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Language Motivation: From the Theoretical to the Practical

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Invited talk given at the J-LET (Japan Language Education and Technology) Methodology SIG 3rd Research meeting, Kansai University (Umeda Campus), 10 Dec 2016.

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Language Motivation: From the Theoretical to the Practical

  1. 1. Language Motivation: From the Theoretical to the Practical Matthew Apple Ritsumeikan University Dept. of Communication
  2. 2. Are you WEIRD? Western Educated Industrialised Rich Democratic
  3. 3. Are you WEIRD? “the social psychological period” (1959-1990) “The cognitive situated period” (1990s) “The process-oriented period” (2000 ~ ) “Three Phases of L2 Motivation Research” (Dörnyei, 2005, pp. 66-67) Gardner Deci & Ryan Dörnyei
  4. 4. Are you WEIRD? “the social psychological period” (1959-1990) “The cognitive situated period” (1990s) “The process-oriented period” (2000 ~ ) “Three Phases of L2 Motivation Research” Canada The US Europe
  5. 5. Are you WEIRD? Motivational theories stem from those in WEIRD contexts Cultural assumptions about educational systems, language choices, family roles, self-perceptions
  6. 6. • Published in October 2013 • Multilingual Matters - E. Ushioda - K. Noels - T. Yashima - M. Apple, J. Falout, & G. Hill - H. Hayashi - R. Nishida - K. Irie & D. Brewster - S. Aubrey & A.G.P. Nowlan - Y. Munezane - T. Taguchi - M. Johnson - K. Kikuchi - J Lake - J. Falout, Y. Fukada, T. Murphey, & T. Fukuda - R. Nitta - T. Hiromori - Y. Nakata
  7. 7. • Published in November 2016 • Multilingual Matters - T. Fellner, M. Apple, & D Da Silva - P Gobel, S-M Thang, & S. Mori - T-Y Kim - H-T Huang & I-L Chen - S-A Chen - M. Lopez & R. Gonzales - M. Ueki & O. Takeuchi - M. Gu & X. Qu - A. Padwad & K. Dixit - Q-M Zhang - M. Lamb, S. Astuti, & N. Hadisantosa - N. Rudolph
  8. 8. Questions to ponder… 1. What is “motivation”? 2. What are “language motivation theories”? 3. How do we measure motivation? 4. How do we use motivation in class?
  9. 9. Motivation explains … - why a particular activity? - how long they will persist? - what effort they invest in it? 1. What is “motivation”?
  10. 10. Motivation explains … - why? - how long? - how hard? 1. What is “motivation”?
  11. 11. Motivation explains … - why? - how long? - how hard? Choice Persisten ce Effort 1. What is “motivation”?
  12. 12. “[M]otivation can be defined as the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritised, operationalised, and…acted out.” (Dörnyei & Otto, 1998, p. 65) 1. What is “motivation”?
  13. 13. “[M]otivation can be defined as the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritised, operationalised, and…acted out.” (Dörnyei & Otto, 1998, p. 1. What is “motivation”?
  14. 14. Motivation is a dynamic cumulative active process 1. What is “motivation”? (Dörnyei & Otto, 1998, p.
  15. 15. a. Gardner’s Socioeducational model b. Deci & Ryan’s Self-determination theory c. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self-system d. Complex dynamic systems and “person-in-situation” e. Expectancy-value theories f. Goal-setting theory g. Self-worth theory h. Attribution theory 2. What are “language motivation theories”?
  16. 16. a. Gardner’s Socioeducational model b. Deci & Ryan’s Self-determination theory c. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self-system d. Complex dynamic systems and “person-in-situation” e. Expectancy-value theories f. Goal-setting theory g. Self-worth theory h. Attribution theory 2. What are “language motivation theories”?
  17. 17. a. Gardner’s Socioeducational model b. Deci & Ryan’s Self-determination theory c. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self-system d. Complex dynamic systems and “person-in-situation” 2. What are “language motivation theories”?
  18. 18. 2a. The Socioeducational model (AMTB) Integrativeness Integrative orientation Interest in foreign languages Attitudes toward English-speaking people Attitudes toward learning situation English teacher evaluation English course evaluation Motivation Motivational intensity Desire to learn Attitudes toward learning English (Gardner, 1985) Language anxiety English class anxiety English use anxiety Instrumental orientation Parental encouragement
  19. 19. 2a. The Socioeducational model Integrativeness Integrative orientation Interest in foreign languages Attitudes toward the French community Attitudes toward learning situation French teacher evaluation French course evaluation Motivation Motivational intensity Desire to learn Attitudes toward learning French Language anxiety French class anxiety French use anxiety Instrumentality Aptitude (Gardner, 2006) Language Achievement “Other factors” Integrativeness Attitudes toward learning situation Motivation
  20. 20. 2a. The Socioeducational model (Gardner, 2002) Integrativeness Attitudes toward learning situation Motivation “Integrative Motivation”
  21. 21. 2a. The Socioeducational model (Gardner, 2002) Integrativeness Attitudes toward learning situation Motivation “Integrative Motivation”
  22. 22. 2a. The Socioeducational model (Gardner, 2002) Integrativeness Attitudes toward learning situation Motivation “Integrative Motivation”
  23. 23. 2a. The Socioeducational model (Gardner, 2010, p. 88) “The construct, , reflects a genuine interest in learning…for the purposes of communicating with members of the other language community… “In the extreme, this might involve complete identification with and membership in the other community… “…in less extreme form it might simply reflect a willingness to incorporate behavioral patterns in the form of the language from the other group…” Integrativenes s
  24. 24. 2a. The Socioeducational model (Yashima, 2000) interest in communicating with members of the other language community… complete identification with and membership in the other community… willingness to incorporate behavioral patterns in the form of the language from the other group…” “Intercultural Friendship” (Clément & Krudenier, 1983) “Friendship Orientation” (Kimura, Nakata, & Okumura, 2001) “Intrinsic-Instrumental-Integrative Motive” (Yashima, 2000, 2004) “International Posture” “Integrativeness”
  25. 25. 2b. Self-determination theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) Organismic Integration Theory (OIT) feeling competent and a sense of control leads to internalizing of external rewards and goals a series of steps or categories shows the degree to which motivation is self-directed (Deci & Ryan, 2000)
  26. 26. 2b. Self-determination theory feeling competent and a sense of control leads to internalizing of external rewards and goals a series of steps or categories shows the degree to which motivation is self-directed People have these innate needs: 1. Autonomy a capacity to choose to engage in certain activities 2. Competence an ability to carry out an activity and to rise to a challenge 3. Relatedness feeling of security between learner and others (family, friends, teacher, classmates) Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) Organismic Integration Theory (OIT)
  27. 27. 2b. Self-determination theory feeling competent and a sense of control leads to internalizing of external rewards and goals a series of steps or categories shows the degree to which motivation is self-directed People have these innate needs: 1. Autonomy a capacity to choose to engage in certain activities 2. Competence an ability to carry out an activity and to rise to a challenge 3. Relatedness feeling of security between learner and others (family, friends, teacher, classmates) Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) Organismic Integration Theory (OIT)
  28. 28. 2b. Self-determination theory feeling competent and a sense of control leads to internalizing of external rewards and goals a series of steps or categories shows the degree to which motivation is self-directed Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) Organismic Integration Theory (OIT) leads to internalizing of external rewards and goals a series of steps or categories
  29. 29. 2b. Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) Development of internalization of the autonomous self Identified Regulation Intrinsic Motivation Integrated Regulation External Regulation Amotivation Introjected Regulation
  30. 30. 2b. Self-determination theory Intrinsic Motivation 1. Autonomy 2. Competence 3. Relatedness internalization (self-regulation)
  31. 31. 2c. L2 Motivational Self System • Reconceptualization of integrativeness in terms of L2 self concept • Three main aspects/components: 1. Ideal L2 Self 2. Ought to L2 Self 3. L2 learning experience
  32. 32. • Reconceptualization of integrativeness in terms of L2 self concept • Three main aspects/components: 1. Ideal L2 Self 2. Ought to L2 Self 3. L2 learning experience 2c. L2 Motivational Self System The self one desires to become The self one is obliged to become The immediate situation
  33. 33. • Reconceptualization of integrativeness in terms of L2 self concept • “Possible selves” (Markus, 1986): 1. Ideal L2 Self 2. Ought to L2 Self 2c. L2 Motivational Self System “hopes, aspirations, or wishes…” “someone else’s sense of duties, obligations, or… responsibilities….” (Dörnyei, 2005, p. 13)
  34. 34. • People are motivated to reduce the discrepancy between who they currently are and who they want to be or do not want to be (“self-congruency,” Higgins, 1987) • “Possible L2 selves” are not motivations but motivators (self-guides) 1. Ideal L2 Self 2. Ought to L2 Self 2c. L2 Motivational Self System promotion focus — “pulls” toward prevention focus — “pushes” away
  35. 35. • People are motivated to reduce the discrepancy between who they currently are and who they want to be or do not want to be (“self-congruency,” Higgins, 1987) • “Possible L2 selves” are not motivations but motivators (self-guides) 1. Ideal L2 Self 2. Ought to L2 Self • In this theory/model, Ideal L2 Self > Ought to L2 Self 2c. L2 Motivational Self System promotion focus — “pulls” toward prevention focus — “pushes” away
  36. 36. 2d. CDS and person-in-situation Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) Chaos Theory Complex Systems Theory (CST) Complex dynamic systems theory is a combination of several theories from the hard sciences (mathematics/physics):
  37. 37. 2d. CDS and person-in-situation Complex dynamic systems theory as used in L2 motivation studies: Motivation is individual - dependent on social context - interactions between individual / situation-specific events as “triggers” Motivation is dynamic - responds to “attractors” - part of a larger system - not linear - can be measured (but not easily)
  38. 38. 2d. CDS and person-in-situation Person-in-situation: Everyone is individual Motivation is individual - dependent on social context - individual / situation cannot be separated - generalization not possible Motivation is dynamic - changes from moment to moment - cannot be easily captured - cannot be quantified (Ushioda, 2009)
  39. 39. 2e. Which model/theory should we use? [A] key question is whether [WEIRD motivational theories] hold for all ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, Latino, Native American, etc.) in western cultures as well as in other nonwestern cultures. It will not be sufficient for future research to just note that the generalizations do not hold for these different groups or different cultures, but rather to grapple with when, why, and how they do or do not hold for the different groups. (Pintrich, 2003, p. 682)
  40. 40. “Remember that all models are wrong; the practical question is how wrong do they have to be not to be useful.” 2e. Which model/theory should we use? (Box, 1987, p. 74)
  41. 41. 3. How do we measure motivation?
  42. 42. Absolutist Relativist Universalist 3a. Zusho & Clayton’s (2011) framework
  43. 43. Absolutist Etic approach Psychological processes are free from culture Theories can be applied universally 3a. Zusho & Clayton’s (2011) framework
  44. 44. Relativist Emic approach Psychological processes should only be studied within local frames of reference Cross-cultural generation is not possible 3a. Zusho & Clayton’s (2011) framework
  45. 45. Universalist Both etic and emic Some aspects of psychology are universal Sociocultural context in which psychological processes occur is crucial to understanding individual motives and behaviors 3a. Zusho & Clayton’s (2011) framework
  46. 46. Absolutist RelativistUniversalist Socioeducational Complex Dynamic Systems Self-determination L2 Motivational Self System person-in-situation 3b. How do we measure motivation (redux)?
  47. 47. Absolutist (Likert category) self/other questionnaires, exams, grades Traditional statistical analyses (ANOVA, regression, path) Invariant measurement (IRT/Rasch, CFA) Generalization across sample populations 3b. How do we measure motivation (redux)?
  48. 48. Relativist Open-response questionnaires, interviews, diaries, observations Intrinsic case studies, narratives, ethnographies, action research Grounded theory, coding, “retrodictive qualitative modeling” Rejection of group means and cross-context generalizability 3b. How do we measure motivation (redux)?
  49. 49. Universalist Mixed methods (Creswell & Clark, 2011): Convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, embedded, transformative, multiphase Can be time-consuming, complicated, difficult to publish… Need for multiple research partners with multiple fields of expertise 3b. How do we measure motivation (redux)?
  50. 50. Hierarchical linear modelling / Latent growth curve modeling Social network analysis Bayesian cognitive modeling Q Methodology (Quantum cognition?) 3c. How could we measure motivation?
  51. 51. “How can I motivate my students to study English?” 4. How do we use motivation in class?
  52. 52. “How can I motivate my students to study English?” 4. How do we use motivation in class? “How can I get my students to do what I tell them to do?”
  53. 53. “How can I motivate my students to study English?” 4. How do we use motivation in class? The quick answer:
  54. 54. “How can I motivate my students to study English?” 4. How do we use motivation in class? You can’t.
  55. 55. “How can I motivate my students to study English?” 4. How do we use motivation in class? You can’t…but…
  56. 56. 4. How do we use motivation in class? “How can I motivate my students to study English?” You can’t…but… …you can help to set the conditions in which motivation can arise…
  57. 57. Creating the basic motivational conditions Generating initial motivation Maintaining & protecting motivation Encouraging positive retrospective self evaluation (Dörnyei, 2001) (Hiromori, 2013) 4. How do we use motivation in class? “How can I motivate my students to study English?”
  58. 58. 4a. “Motivational interventions” 1. Set a personal example with your own behavior 2. Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom 3. Present the tasks properly 4. Develop a good relationship with the learners 5. Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence 6. Make the language classes interesting 7. Promote learner autonomy 8. Personalize the learning process 9. Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness 10. Familiarize learners with the target language culture (Dörnyei & Csizér, 1988)
  59. 59. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on English for Specific Purposes for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware of changes in students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection (Based on studies in Apple et al, eds., 2013)
  60. 60. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce non-native English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware that students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  61. 61. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on English for Specific Purposes for future needs 3. Introduce non-native English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware that students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  62. 62. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers into your classes 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware that students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  63. 63. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware changes students’ motivation can change 7. Make use of student reflection
  64. 64. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware of changes in students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  65. 65. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware of changes in students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  66. 66. 4b. Practical pedagogical suggestions 1. Make use of project-based learning 2. Focus on ESP for future needs 3. Introduce L2 English speakers 4. Provide effective feedback 5. First English teachers should be the best trained teachers 6. Become more aware that students’ motivation 7. Make use of student reflection
  67. 67. Final thoughts…from theory to practice
  68. 68. Final thoughts…from theory to practice
  69. 69. Final thoughts…from theory to practice
  70. 70. mapple@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp http://manzano0627.wix.com/ho me @manzano0627 http://mthomasapple.com Language Motivation: From the Theoretical to the Practical
  71. 71. Thank you! mapple@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp http://manzano0627.wix.com/ho me @manzano0627 http://mthomasapple.com Language Motivation: From the Theoretical to the Practical

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