The only good Skin-head... ...is a dead Skin-head!
Starter Task• On your mind maps note down as many different themes, representations and ideologies that you can identify in La Haine• Watch the opening of La Haine and make notes on the following:• What does this sequence tell you about Sayid?• How have the micro elements been used to represent him?• What does the cinematography tell us about his relationship with the Police?
Learning Objectives• Complete a mini-analysis of the French Colonial Empire• Research the ‘Setif Massacre’ and analyse the opening sequence of La Haine• Identify how French history can influence audience reaction to the film and in particular, the character of Sayid• Complete an mini-essay style question
Re-cap• When watching films we bring our own awareness of the world, our ideologies to the text• In this way we each create our own understanding of any given film• We use our knowledge of the world and our way of seeing the world to help us make sense of the images presented to us• Our individual ideologies may for instance, position us as pro-police or anti-police• This approach to reading film will be fundamental in our study of both ‘La Haine’ & ‘City of God’
Time of Production• President: François Mitterrand (1981 – 1995)• Population: 57,840,445• Paris Population: 9,514,000• Religions: – Roman Catholic 90% – Protestant 2% – Jewish 1% – Muslim (North African workers) 1% – unaffiliated 6%• National Unemployment: 10.1 %• Unemployment in Paris “Immigration Ghetto’s”: 20 – 40%
The French Empire and Imperialism• France was a major colonial power in the 19th & 20th centuries with colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and South East-Asia – reaching its peak in the 1930’s• In total, the French empire lasted from the 17th Century until the 1960’s• At its height the French Empire covered 8.7% of the Earth’s total land area• It’s influence made French a widely- spoken language across the globe• As a result, when independence was given to many countries, immigrants travelled to France in search of work
The French Empire and Imperialism• With the decline of the French Empire and a rise in the number of immigrants, immigration was limited by the French government during the 1970’s• Population grew, as did the unemployment figures• Fascist far-right groups blamed unemployment on immigration• This led to a rise in the number of Fascist groups operating in France• Some of these skin-head groups formed political parties and began winning seats in French Parliament during the 1980’s
France & Algeria• After World War II many countries under French control sought independence – this struggle was particularly bitter in Algeria and Vietnam• On VE day (Sept. 8th 1945) 4000 Algerians held a peaceful protest demanding Independence from the French• This protest led to widespread disturbances and killings in and around the Algerian town of Setif• The massacre is the inspiration for the film – The Battle of Algiers (1967)
The ‘Setif Massacre’• On May 8th 1945 the French authorities opened fire on Algerian protestors• The police brutality led to reprisals and attacks were carried out on French farmers and French ‘colons’ (Colonials)• After five days of violence the French authorities carried out a series of reprisal attacks – (this army contained many Senegalese soldiers)• The massacre lasted an entire weekend and resulted in thousands of deaths
French Atrocities• The following actions were sanctioned by the French State:• Executions of rioters / protestors• Muslim Villages bombed by French Air Craft• A cruiser named Duguay –Trouin bombed a city called ‘Kerrata’ from the Gulf of Bougie• Paid vigilantes known as Pied-noir (Black feet) lynched villagers and prisoners• Muslims who refused to wear white arm bands (required by the French Army) were shot dead• Official death tolls range from 1,200 (French) to 45,000 (Algerian) (Historians place the figure at approx. 6000)
No Hard Feelings...?• These events sparked the Algerian – French war which lasted from 1945 until 1962 when Algeria was finally granted independence• After the war all Pied-noir and Algerian members of the French army were repatriated to France• The Algerians were put in Internment camps whilst the Pied Noir went free and were given land• Once released, Algerian’s were forced in to Shanty towns away from the middle class cities• This is where Les Banlieues were later built
Sayid• Watch the opening of La Haine and make notes on the following:• How do you feel about Sayid?• What is his relationship to the French police?• What other key scenes can you use in your analysis of:• French Racism• Racism against Algerian’s
Audience Response• Now that we have more information about French history and it’s relationship with Algerian’s, answer the following question: “In what way does your chosen film (La Haine) reflect the society in which it was made?”• Consider:• Sayid is the most fearful of the police... Why do you think this is?• Does your knowledge of French history affect how you view the character of Sayid?• Does you knowledge of French history affect how you view the Police?• Use specific examples from the film to support your points
Summary• We have identified the importance of studying a film’s history and the history of the nation in which it was produced• In your exam you are expected to discuss the context in which the film was made, but also the historical and political contexts• The treatment of Algerian’s by the French is a significant part of post WW II history and it’s impact is still being felt• France’s history will play a significant role in our understanding of the film and it’s characters• We now hold a deeper understanding of Sayid’s feeling, emotions and motivations within the film• French history also informs us of why Sayid is seen as the least threatening and least powerful within the group ANY QUESTIONS?
La Haine and Social Context• Essay about Sayid – you will also complete an essay on Hubert & Vinz and they will be kept by me for revision.• Using your knowledge of the French / Algerian conflicts answer the following questions:
Les Banlieues• Les Banlieues are satellite towns (housing estates for the poor) up to twenty miles outside Paris that are designed to keep the poor out of the middle class areas of the city The Banlieue in which La Haine was shot had: •10,000 residents •60 different ethnicities / nationalities •Les Banlieues are generally stereotyped by the French media as places of Crime, Deprivation and Drug use
Re-cap• What enables us to identify with these characters and understand their position(s)?• We are able to identify similarities between our own direct experiences of the world and the characters• We use our observations of other people experiences• We can draw on our mediated experience of the world to help us understand events – books, news stories, films etc• It is vital that we gain understanding of the unfamiliar French culture through analysis of the familiar aspects of that culture
Characters• The three main characters of La Haine• What is the main way in which we differentiate the three characters:• Vinz – White Jewish• Hubert – Black African• Sayid – Arab-African French• The three characters are drawn together not by race, but by their ‘youth culture’• At first these differences are seen as unimportant, but each character is shown to be very much aware of how others in France may view them
1921 1940 2011 Metropolitan 65,073,482 39,140,000 41,835,000 France Colonies, 2,685,705protectorates, and 55,556,000 68,888,000 mandates Total 94,696,000 110,723,000 67,759,187