likely scenario. The EU would loose all credibility in Irish eyes if it were not to support unanimously the use of EUFOR to manage the transition.
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European Union and Northern Ireland conflict

  1. 1. Theory and practice of conflict resolution – Vilniaus Universitetas – University of Pavia MATTIA FERRARI Northen Ireland Conflict Studies about the conflict case and the role of European Union in the peace process
  2. 2. Conflict Origins : the island division • Tribes and clans shared the same destiny till the modern age • In 1536 England began the new invasion of Ireland, with a deep colonization of the north part
  3. 3. Conflict Origins : the island division /2 • In 1801 Ireland is included in the “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland” with the Union Act
  4. 4. Conflict Origins : the island division /3 • The colonization produced political, religious and cultural differences between the north and the south part so that British government had the idea to separate the administration of the Ulster • But in 1922 the Anglo-Irish Treaty ended the war for independence and produced the creation of the Free Irish State, without the inclusion of Ulster part (6 Counties) in the north (opt-out option)
  5. 5. Conflict Origins : the island division
  6. 6. Conflict Set-up and escalation • In Northern Ireland began a period of discriminations and the abolition of proportional representation in 1929. • The reaction was the creation of paramilitary dissident groups from the official IRA (Irish Republican Army) and the constant use of violence with brutal mass assassinations operated by both side of the conflict through the 70‟s and 80‟s of last century.
  7. 7. Conflict Escalation : Bloody Sunday In 1972, 13 unarmed people were killed by British paratroops, while peacefully demonstrating for civil rights
  8. 8. Conflict
  9. 9. Peace Process : the UK-Ireland tryout Besides some talks between some conflict protagonists, a real peace process starts in 1985 – 1985 : Anglo-Irish Agreement - failed – 1994 : – August, 31 : IRA declare the end of military operation, broken in 1996, resumed in 1997 – October, 13 : ceasefire proclaimed by protestant paramilitary formations – 1998 : – April, 10 : Good Friday Agreement – May, 22 : 71% confirm the agreement by referendum – June, 25 : first elections won by UUP and SDLP – August, 15 : Real IRA starts terroristic operations – December, 10: John Hume, SDLP leader, and David Trimble, UUP leader receive the nobel Price
  10. 10. Peace Process : the UK-Ireland tryout /2 – 1999 : – December : after 20 months the newly domestic power sharing parliament takes power from London – 2000 : – February, 11 : for the first time the assembly is suspended due to the unaccomplished disarmament of IRA – 2001 -> 2003 : – Due to „twin track policy‟ of IRA and Sinn Fein, several suspension measures are taken by the British Government and the new elections are won by extreme Catholic (SF) and Protestant parties (DUP) – 2005: – April, 6 : Gerry Adams, SF president, asks to IRA a definitive ceasefire for a democratic evolution of the conflict. – July, 28 : IRA stops all armed operations and order a full decommissioning
  11. 11. Nationalism? GB and Ireland sport teams • In Great Britain each of the 4 parts has its own national team competing for most of the international sport events • In some sports like Rugby (since 1875) Ireland play with one only national team. For this cases was written a new national anthem “Irelands Calls” and designed a symbol:
  12. 12. Peace Process : Conflict Transformation – During the different stages of the conflict several events modified the scenario: – CONTEXT : EU Development and the end of Cold War. But without forget in recent times the balkanization process – ACTORS : Changes in Sinn Fein vision, divisions among Unionists, British government changes (f.e. the role of Tony Blair) – ISSUES : after the good Friday agreements the main issue in agenda was to achieve the requests necessary for preserve the self-shared-government and to reconcile the legitimacy of the two cultural traditions
  13. 13. Peace Process : the EU influence – The integration process within the EU helped in the NI conflict transformation (GB and Ireland are both members of EEC since 1973) • The EU‟s self-ascribed role towards a settlement in Northern Ireland since that time has followed this vein by supporting the peaceful expression of British and Irish identities rather than reconstructing them or creating alternatives. • This nation-based approach is encapsulated in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement between the governments of the UK and Ireland and political parties in Northern Ireland.
  14. 14. Peace Process : the EU influence /2 – EC functioned as new example of political model, particularly for the discharge of interstate borders and the develop of international cooperation – Enter in EC helped Ireland to reduce the economy dependency from Great Britain. This helped to balance the dialogue between the 2 Countries.
  15. 15. Peace Process : the EU influence /3 – In Habermas‟ words, the EU saw as a “postnationale Konstellation„ that try to ensure principles of democracy, free market and a better social redistribution, is a good incentive to sustain the pacification processes “ The gradual disappearance [...] of the Border as a barrier in the economic and many other fields [...] would, in time, tend to promote a common desire to remove the political barrier ” Sean Lemass, prime minister of Ireland, 1962
  16. 16. Peace Process : the EU influence /4 – There are at lest 3 empirical reasons for a leading role of EU in the conflict: 1. Single European Market (SEM) 2. The regional and Regional and Cohesion Policy (1988, included more money for border crossing projects) 3. Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (1994) • Without forger that the EU Commission should play a role of guardian of the EU Integration
  17. 17. The EU programs “Peace” I & II – It represented EU commitment to helping alleviate ethnic conflict in two of its member states. How? By spending more than 1 billion Euro in selected areas for : • Alleviate social exclusion • Decrease the economic deprivation that contributed to paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland • Improve the cross-border development (with the integration of the Interreg Program)
  18. 18. The eligible areas of Peace Programs
  19. 19. The EU influence in Belfast Agreements The Good Friday agreements has 2 principal aspects in common with EU agreements: – Human rights respect – Development of institution mechanism for improving regional, interregional and transnational cooperation “One of the striking things about the Belfast Agreement is that, to anyone who knows the European Union, one immediately recognizes that it was written by people who also know the EU and have worked its systems quite extensively” R. O‟Donnell, 1999
  20. 20. The EU influence in Belfast Agreements /2 In the agreement chapter: “Rights, Safeguards And Equality Of Opportunity” Great Britain accepted to include in the Northern Ireland law all the European Human Right declaration, and to guarantee full access of the courts at the EU inspectors. The same EU declaration is used as guarantee for a fair representation of the different communities. [Talking about Birtish and Irish Government] “ to use their influence with the two communities in Northern Ireland to bring about a political system with an equitable sharing of government responsibilities, which would accommodate the identities of the two traditions, so upholding the ideals and the concept of tolerance vis-à-vis minorities practiced in the two countries and in other EC Member States.” - Dr Garret FitzGerald, 1984
  21. 21. The EU influence in Belfast Agreements /3 2 new institutions were created that can be used as example of classical Conflict Transformation theories: – North-South Ministerial Council – British-Irish Council This new institutions, with the British-Irish Inter- governmental Conference, has been subjected to the influence of European Institutions
  22. 22. A crucial node in the Belfast Agreements The Good Friday agreements contains a fundamental commitment to constitutional and institutional change to : – in the case of Ireland: modify (if not remove) the direct claim over the territory of Northern Ireland in Articles 2 and 3 – in the case of the UK: allow for future change in the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. “I believe that in the context of a new Europe in which sovereignty has changed its meaning and whose very existence is a proclamation that the independent nation state is out of date, it should be easier for us to resolve our differences” (Hume, leader of the SDLP, 1994)
  23. 23. Conclusions • Since the early 1990s the EU is not viewed simply as an economic organization. EU can play an active role in conflict resolution, especially by reconstructing the economy of the conflict zones, but also by promoting cross-border cooperation activities that are endemic of the EU nature: “united in diversity”. • In NI the number of politic episodes of violence increased in the last years (1998-2002), even if terroristic attacks and victims are constantly reducing (83 bomb attacks and 167 gunfire in 2005 Vs 349 and 335 in 2001). • There‟s a new phenomenon of racism to be considered, due to recent immigration process
  24. 24. An open question… • Is the EU intervention applicable to other conflict areas? f.e. Palestine, Cyprus, Kosovo? The Baltic crisis in the 1990‟s showed f.e. a politically weak EU…
  25. 25. Bibliography – Hayward, Katie. Reiterating National Identities - The European Union Conception of Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland – Tannam, Etaim. The European Commission‟s Evolving Role in Conflict Resolution - The Case of Northern Ireland 1989–2005 – Ropers, Robert. From Resolution to Transformation: The Role of Dialogue Projects – Bloomfield, David. Towards Complementarity in Conflict Management: Resolution and Settlement in Northern Ireland – Hugh, Miall. Conflict Transformation: A Multi-Dimensional Task – Wikipedia - www.wikipedia.org – United Nation - www.un.org – CAIN Web Service - http://www.cain.ulst.ac.uk/
  26. 26. Filmography – Comerford, Joe. High Boot Benny, 1993 – Levinson, Barry. An Everlasting Piece, 2000 – Loane, Terry. Mickybo & Me, 2004 – Loach, Ken. The Wind That Shakes the Barley, 2006 – Harkin, Margo. Hush a Bye Baby, 1990 – Jordan, Neil. Michael Collins, 1996 – Greengrass, Paul. Bloody Sunday, 2002

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