An overview of recent language learning motivation in Japan

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Osaka Tech Day Plus, Otemae University, Sept 28, 2013

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  • Make grey, reduce size of integrated and extrinsic
  • Make crooked line into a spectrum
  • Two quan studies in Taiwan. 2005 study = 567 students (university level)
  • Interview study with 26 senior high school students
  • Larger study had 10 students (dissertation in 2007), smaller study (book) had only 2. SCT and Activity Theory framework
  • ACH was measured by TOEIC scores! Prediction was only .26 beta weights (.26 is small to medium influence) N = 315; age from 18 to 32, mean = 24.2 Speculated that Intrinsic was the result of drastic shift in Korean EFL from grammar-translation to communicative style in late 1990s.
  • An overview of recent language learning motivation in Japan

    1. 1. An overview of recent language learning motivation studies in Japan Matthew Apple Ritsumeikan University
    2. 2. • Published in October 2013 • Multilingual Matters - E. Ushioka - K. Noels - T. Yashima - M. Apple, J. Falout, & G. Hill - H. Hayashi - R. Nishida - K. Irie & D. Brewster - S. Aubrey & A.G.P. Nowlan - Y. Munezane - T. Taguchi - M. Johnson - K. Kikuchi - J Lake - J. Falout, Y. Fukada, T. Murphey, & T. Fukuda - R. Nitta - T. Hiromori - Y. Nakata
    3. 3. Overview 1. Motivation Theory 2. Demotivation 3. Motivation in Japan 4. Motivation in East Asia 5. Implications
    4. 4. 1.a Motivation Motivation explains … - why a particular activity? - how long they will persist? - what effort they invest in it?
    5. 5. 1.a Motivation Motivation is: Most important predictor of learning success!
    6. 6. 1.a Motivation Intrinsic Needs to come from within - Powerful - Successful over long term Extrinsic External to the learner - Can be effective - Usually short term
    7. 7. 1.a Motivation Integrative Desire to become part of L2 society - Citizenship - New identity Instrumental Desire to achieve a practical goal - Pass a test - Get a job
    8. 8. 1.a Motivation Integrative Desire to become Part of L2 society - Citizenship - New identity Instrumental Desire to achieve a practical goal - Pass a test - Get a job Does NOT apply to an Asian context!
    9. 9. 1.a Motivation Integrative L2 Motivational Self-System Extrinsic Self Determination Theory (SDT)
    10. 10. 1.b Motivation L2 Motivational Self-System (integrative) • Ideal L2 Self – would like to become • Ought to L2 Self – what one should do • L2 learning experience
    11. 11. 1.b Motivation L2 Motivational Self-System (integrative) • Ideal L2 Self — would like to become • Ought to L2 Self – what one should do • L2 learning context International Posture - openness to culture
    12. 12. Self Determination Theory (extrinsic) Text Text Identified Regulation TIntrinsic Motivation Integrated Regulation External Regulation Amotivationt Introjected Regulation 1.b Motivation
    13. 13. 1.b Motivation Self Determination Theory (extrinsic) Motivation can be enhanced by: 1. Autonomy - capacity to choose to engage in activities 2. Competence - ability to carry out activity & rise to challenge 3. Relatedness - feeling of security between learner & others (family, friends, teacher, classmates)
    14. 14. 2. Demotivation Elementary School – High School • Increases over time • More prevalent in males Irie & Brewster Johnson
    15. 15. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers 1.Class 2.Experience of failure 3.Class environment 4.Learning materials 5.Lack of goals Kikuchi
    16. 16. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers - 1.Class 2.Experience of failure 3.Class environment 4.Learning Materials 5.Lack of goals Attitudes Competence Language proficiency Personality Teaching styles
    17. 17. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers • Class - 1.Experience of failure 2.Class environment 3.Learning Materials 4.Lack of goals Course contents & pace Focus on difficult content Boring Test driven Emphasis on memorization
    18. 18. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers • Class • Experience of failure 1.Class environment 2.Learning Materials 3.Lack of goals
    19. 19. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers • Class • Experience of failure • Class environment 1.Learning Materials 2.Lack of goals
    20. 20. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers • Class • Experience of failure • Class environment • Learning Materials 1.Lack of goals
    21. 21. 2. Demotivation 6 Leading Causes: • Teachers • Class • Experience of failure • Class environment • Learning Materials 1.Lack of goals/interests
    22. 22. 2. Demotivation Demotivation derives from the teacher! Motivation derives from the student! Kikuchi
    23. 23. 3. Motivation in Japan - Willingness to communicate and International Posture predict motivation - Use of L2 in projects increases motivation Yashima, Nishida - Interaction with foreigners enhances International Posture Aubrey & Nolan, Yashima
    24. 24. 3. Motivation in Japan - Use of L2 increases proficiency - Self-confidence is greatest influence on willingness to communicate - Visualizing L2 Self can develop L2 Self Irie, Yashima, Munezane
    25. 25. 3. Motivation in Japan - Ideal Self must be well developed to predict motivation Irie, Munezane - Clearly developed Ought-to Self is needed Taguchi
    26. 26. 3. Motivation in Japan - Science and engineering students have more anxiety and greater sense of unsupportive classroom - Ought-to Self may be more pertinent than Ideal Self Apple, Falout, & Hill
    27. 27. 3. Motivation in Japan - Exam performance may be an alternative to international posture - Goal setting and international contact can lead to long term motivation Hayashi
    28. 28. 3. Motivation in Japan - Reflection and involving students in motivation results is meaningful - Meta cognitive development improves attitudes of past learning experiences Falout, Fukada, Murphy, & Fukuda Hiromori
    29. 29. 3. Motivation in Japan - Enjoyment, effort, and understanding are connected in motivated students BUT NOT unmotivated students - Motivational fluctuation may indicate student growth and learning Nitta
    30. 30. 30 3. Motivation in Japan - Positive psychology can provide insights into L2 motivation. - Positive L2 selves and other motivations can be related to positive self image and self worth. Lake
    31. 31. 4. Motivation in East Asia • China (including Taiwan) • (South) Korea • Japan – — So-called “Confucian-influenced” cultures
    32. 32. 32 • English as required subject • English as “great divider” of society • Integrative and instrumental orientations not sufficient an explanation 4. Motivation in East Asia
    33. 33. 33 • English as required subject • English as “great divider” of society • Integrative and instrumental orientations not sufficient an explanation 4. Motivation in East Asia Are there differences?
    34. 34. 4. Motivation in East Asia • China • Korea • Japan
    35. 35. 4.a Motivation in China Exam scores and success in English for the “glory” of the family Initially labelled required motivation, later the “Chinese Imperative” Warden & Lin, 2000 Chen, Warden, & Chang, 2005
    36. 36. 4.a Motivation in China Ought-to L2 Self as familial expectation Ideal L2 Self as “entirely internalized ought- to self that surrounding people think one should be.” Chen, 2012
    37. 37. 4. Motivation in East Asia • China • Korea • Japan
    38. 38. 4.b Motivation in Korea Interviews with Korean students in Toronto Instrumentality is “internalized” into Ideal L2 Self or Ought-to L2 Self Importance of cultivating friendships Kim, 2006b, 2007, 2009
    39. 39. 4.b Motivation in Korea Tested strengths of Intrinsic, Introjected, Identified, Instrumental, and Integrated Intrinsic orientation predicted achievement as measured by TOEIC Pae, 2008
    40. 40. 4. Motivation in East Asia • China • Korea • Japan
    41. 41. 4.c Motivation comparisons • China • Japan • Iran Taguchi, Magid, & Papi, 2009
    42. 42. 4.c Motivation comparisons SEM with three different samples (Japan, China, Iran) Japanese and Chinese students Ought-to L2 Self stronger than Ideal L2 Self Opposite for Iranian students Taguchi, Magid, & Papi, 2009
    43. 43. 5. Implications Possible selves may be subject to “culture-bound definitions of the self” MacIntyre, Mackinnon, & Clément, 2009 ...in other words, “cross-cultural variation” Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009
    44. 44. • 1. Make use of Project-based learning • - model United Nations, group presentations, • debate • 2. Focused Project-based learning for • different students • - songs, social studies 5. Implications
    45. 45. • 3. Focus on ESP that students need in • their futures • 4. Introduce non-native English speakers • 5. Provide effective feedback 5. Implications
    46. 46. • 6. First English teachers should be the best • trained teachers • 7. Make students aware of their motivation • 8. Make use of student reflection 5. Implications
    47. 47. Cycle of motivation generation Creating the basic motivational conditions Generating initial motivation Maintaining and protecting motivation Encouraging positive retrospective self- evaluation Creating the basic motivational conditions Generating initial motivation Maintain & protecting motivation Encouraging positive retrospective self evaluation
    48. 48. This week’s goal (for out of class activities) _________________________________________________________________________ Total Learning Time: (minutes) Date Learning Contents Learning Time (minutes) Reflection of this week: Comments from your teacher: Example of Out of class learning record (from Hiromori)
    49. 49. Conclusion 1. Motivation Theory 2. Demotivation 3. Motivation in Japan 4. Motivation in East Asia 5. Implications
    50. 50. Thank you!

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