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Cinematography - Lesson 2 Development of Cinematography


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Cinematography - Lesson 2 Development of Cinematography

  1. 1. Starter TaskNote down the most visually impressive film you have ever seen(which film has looked the most impressive)Pick one example from the scene and bullet point the reasons why the visual are so impressive
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesAnalyse the history of Cinematography anddevelop an understanding of visual story telling Examine the development of cinematography and consider the implications for filmmakers Analyse the opening of Blade Runner and evaluate the use of cinematography
  3. 3. CinematographyThe role the camera plays in film has developedsignificantly since the earliest days of cinemaCameras were large, heavy cumbersomeobjects that required a team of men to movefrom one location to another As a result in most silent films the camera never moves – in fact early cinema was essentially the recording of stages plays that were broadcast in to theatres Thomas Edison’s “Anna-Bella Serpentine Dance”
  4. 4. CinematographyIn the early days of cinema a single camera wasattached to a tripod to record the events on setDue to it’s size and weight the camera did notmove – this is known as a FIXED CAMERAAs a result most early film looked like this:
  5. 5. NosferatuIt was only a short amount of time beforefilmmakers began cutting (joining one shot withanother) from one FIXED CAMERA shot toanotherThis simple joining of shots was the beginningof editing and led to the development of ‘TheCinematic Language’ • Watch the following extract from ‘Nosferatu’ (1922) (Dir: F.W. Murnau)• How does cutting from ‘Nosferatu’ outsidethe room to woman inside increase tension?
  6. 6. NosferatuA simple edit – and cinema is born!Directors begin editing films with the audiencein mind – such as with ‘Nosferatu’ - by showingthe Vampire on the stairs and then the woman’sreaction, the director has created tensionThe audience know what is coming for her andthis encourages us to empathise with thewoman and fear for her safetyCinematography evolved in the 1920’s andfilmmakers such as Charlie Chaplin tookadvantage of the new possibilities
  7. 7. Robots, Wizards andWe are now going to watch 3 extracts from Machines3 different eras of cinema.You must: • Bullet point the ways that cinematography has developed since the silent era • Besides Black & White – what else has changed? • How was developing technology changed the way films are made? The Wizard of Oz Metropolis The Matrix Dir; Victor Dir; Fritz Lang Dir. Wachowski • In what ways have these developments Flemming (1939) (1927) Bros. enhanced films for their audiences? (1999)
  8. 8. Cinematic LanguageThe change in technology and development ofcinematography led to the creation of the CinematicLanguage “the various visual codes used in cinematic storytelling”Audiences became familiar with different shot types andbegan associating different shots with different things High Angle Shots – a technique used to place characters in vulnerable positions and make them seem vulnerable
  9. 9. Establishing ShotsYou may have noticed that every time we change location ina film we see a shot showing the outside or a building or ofthe environment the characters are inThis type of shot is called an Establishing ShotEstablishing Shots are used to inform theaudience that a location has changed and thestory has moved to a new environmentThey are also used at the beginning of films toestablish the ‘film world’ and introduce theaudience to the environment the film will takeplace in
  10. 10. Establishing ShotsFilms are relatively short forms of storytelling and as such have toconvey a lot of information in a short space of time Watch the opening sequence from Blade Runner and answer the following questions: What do we learn about the world of Blade Runner? What effect does the constantly moving camera have on the audience? What do we learn about the story / themes Blade Runner after cutting to the ECU of the human eye? Dir; Ridley Scott (1982)
  11. 11. Future Noir“Blade Runner begins with several ELS / Establishing Shots thatgradually introduce the audience to 21st Century Los Angeles”The characters and themes are them introduced• Industrial Wasteland – Earth is in physical decay – noevidence of nature and the skyline is dominated byindustry•The sky is brown and heavily polluted by smoke –What caused it?• ECU of an eye – Who does this belong to? (• Flames reflected in the eye – are they dangerous?•Continually moving forward slowly draws theaudience in to this nightmarish world
  12. 12. Establishing Shots Analysis TaskYou have five minutes to write a short analysis of Blade Runner’s opening sequence You must include: Shot types What does the establishing shot tell us? How do we learn about the themes / story / characters?Swap your work with a partner and review it Blade Runner Dir; Ridley Scott Provide 2 positive comments (1982) And 2 areas for improvement
  13. 13. SummaryThe Art of Cinematography has evolved sincethe birth of cinema to become a dynamic andessential part of any filmThe Cinematic Language developed alongsidecamera technology and enables audiences toread a form of storytelling shorthand –filmmakers can convey lots of information in ashort space of time through visuals aloneEstablishing shots are a part of the cinematiclanguage and are used to switch locations in afilm and inform the audience of where theaction is taking place
  14. 14. Learning ObjectivesTo do list…Psycho – camera gives information to theaudience about the characterHand held camera – Saving Private Ryan
  15. 15. Starter Taskdfddf dd
  16. 16. Learning Objectivesfdf fdf dffd
  17. 17. Cinematic LanguagePan ShotThe camera remainsstationary in a position andmoves, or ‘pans’ from left torightUse:To follow a subject / objectDirecting the audiencesattention to a specific area /object
  18. 18. Cinematic Language‘Tilt’ ShotsThe camera remainsstationary in a position andmoves, or ‘’tilts’ up or downUse:To follow a subject / objectDirecting the audiencesattention to a specific area /object
  19. 19. Cinematic Language‘Tracking’ shotsThe camera is connected to a track and moves along thattrack in one direction – either left to right, or forward tobackUse:To follow a subject / object asit travels – such as characterswalking / cars driving
  20. 20. Cinematic Language‘Crane’ shotThe camera is positioned on a crane that can moveup/down, left/right etc and take shots from high positions andunusual anglesUse:Establishing shots – to follow action andprovide a birds-eye view of the action /environment
  21. 21. Cinematic Language‘Hand-Held’ CameraThe camera is attached to a rig on the cinematographers body.The camera is then operated by hand is characterised by a ‘shakey’lookUse:Handheld styles gives a scene more fluidityand a natural feelIt can be used to position the audience withinthe action or give the audience an insight in toa characters POV
  22. 22. Spot the shot?Watch the following montage of scenes and not down all of the shot types that you see 1 Point for each correct shot type1 Bonus point for each film correctly named
  23. 23. Saving Private RyanHow does Spielberg ‘place the audience’ in the scene?How does the cinematographyadd to the believability of thescene?Why do you think Spielbergused hand held cameratechniques here? Saving Private Ryan Dir; S. Spielberg (1998)
  24. 24. What goes in a shot?When a director films a scene s/he mustnot only decide what should be seen – butalso what should not be seenSometimes withholding information fromthe audience can be just as effective asgiving information -Considering what to include / exclude froma shot is called FRAMING BLADE RUNNERFraming is very effective in creating a In an attempt to addrequired impression and the shot mystery to the film, Ridleytypes, camera height and location Scott framed the eye in amust be considered carefully CU and purposefully hides the identify of the person
  25. 25. What goes in a shot? Look at this still from The King’s Speech The film is about the King’s speech impediment and his discomfort when speaking in front of other people The framing includes a stadium of people watching the King adding to his discomfort
  26. 26. What goes in a shot? By changing framing of the shot and moving the camera closer to the King we lose that sense of him being watched – By including the audience within the frame the King becomes more isolated and his fear of speaking in public The camera does not simply record is magnifiedthat which is in front of it but can beplaced skilfully to create the required impression
  27. 27. Framing – In the Mood forWatch the following extracts from In the LoveMood for Love and make notes on the framing Look at the camera location and placement Do you notice anything unusual? Why has the filmmaker chosen to place the camera where he has? How are the characters being filmed? How does the framing add meaning / provide information? In the Mood for Love (2001) Dir; Wong Kar Wai Clip 2 – What do we learn about the relationship between the two characters?
  28. 28. Scene 2 – it has already been established that the two main characters are having a secret affair. How does the framing and cinematography reflect this?
  29. 29. CinematographyInstead of being limited to one camera positionand shot type, directors were now able to showa world from multiple points of view –enhancing the realism and believability of thefilmsFilmmakers like Charlie Chaplin could usedmany shots to tell a story and give the film amore dynamic feelWatch this short Chaplin film and note how hecreates a mini-story through the use of thecamera