Modules 27 & 28

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Modules 27 & 28

  1. 1. ThinkingLanguage & Thought
  2. 2. Cognition• Mental activities of thinking, knowing,remembering, & communicatinginformation.
  3. 3. Concepts• Mental groupings of similar:• Objects• Evetns• Ideas• People
  4. 4. prototypes• A mental image (best example) of acategory.
  5. 5. Initial thinking about a new stimulus oftenchanges after it is integrated into ourconceptual worldview.Our first perceptions typically becomemore embedded as time passes.Asian face is remembered as “moreAsian” after time (Corneille, et al.,2004).
  6. 6. Problem Solving
  7. 7. Algorithm• Logical, methodical rule for solving aproblem.
  8. 8. Heuristic• Simple thinking strategy that quicklysolves a problem.“rule of thumb”
  9. 9. Insight• Sudden realization of a solution to aproblem -without a strategy.
  10. 10. Once we form a belief, we tend to use allinformation to support that belief.
  11. 11. Confirmation Bias• The tendency to search for informationthat supports our preconceptions.• The tendency to avoid evidence that iscontradictory to our preconceptions.
  12. 12. Fixation• The inability to see a problem in adifferent way.
  13. 13. Mental Set• The tendency to approach a problem ina certain way -”set” in one’s bias.• Predisposes how we think.• (Perceptual Set- predisposition to whatwe see.)
  14. 14. Making Judgments
  15. 15. Intuition• A “gut feeling”• Fast• Automatic• Emotionally based• Not reflective or logic based
  16. 16. Availability Heuristic• Estimating the likelihood of somethingbased on our memory of previousoccurrences (Tversky & Kahneman,1974).• Casino bells & lights give us the sensethat a lot of winning is going on.
  17. 17. Overconfidence• The tendency to be more confident thancorrect.
  18. 18. Belief Perseverance• Clinging to one’s initial bias, despitecontradictory evidence.
  19. 19. Framing• The way an issue is presentedinfluences our interpretation of it.
  20. 20. Framing• 10% of patients die in this operation.• 90% of patients live through thisoperation (Marteau, 1989).• Condoms have 95% success rate instopping HIV.• Condoms have a 5% fail-rate (Linville etal., 1992).
  21. 21. Nonhuman Animal Cognition
  22. 22. Nonhuman Cognition• Pigeons can sort objects into categories(Wasserman, 1995).• Great apes can categorize images(Freedman, 2001).• Wolfgang Köhler (1925) chimpanzee “Sultan”insight problem solving.• Chimpanzee tool use (& imitating tool use).• Altruism• Voice recognition
  23. 23. Language & Thought(psycholinguistics)
  24. 24. Language• Spoken, written, or signedcommunication.
  25. 25. 3 building blocks of spokenlanguage1. Phonemes2. Morphemes3. grammar
  26. 26. Phoneme• Smallest sound unit.• B, t, k/c• 40 in english
  27. 27. Morpheme• Smallest sound unit that carriesmeaning.• I• A• “Pre….” “…ed”• 100,000 in English
  28. 28. Grammar• System rules that structure meaning.
  29. 29. Semantics• meaning
  30. 30. Language Development• Babbling (4 months)• One-Word Stage (1-2 years)• Two-Word Stage (2 years)
  31. 31. Language Development• 1-18 years we learn about 60,000words.• After age 2, we learn about 3,500 wordsa year (Bloom, 2000).
  32. 32. Receptive Language• By 4 months babies recognizedifferences in speech sounds.• By 4 months can read lips.• Prefer to look at the face that is makingthe motion & sound.• 7 months can distinguish soundsegments into separate words(Newman, 2006).
  33. 33. Productive Language• Follows receptive language in development.• Can recognize incorrect noun/verb placementbefore being able to speak it (Bernal, 2010).• Deaf infants babble with their hands.• By 10 months, babbling becomes words.• Without exposure to other languages, babieslose their ability to hear certain sounds (l & rin Japanese & English natives).
  34. 34. Language• 7,000 different languages.• Noam Chomsky• Universal Grammar• LAD: Language Acquisition Device
  35. 35. Telegraphic Speech• Nouns & verbs• “go, car”
  36. 36. Critical PeriodSensitive periodAge when development in most effective.Accent before age 3.By age 7 children lose their sensitivity to learnlanguage as a mother tongue.
  37. 37. Brain & Language
  38. 38. Aphasia• Impairment of language
  39. 39. Broca’s Area (1865)• Left frontal lobe• Speech production
  40. 40. Wernicke’s Area (1874)• Speech comprehension(understanding)
  41. 41. • Language production & comprehensionis distributed across the entire brain.• Neural networks are activated fornouns, verbs, adjectives, etc…• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O101aJ-XG
  42. 42. Nonhuman speech• 1960s Gardner & Gardner taught“Washoe” (chimp) 245 signs.• Chimps can develop can communicateon the level of a 2 year old human.
  43. 43. Jane Goodall• http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_goodall_on_wh
  44. 44. Why Dogs Smile andChimpanzees Cryhttp://youtu.be/DIV9mYHdpwU• Part II http://youtu.be/cvtiALFufi8
  45. 45. Language & Thought“We don’t do language, language doesus.” -Martin Heidegger
  46. 46. Linguistic Determinism• Whorfian Hypothesis (1956)

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