Starter TaskWhat is the purpose of a ‘LOW ANGLE SHOT’?Note down THREE significant advancements in cinematography since 1893 Complete the sentence:“Establishing shots are............ And can be used to..............”
Learning ObjectivesContinue developing our ‘Cinematic Language’vocabulary Identify Key Term: FramingEvaluate the use of framing in both:• Saving Private Ryan• In the Mood for Love
Cinematic LanguagePan ShotThe camera remainsstationary in a position andmoves, or ‘pans’ from left torightUse:To follow a subject / objectDirecting the audiencesattention to a specific area /object
Cinematic Language‘Tilt’ ShotsThe camera remainsstationary in a position andmoves, or ‘’tilts’ up or downUse:To follow a subject / objectDirecting the audiencesattention to a specific area /object
Cinematic Language‘Tracking’ shotsThe camera is connected to a track and moves along thattrack in one direction – either left to right, or forward tobackUse:To follow a subject / object asit travels – such as characterswalking / cars driving
Cinematic Language‘Crane’ shotThe camera is positioned on a crane that can move up/down,left/right etc and take shots from high positions and unusual anglesUse:Establishing shots – to follow action andprovide a birds-eye view of the action /environment
Cinematic Language‘Hand-Held’ CameraThe camera is attached to a rig on the cinematographers body.The camera is then operated by hand is characterised by a ‘shakey’lookUse:Handheld styles gives a scene more fluidityand a natural feelIt can be used to position the audience withinthe action or give the audience an insight in toa characters POV
Saving Private RyanWatch the opening scene from SavingPrivate Ryan and answer the followingquestions: How does Spielberg ‘place the audience’ in the scene? How does the cinematography add to the believability of the scene? Why do you think Spielberg Saving Private Ryan used hand held camera Dir; S. Spielberg (1998) techniques here?
What goes in a shot?When a director films a scene s/he mustnot only decide what should be seen – butalso what should not be seenSometimes withholding information fromthe audience can be just as effective asgiving information -Considering what to include / exclude froma shot is called FRAMING BLADE RUNNERFraming is very effective in creating a In an attempt to addrequired impression and the shot mystery to the film, Ridleytypes, camera height and location Scott framed the eye in amust be considered carefully CU and purposefully hides the identify of the person
What goes in a shot? Look at this still from The King’s Speech The film is about the King’s speech impediment and his discomfort when speaking in front of other people The framing includes a stadium of people watching the King adding to his discomfort
What goes in a shot? By changing framing of the shot and moving the camera closer to the King we lose that sense of him being watched – By including the audience within the frame the King becomes more isolated and his fear of speaking in public The camera does not simply record is magnifiedthat which is in front of it but can beplaced skilfully to create the required impression
Framing – In the Mood forWatch the following extracts from In the LoveMood for Love and make notes on the framing Look at the camera location and placement Do you notice anything unusual? Why has the filmmaker chosen to place the camera where he has? How are the characters being filmed? How does the framing add meaning / provide information? In the Mood for Love (2001) Dir; Wong Kar Wai Clip 2 – What do we learn about the relationship between the two characters?
Scene 2 – it has already been established that the two maincharacters are having a secret affair. How does the framing and cinematography inform the audience of this?
Summary• Framing is a key aspect of filmmaking and must be taken in toconsideration when analysing and making films• By choosing what goes in to a shot a director can drasticallyalter how the audience will read and respond to the scene• Items that appear in the background of a shot may inform theaudience about the film• Equally withholding information from the audience is essentialin creating suspense and tension in a film
Cinematography - Camera PositionWatch the following scene and complete a short analysis of thecinematography.Focus on: •How does the camera react to Norman’s change of personality? •Why did Hitchcock use Low Angle and High Angle shots in this scene? •How does Alfred Hitchcock use the camera to inform the audience of Norman’s split personality?
The scene begins with a series of eyelevel, medium long shots that position thecharacters within their own space.The frame is empty around them reflectingtheir ease.During Norman’s conversation withMarion, at one point a low angle shotis used of Norman which has theeffect of exaggerating his‘strangeness’. We already suspect he isodd form the things he says and fromhis obsessive, unpredictable character.At another point in the conversationMarion stands up and a high angleshot of Norman is used. This has theeffect of reducing him to looking like asmall child where before he wasthreatening, thus emphasising his splitpersonality
CinematographyInstead of being limited to one camera positionand shot type, directors were now able to showa world from multiple points of view –enhancing the realism and believability of thefilmsFilmmakers like Charlie Chaplin could usedmany shots to tell a story and give the film amore dynamic feelWatch this short Chaplin film and note how hecreates a mini-story through the use of thecamera
Spot the shot?Watch the following montage of scenes and not down all of the shot types that you see 1 Point for each correct shot type1 Bonus point for each film correctly named