Motivational Self ofEFL science students in                 JapanMatthew AppleNara National College of TechnologyJoseph Fa...
Background
Why will S&E students need English?                Multinational                corporationsEnvironmentalprotection      M...
However, S&E students struggle with secondlanguage (L2) motivation.       S&E students are more likely to have experienced...
Problems are based on false hopes falseexpectations.       Specialized majors may lose motivation early, since         in...
What can help S&E students to becomemotivated to learn and improve their L2?
What can help S&E students to becomemotivated to learn and improve their L2?What L2 motivational factors are mostsalient f...
Theories of motivation applicable in theJapanese EFL context.
Socio-cultural modelA desire to integrate or identify with thetarget language culture  motivation.                     In...
Self-determination theoryLearners who have choices, feel they belong,and are capable  motivated                    Autono...
L2 Motivational Self SystemLearners who can imagine reaching an “idealself”  motivated.                     Ideal L2 Self...
In a perfect world, my English abilities are Ideal    very high.L2 self          I will be able to use English perfectly o...
Most likely, I can attain some of the English           abilities that I expect.Probable L2 self   It’s possible that I wi...
I know the specific English abilities           necessary to succeed.Ought-to L2 self   I have no choice in selecting thes...
What I would      Ideal                    L2like to become      self What I might     Probable  become           L2 selfW...
Primary research questions for the threestudies in this presentation1. What are the most salient L2 motivational   factors...
Preliminary Studies
Variables Assemble!          Integrative          orientation                                          AutonomyAttitudes  ...
Variables in theory  Variables usedInterest in English Culture   Interest in English CultureAttitudes toward L2          ...
Apple, Falout, & Hill (2012)N = 395; Technical college students                                 high sense of             ...
SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves.  Classroom    .73    Int...
SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves.  Classroom    .73    Int...
SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves.  Classroom    .73    Int...
Multiple regression results revealed that a sense ofIdeal L2 Self predicted English performanceTOEIC is the dependent vari...
MethodsStudy 1
The study comprised 654 science andengineering (S&E) students in Japan.   School A = 395 (Kansai)   School B = 143 (Kanto)...
Instrumentation used in the studyA questionnaire of 54 itemsDesigned to measure 11 latent constructsUsed a 6-point Liker...
A hypothetical model was created toexamine linear relationships in the data.
Interest in    Attitude English       toward                    Ideal L2  culture      English                     self  C...
ResultsStudy 1
.20Interest in                 Attitude          .25 English                    toward                                    ...
.20Interest in                 Attitude          .25 English                    toward                                    ...
.21Interest in          .58    Attitude          .20 English                    toward                                    ...
ANOVA revealed significant differences betweenparticipants’ final expected degreeOught-to L2 Self is the dependent variabl...
The post hoc analysis indicated differencesbetween junior college and master’s degree goals.Ought-to L2 Self is the depend...
Discussion Study 1
Ought-to L2 Self was more important than Ideal L2Self, but Ideal L2 Self led to higher English ability.     Societal obli...
Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to     ...
Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to     ...
Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to     ...
Results indicate that as students mature, theirPossible Selves may change                                Technician       ...
Results indicate that as students mature, theirPossible Selves may change                                A matter of      ...
Unresolved issues from previous studiesleading to current study1.   Small sample size      (54 variables x 20 cases = min....
MethodsStudy 2 (In progress)
Pilot study results  N = 310 (university 1st to doctorate)  Ages ranged from 19 to 27 (Ave = 20)  84.5% male, 15.5% female
Pilot study results - findings  Attitude toward English  Items did not correlate well with any  other factor  A handful of...
The study comprises 1,891 science andengineering (S&E) students in Japan.           16 institutions           High school ...
The hypothetical model was based on previousresearch and modified for this study              Interest in Classroom       ...
Analysis procedures to be followed1. Pilot the questionnaire (completed)2. Descriptive statistics (used for screening data...
Preliminary ResultsStudy 2 (In progress)
Data screening reduced the size to 1,839  52 student responses removed due to  incomplete or patterned responses  Ages ran...
Travel / overseas items showed a lack ofinternational / intercultural experience  37% had traveled overseas  5% had lived ...
Participants’ English ability level was measuredby TOEIC and/or TOEIC Bridge866 reported TOEICscoresBridge scores weretran...
Correlational analyses showed strongrelationships between variablesTop 3 correlated factors for the Possible Selves Ideal ...
Exploratory Factor Analysis (FA)demonstrated mixing of items  Ought-to L2 Self, Perceived Social Values,  Probable L2 Self...
Exploratory Factor Analysis (FA) is based oncorrelations among factors Correlations among the Possible Selves factors are ...
Implications(based on previous studies)
Potential solutions to improve motivation                           Interest in              Classroom                    ...
Potential solutions to improve motivation                         Examples:                         1.Pair/group workClass...
Potential solutions to improve motivationCurriculumChangesIncreases socialvalue of English,                               ...
Potential solutions to improve motivationCurriculum               Examples:Changes                         1.Allow student...
Potential solutions to improve motivation                                       Ideal L2                                  ...
Potential solutions to improve motivation                                       Ideal L2                                  ...
Potential solutions to improve motivationConnect English           Examples:to Real World                          1.Learn...
Future ResultsStudy 2 (In progress)
Model confirmation of previous studies usingdifferent groups of students              Interest in Classroom      English  ...
Model confirmation of previous studies usingdifferent groups of students                   Interest in      Classroom     ...
Regressional analysis to determine predictivecapability of English proficiency N = 317                                    ...
Qualitative stage of the project (2013~2014)includes follow-up interviews• Currently 150+ students volunteered• Interviews...
Motivational Self of                                  EFL science students in                                             ...
Acknowledgments  The main study in this presentation was funded       by a JSPS Grant-in-Aid (General C)    and generous c...
Japan is a “black hole” of scientific research(IEEE Spectrum, Sept 2012).
Few scientists coming in…                     even fewer going out…
The Rasch model       (Rasch, 1960)
The Rating Scale Model       (Andrich, 1978)
Reliability and separation scores
Item-person map for all constructs
Rasch principal components analysis of itemresiduals (first contrast)
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Motivational Self of EFL science students in Japan

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  • Multinational corporations 多国籍企業 たこく せききぎょう   Airbus, American Express, Apple, Atari, Boing, Bridgestone, Coca-Cola, Costco, Dow Chemical, ExxonMobil, Google, Honda, (Leman Brothers—Leman shock?), Johnson & Johnson, Lockheed Martin, McDonald’s, Nike, Nestle, Nissan, Samsung, Sony, Starbucks, Toyota, Wal-Mart Trade agreements 貿易協定 ぼうえき きょうてい NAFTA, EU, WTO Environmental protection 環境保護 かんきょうほご Kyoto Protocol, CO2 emissions control, Great Barrier Reef, Banff National Park in Alberta Canada, Siberian tiger, Green sea turtle, mountain gorilla, white rhinoceros Megaprojects メガ・プロジェクト Bridges, tunnels, highways, power plants, rockets, buildings, information technology, ports, railways. Boston—Big Dig. Boeing 787. Kansai Airport. Three Gorges Dam. Tokyo Sky Tree. Philippine Arena. Bay Bridge. Tsugaru Tunnel. Research & Development 研究開発 けんきゅう かいはつ Marketing, budget, patents, publications, companies, universities, government laboratories, NASA, JAXA, CST. Disaster relief 災害救助 さいがい きゅうじょ Hurricane, earthquake, Katrina in New Orleans, Great Tohoku Earthquake, Preparedness & response, Red Cross, United Nations, World Bank, rescue robots   Local is global Infrastructure Sustainability Human welfare
  • Research shows J Ss’ attitudes are more superficial (traveling & making int’l friends) than serious integration (becoming highly fluent, becoming close to foreigners).
  • Ideal L2 self, Probable L2 self, Ought-to L2 self
  • Ideal L2 self, Probable L2 self, Ought-to L2 self
  • Ideal L2 self, Probable L2 self, Ought-to L2 self
  • Ideal L2 self, Probable L2 self, Ought-to L2 self (Markus & Nurius, 1986; Dornyei & Ushioda, 2011)
  • Students who answered 1 SD higher to items on the Ideal L2 Self variable would have a 28 point higher TOEIC score. 2 SDs = 56 points.
  • (for more, see Table 1)
  • (See Table 2)
  • Motivational Self of EFL science students in Japan

    1. 1. Motivational Self ofEFL science students in JapanMatthew AppleNara National College of TechnologyJoseph FaloutNihon University, College of Science and TechnologyGlen A. HillObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
    2. 2. Background
    3. 3. Why will S&E students need English? Multinational corporationsEnvironmentalprotection Mega- projectsTradeagreements DisasterResearch & reliefdevelopment d
    4. 4. However, S&E students struggle with secondlanguage (L2) motivation. S&E students are more likely to have experienced demotivation and learned helplessness (Falout et al, 2009) S&E students feel a loss of confidence and blame themselves for falling behind (Falout & Maruyama, 2004)
    5. 5. Problems are based on false hopes falseexpectations. Specialized majors may lose motivation early, since introductory courses are unrelated to their field (O’Dowd, 2010)S&E teachers do not encourage learning English, leading to poor course selection and weak ability (Hill, 2010)
    6. 6. What can help S&E students to becomemotivated to learn and improve their L2?
    7. 7. What can help S&E students to becomemotivated to learn and improve their L2?What L2 motivational factors are mostsalient for S&E students in Japan?
    8. 8. Theories of motivation applicable in theJapanese EFL context.
    9. 9. Socio-cultural modelA desire to integrate or identify with thetarget language culture  motivation. Integrative orientation Attitudes toward Motivational the L2 culture intensity
    10. 10. Self-determination theoryLearners who have choices, feel they belong,and are capable  motivated Autonomy Relatedness Competence
    11. 11. L2 Motivational Self SystemLearners who can imagine reaching an “idealself”  motivated. Ideal L2 Self L2 Experience Ought-to L2 Self
    12. 12. In a perfect world, my English abilities are Ideal very high.L2 self I will be able to use English perfectly or almost perfectly for my needs. What I wouldlike to become
    13. 13. Most likely, I can attain some of the English abilities that I expect.Probable L2 self It’s possible that I will be able to use English to a satisfactory level. What I might become
    14. 14. I know the specific English abilities necessary to succeed.Ought-to L2 self I have no choice in selecting these. Attaining the proper level is obligatory.What I’m afraid to become
    15. 15. What I would Ideal L2like to become self What I might Probable become L2 selfWhat I’m afraid Ought-to to become L2 self
    16. 16. Primary research questions for the threestudies in this presentation1. What are the most salient L2 motivational factors for S&E students in Japan?2. What are the relationships among various L2 motivational factors for S&E students?3. Which Possible L2 Selves factors predict English language performance?
    17. 17. Preliminary Studies
    18. 18. Variables Assemble! Integrative orientation AutonomyAttitudes Relatedness Competence Motivationaltoward the L2 intensityculture Ideal L2 Self L2 Experience Ought-to L2 Self
    19. 19. Variables in theory  Variables usedInterest in English Culture Interest in English CultureAttitudes toward L2 Attitudes toward EnglishCulturePerceived Competence Perceived Speaking CompetenceRelatedness Classroom Atmosphere Perceived Social ValuesOught-to L2 Self Ought-to L2 SelfL2 Experience Probable L2 Self
    20. 20. Apple, Falout, & Hill (2012)N = 395; Technical college students high sense of importance of English, low sense of ability
    21. 21. SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves. Classroom .73 Interest in .57 Ideal L2 English atmosphere Self culture .56 .73 .26 .31 .34 Speaking -.14 Perceived speaking International .68 Probable anxiety competence friendship L2 Self .33 .42 .78 Ought-to L2 Self
    22. 22. SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves. Classroom .73 Interest in .57 Ideal L2 English atmosphere Self culture .56 .73 .26 .31 .34 Speaking -.14 Perceived speaking International .68 Probable anxiety competence friendship L2 Self .33 .42 .78 Ought-to L2 Self
    23. 23. SEM path model results showed the relationship ofsocial, language attitudes, and possible selves. Classroom .73 Interest in .57 Ideal L2 English atmosphere Self culture .56 .73 .26 .31 .34 Speaking -.14 Perceived speaking International .68 Probable anxiety competence friendship L2 Self .33 .42 .78 Ought-to L2 Self
    24. 24. Multiple regression results revealed that a sense ofIdeal L2 Self predicted English performanceTOEIC is the dependent variable (n = 317) Variable B β t Ideal L2 Self 9.34 .28 3.73* Probable L2 Self -2.61 -.13 -1.57 Ought-to L2 Self 2.56 .10 1.56* p < .001
    25. 25. MethodsStudy 1
    26. 26. The study comprised 654 science andengineering (S&E) students in Japan. School A = 395 (Kansai) School B = 143 (Kanto) School C = 116 (Hokkaido) Apple, Falout, & Hill (in press)
    27. 27. Instrumentation used in the studyA questionnaire of 54 itemsDesigned to measure 11 latent constructsUsed a 6-point Likert scale Strongly disagree Strongly agree
    28. 28. A hypothetical model was created toexamine linear relationships in the data.
    29. 29. Interest in Attitude English toward Ideal L2 culture English self Class- Perceived room speaking Integrative Probable atmo- competence orientation L2 self sphere Desire to PerceivedSpeaking Ought-to speak social anxiety L2 self English value
    30. 30. ResultsStudy 1
    31. 31. .20Interest in Attitude .25 English toward Ideal L2 culture English -.16 self .11 .55 .72 3 .5 .23 Class- Perceived room .58 .13 Integrative speaking Probable atmo- competence orientation L2 self sphere 1.41 .67 4 5 .2 8 - .9 -.9 Desire to Perceived .90Speaking Ought-to speak .44 social anxiety L2 self English value
    32. 32. .20Interest in Attitude .25 English toward Ideal L2 culture English -.16 self .11 .55 .72 3 .5 .23 Class- Perceived room .58 .13 Integrative speaking Probable atmo- competence orientation L2 self sphere 1.41 .67 4 -.2 8 -.9 5 .9 Desire to Perceived .90Speaking Ought-to speak .44 social anxiety L2 self English value
    33. 33. .21Interest in .58 Attitude .20 English toward Ideal L2 culture English self .71 .40 .56 .72 8 .4 .21 Class- Perceived Desire to room .58 .13 speaking speak Probable atmo- competence English L2 self sphere .53 4 -.2 .2 9 Perceived .71Speaking Ought-to social L2 self anxiety value
    34. 34. ANOVA revealed significant differences betweenparticipants’ final expected degreeOught-to L2 Self is the dependent variable Final expected degree Number Percent Junior college 144 27.9 4-year university 173 33.5F(1,3) = 3.60 Master’s 151 29.2p = .013 Doctorate 49 9.5
    35. 35. The post hoc analysis indicated differencesbetween junior college and master’s degree goals.Ought-to L2 Self is the dependent variable Final expected degree Number Percent Junior college 144 27.9t(150) = 3.45p = .007d = .38 medium Master’s 151 29.2r = .19 small / med
    36. 36. Discussion Study 1
    37. 37. Ought-to L2 Self was more important than Ideal L2Self, but Ideal L2 Self led to higher English ability.  Societal obligations to learn English for careers in S&E  Personal interests for friendship and pleasure
    38. 38. Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to Ideal L2 Selfcommunicate, but... .31 Probable L2 Self .42 Ought-to L2 Self
    39. 39. Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to Ideal L2 Selfcommunicate, but... .31...they have difficulty imagining Probable L2 Selfthemselves using English... .42 Ought-to L2 Self
    40. 40. Ought-to L2 Self as more important than Ideal L2Self reflects the L2 situation in Japan.Participants have a desire to Ideal L2 Selfcommunicate, but... .31...they have difficulty imagining Probable L2 Selfthemselves using English... .42...yet little difficulty agreeing Ought-tothat they have to learn English. L2 Self
    41. 41. Results indicate that as students mature, theirPossible Selves may change Technician vs. Technical specialist?
    42. 42. Results indicate that as students mature, theirPossible Selves may change A matter of age / year of study?
    43. 43. Unresolved issues from previous studiesleading to current study1. Small sample size (54 variables x 20 cases = min. 1008)2. Limited range of institutions (only 3)3. Uneven numbers across years of study4. Not enough TOEIC scores5. Model was not validated with separate sample after path respecification
    44. 44. MethodsStudy 2 (In progress)
    45. 45. Pilot study results N = 310 (university 1st to doctorate) Ages ranged from 19 to 27 (Ave = 20) 84.5% male, 15.5% female
    46. 46. Pilot study results - findings Attitude toward English Items did not correlate well with any other factor A handful of items were skewed Removed all 4 AE items Slightly rewrote 5 items to distinguish Possible Selves
    47. 47. The study comprises 1,891 science andengineering (S&E) students in Japan. 16 institutions High school 2nd to Master’s 2nd 40-item instrument
    48. 48. The hypothetical model was based on previousresearch and modified for this study Interest in Classroom Ideal L2 English atmosphere Self culture Perceived Speaking speaking International Probable anxiety competence friendship L2 Self Ought-to L2 Self
    49. 49. Analysis procedures to be followed1. Pilot the questionnaire (completed)2. Descriptive statistics (used for screening data)3. Factor analysis (to determine item strength)4. Structural equation modeling (to determine relationships among factors)5. Multiple regression (to examine predictive quality)
    50. 50. Preliminary ResultsStudy 2 (In progress)
    51. 51. Data screening reduced the size to 1,839 52 student responses removed due to incomplete or patterned responses Ages ranged from 15 to 63 years old (Ave: 19) 79% male, 20% female
    52. 52. Travel / overseas items showed a lack ofinternational / intercultural experience 37% had traveled overseas 5% had lived overseas 1.3% had most of their schooling overseas
    53. 53. Participants’ English ability level was measuredby TOEIC and/or TOEIC Bridge866 reported TOEICscoresBridge scores weretransformed intoTOEIC forcomparisonAverage TOEICscore = 388.16
    54. 54. Correlational analyses showed strongrelationships between variablesTop 3 correlated factors for the Possible Selves Ideal L2 Self Probable L2 Self Ought-to L2 Self Internat’l Friendship Internat’l Friendship Perceived Social Value (r = .64) (r = .69) (r = .72) Speaking Competence Interest in Culture Internat’l Friendship (r = .60) (r = .56) (r = .48) Interest in Culture Perceived Social Value (r = .61) (r = .53)
    55. 55. Exploratory Factor Analysis (FA)demonstrated mixing of items Ought-to L2 Self, Perceived Social Values, Probable L2 Self items loaded onto same factor  Probable L2 Self items also loaded onto other factors  Why?
    56. 56. Exploratory Factor Analysis (FA) is based oncorrelations among factors Correlations among the Possible Selves factors are strong, making it difficult for FA to separate them Ideal L2 Self  Probable L2 Self (r = .73) Ought-to L2 Self  Probable L2 Self (r = .63)
    57. 57. Implications(based on previous studies)
    58. 58. Potential solutions to improve motivation Interest in Classroom Ideal L2 English atmosphere Self cultureClassroomAtmosphere Perceived speaking International friendshipinfluences competencecompetence,interest, desire,and ultimatelyIdeal L2 Self
    59. 59. Potential solutions to improve motivation Examples: 1.Pair/group workClassroomAtmosphere 2.Classroom physical design 3.Teach no single answer
    60. 60. Potential solutions to improve motivationCurriculumChangesIncreases socialvalue of English, Probableeases monotony L2 Selfof lessons Ought-to L2 Self
    61. 61. Potential solutions to improve motivationCurriculum Examples:Changes 1.Allow students to mix more year to year 2.Put S&E students together with other majors
    62. 62. Potential solutions to improve motivation Ideal L2 SelfConnect Englishto Real WorldIncreases socialvalue of English, Probableprovides clearer L2 Selfsense of purposefor Ideal Self Ought-to L2 Self
    63. 63. Potential solutions to improve motivation Ideal L2 SelfConnect Englishto Real WorldIncreases socialvalue of English, Probableprovides clearer L2 Selfsense of purposefor Ideal Self Ought-to L2 Self
    64. 64. Potential solutions to improve motivationConnect English Examples:to Real World 1.Learn from experiences of Japanese in S&E industry 2.Communicate with foreign S&E counterparts 3.Solve problems together
    65. 65. Future ResultsStudy 2 (In progress)
    66. 66. Model confirmation of previous studies usingdifferent groups of students Interest in Classroom English Ideal L2 Self atmosphere culture • Technical college students • Undergraduate Perceived Speaking International Probable L2 speaking anxiety friendship Self competence students Ought-to L2 Self • Graduate students
    67. 67. Model confirmation of previous studies usingdifferent groups of students Interest in Classroom English Ideal L2 Self atmosphere culture • Or, using a demographic variable (age, Perceived Speaking International Probable L2Age speaking anxiety friendship Self competence expected final degree, etc.) Ought-to L2 Self
    68. 68. Regressional analysis to determine predictivecapability of English proficiency N = 317 • Previous study showedVariable B β tIdeal L2 Self 9.34 .28 3.73* Ideal L2 Self as predictor of TOEICProbable L2 -2.61 -.13 -1.57SelfOught-to L2  Will an increased 2.56 .10 1.56Self (Apple et al, sample size from more 2012) schools (N = 866) show the same results?
    69. 69. Qualitative stage of the project (2013~2014)includes follow-up interviews• Currently 150+ students volunteered• Interviews will occur 4 times, half-year intervalsWhen do science students develop a sense of an Ideal L2 Self?What factors are involved?How can ESP instructors help students develop an L2 Self from “I have to” to “I can imagine myself using”?
    70. 70. Motivational Self of EFL science students in Japan Thank you for your attentionMatthew AppleNara National College of TechnologyJoseph FaloutNihon University, College of Science and TechnologyGlen A. HillObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
    71. 71. Acknowledgments The main study in this presentation was funded by a JSPS Grant-in-Aid (General C) and generous contributions of time and data collecting by EFL instructors across JapanMatthew AppleNara National College of TechnologyJoseph FaloutNihon University, College of Science and TechnologyGlen A. HillObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
    72. 72. Japan is a “black hole” of scientific research(IEEE Spectrum, Sept 2012).
    73. 73. Few scientists coming in… even fewer going out…
    74. 74. The Rasch model (Rasch, 1960)
    75. 75. The Rating Scale Model (Andrich, 1978)
    76. 76. Reliability and separation scores
    77. 77. Item-person map for all constructs
    78. 78. Rasch principal components analysis of itemresiduals (first contrast)

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