Cognition• Mental activities of thinking, knowing,remembering, & communicatinginformation.
Concepts• Mental groupings of similar:• Objects• Evetns• Ideas• People
prototypes• A mental image (best example) of acategory.
Initial thinking about a new stimulus oftenchanges after it is integrated into ourconceptual worldview.Our first perceptions typically becomemore embedded as time passes.Asian face is remembered as “moreAsian” after time (Corneille, et al.,2004).
Intuition• A “gut feeling”• Fast• Automatic• Emotionally based• Not reflective or logic based
Availability Heuristic• Estimating the likelihood of somethingbased on our memory of previousoccurrences (Tversky & Kahneman,1974).• Casino bells & lights give us the sensethat a lot of winning is going on.
Overconfidence• The tendency to be more confident thancorrect.
Belief Perseverance• Clinging to one’s initial bias, despitecontradictory evidence.
Framing• The way an issue is presentedinfluences our interpretation of it.
Framing• 10% of patients die in this operation.• 90% of patients live through thisoperation (Marteau, 1989).• Condoms have 95% success rate instopping HIV.• Condoms have a 5% fail-rate (Linville etal., 1992).
Nonhuman Cognition• Pigeons can sort objects into categories(Wasserman, 1995).• Great apes can categorize images(Freedman, 2001).• Wolfgang Köhler (1925) chimpanzee “Sultan”insight problem solving.• Chimpanzee tool use (& imitating tool use).• Altruism• Voice recognition
Language Development• 1-18 years we learn about 60,000words.• After age 2, we learn about 3,500 wordsa year (Bloom, 2000).
Receptive Language• By 4 months babies recognizedifferences in speech sounds.• By 4 months can read lips.• Prefer to look at the face that is makingthe motion & sound.• 7 months can distinguish soundsegments into separate words(Newman, 2006).
Productive Language• Follows receptive language in development.• Can recognize incorrect noun/verb placementbefore being able to speak it (Bernal, 2010).• Deaf infants babble with their hands.• By 10 months, babbling becomes words.• Without exposure to other languages, babieslose their ability to hear certain sounds (l & rin Japanese & English natives).
Language• 7,000 different languages.• Noam Chomsky• Universal Grammar• LAD: Language Acquisition Device