Research questions and approach <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks of ATES systems on groundwater qua...
Field site – ATES system Eindhoven <ul><li>Monitoring program 2005-2012 (Brabant Water) </li></ul><ul><li>What effects are...
Site description  ATES site Drinking water  Pumping station <ul><li>Coarse and heterogeneous aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Hig...
Field data – Eindhoven Ambient groundwater quality: depth profiles <ul><li>ATES system is realized in Sterksel aquifer </l...
Field data Eindhoven:  Water quality patterns in ATES wells  Ambient  concentration range <ul><li>Data shows:  </li></ul><...
Mixing effect explained  by a simple model  simulation Initial situation: Vertical stratified aquifer: shallow groundwater...
Mixing effect explained  by a simple model  simulation Start with ATES: Extraction of shallow enriched SO 4  water and dee...
Mixing effect explained  by a simple model  simulation End with season 1: Part of injected bubble  has drifted off.
Mixing effect explained  by a simple model  simulation End of next ATES season: Injection in other ATES well. Bel drifted ...
Field data: microbiological observations <ul><li>- Increased  elevated colony counts at 37°C  </li></ul><ul><li>Higher pre...
Conclusions from field data <ul><li>No chemical drinking water standards are exceeded. Biological standards were exceeded,...
Laboratory investigations Aim:  - Detailed analyses of  hydrochemical changes due  to changing temperature - Investigate m...
Collection of soil cores
Sampling of influent water
Installation in lab Pumps Circulation  Coolers (5 and 12 °C) Cores Control  Unit (heating logging of pH,DO &EC)
Selected results lab experiments: effluent curves with 1 day residence time <ul><li>Results @ 5  ° C: Carbonate minerals d...
Conclusions from column testing <ul><li>- Lab studies show some effects at low T: carbonate dissolution (5°C) & desorption...
Questions?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Nationaal Congres Bodemenergie Effecten Van Bodemenergie Op Grondwaterkwaliteit

342 views

Published on

Nationaal Congres Bodemenergie Effecten Van Bodemenergie Op Grondwaterkwaliteit

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
342
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nationaal Congres Bodemenergie Effecten Van Bodemenergie Op Grondwaterkwaliteit

  1. 2. Research questions and approach <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks of ATES systems on groundwater quality (chemical, microbiological and physical)? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can we allow what type of ATES systems? </li></ul><ul><li>Approach/this presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Field: Monitoring ATES systems at 3 sites (mostly 7-17 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>Lab: column experiments (5-60 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>(Numerical modelling with Seawat,Phreeqc: next step) </li></ul>
  2. 3. Field site – ATES system Eindhoven <ul><li>Monitoring program 2005-2012 (Brabant Water) </li></ul><ul><li>What effects are visible at field scale? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the consequence for drinking water production? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Site description ATES site Drinking water Pumping station <ul><li>Coarse and heterogeneous aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>High groundwater flow velocity (>25 m/year) </li></ul>
  4. 5. Field data – Eindhoven Ambient groundwater quality: depth profiles <ul><li>ATES system is realized in Sterksel aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical redox zonation: removal of NO3, SO4; followed by appearance of CH4 </li></ul>
  5. 6. Field data Eindhoven: Water quality patterns in ATES wells Ambient concentration range <ul><li>Data shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing of shallow Cl and SO4 enriched (anthropogenically influenced) and deep groundwater </li></ul>Cycling of redox zones (Fe, NO3, NH4)  consequences in aquifer?
  6. 7. Mixing effect explained by a simple model simulation Initial situation: Vertical stratified aquifer: shallow groundwater enriched in SO 4 deep groundwater depleted in SO 4
  7. 8. Mixing effect explained by a simple model simulation Start with ATES: Extraction of shallow enriched SO 4 water and deep depleted water, mixing and reinjection End of next ATES season: Injection in other ATES well. Bel drifted further Initial situation: Vertical stratified aquifer: shallow Cl/SO4 enriched deep depleted
  8. 9. Mixing effect explained by a simple model simulation End with season 1: Part of injected bubble has drifted off.
  9. 10. Mixing effect explained by a simple model simulation End of next ATES season: Injection in other ATES well. Bel drifted further Initial situation: Vertical stratified aquifer: shallow Cl/SO4 enriched deep depleted Start with ATES: Extraction of shallow enriched SO4 water and deep depleted water, mixing and reinjection End with season 1: Part of injected bubble has drifted off. End of storage season: Injected bubble has away from ATES well. Start of next ATES season: Injection in other ATES well.
  10. 11. Field data: microbiological observations <ul><li>- Increased elevated colony counts at 37°C </li></ul><ul><li>Higher prevalence of SSRC may indicate a faecal contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Cause unclear: drilling?, leakage along borehole?, sampling? </li></ul><ul><li>No likely risk however for PSWF due to subsurface residence time (>>100days) </li></ul>3x10 3 435 4.0x10 3 454 12 1.3 Colony count 37°C (CFU/mL) 8.4x10 3 2.4x10 3 1.1x10 4 1.6x10 3 8.1x10 3 195 Colony count 22°C (CFU/mL) max μ max μ max μ 29 17 29 19 10 0 Sulphite reducing clostridia 29 4 29 6 13 0 Enterococci 29 1 29 2 118 0 E. coli n Pos n Pos n Pos ATES well W10 ATES well W9 Ambient Groundwater Parameter
  11. 12. Conclusions from field data <ul><li>No chemical drinking water standards are exceeded. Biological standards were exceeded, but forms no likely risk for the PSWF. </li></ul><ul><li>Observed water quality impacts by the Eindhoven ATES system are explained by mixing/homogenisation of ambient vertical quality differences. </li></ul><ul><li>General conclusion (or hypothesis): mixing waters by ATES and potential microbiological contamination increases vulnerability of nearby pumping stations. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Laboratory investigations Aim: - Detailed analyses of hydrochemical changes due to changing temperature - Investigate more extreme temp.
  13. 14. Collection of soil cores
  14. 15. Sampling of influent water
  15. 16. Installation in lab Pumps Circulation Coolers (5 and 12 °C) Cores Control Unit (heating logging of pH,DO &EC)
  16. 17. Selected results lab experiments: effluent curves with 1 day residence time <ul><li>Results @ 5 ° C: Carbonate minerals dissolution (HCO3) </li></ul><ul><li>Results @ 25 °C: Desorption of trace elements (As) </li></ul><ul><li>Results @ 60 ° C - precipitation of siderite-calcite solid solutions (not pure calcite!) </li></ul><ul><li>Desorption of cations (K, Li, Si) and trace elements (e.g. As) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Conclusions from column testing <ul><li>- Lab studies show some effects at low T: carbonate dissolution (5°C) & desorption of trace elements (25°C). </li></ul><ul><li>But most effect at 60°C: desorption of cations, precipitation of Fe-Mn carbonates and respiration of organic carbon </li></ul>
  18. 19. Questions?

×