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OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING: FROM COMMONS TO COMMUNITY

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OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING: FROM COMMONS TO COMMUNITY

  1. 1. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING: FROM COMMONS TO COMMUNITY Matthew K. Gold NYC College of Technology & CUNY Graduate Center mkgold.net @mkgold 28 October 2011 CC-licensed untitled photo from nicepix25216: http://www.flickr.com/photos/24343741@N06/5712547947/Friday, October 28, 11
  2. 2. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Open Access Knowledge Commons From Commons to Community Case Study: Debates in the Digital Humanities Prospective Design Principles for Social RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  3. 3. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Open Access Knowledge Commons From Commons to Community Case Study: Debates in the Digital Humanities Prospective Design Principles for Social RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  4. 4. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons?Friday, October 28, 11
  5. 5. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons? a shared resourceFriday, October 28, 11
  6. 6. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Land-Based Commons Natural resource -- plot of land CC-licensed photo: “Cow in Niederbauen” http://www.flickr.com/photos/akane86/182443256//Friday, October 28, 11
  7. 7. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY 3 Phases of English Common Land Tenure 1. Saxon Age before Norman conquest most village lands held and worked in common. 2. After Norman conquest village lands belong to local manor, rights of the common granted on condition of fealty to manor lord 3. Age of enclosure - early 18th century - end of 19th century common land divided up, fenced, converted to private property in modern sense. (Source: Louise Hyde, Common as Air)Friday, October 28, 11source: Lewis Hyde, Common as Air
  8. 8. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Knowledge as a CommonsFriday, October 28, 11new types of knowledge commons -- esp. law (intellectual property) and scholarly resources. Increasingly, scholarly communications.
  9. 9. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Libertarian vs. Associational CommonsFriday, October 28, 11
  10. 10. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  11. 11. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  12. 12. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  13. 13. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  14. 14. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  15. 15. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY CUNY CUNYFriday, October 28, 11
  16. 16. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Open Access Knowledge Commons From Commons to Community Case Study: Debates in the Digital Humanities Prospective Design Principles for Social RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  17. 17. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY 2011 vs. 2007Friday, October 28, 11
  18. 18. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY 2007 Thing-Based RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  19. 19. MATT HEW K. G O LD / THE UNI V E R S I T Y A ND T HE C O M M O N S photo by FredR http://www.flickr.com/photos/fredr/262344284/ THE INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORYFriday, October 28, 11
  20. 20. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY 2011 social networks middle-state publishing emphasis on processFriday, October 28, 11
  21. 21. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY “The common is not to be construed, therefore, as a particular kind of thing, asset or even social process, but as an unstable and malleable social relation between a particular self-defined social group and those aspects of its actually existing or yet-to-be-created social and/or physical environment deemed crucial to its life and livelihood. There is, in effect, a social practice of commoning.” -- David HarveyFriday, October 28, 11“The common is not to be construed, therefore, as a particular kind of thing, asset or even social process, but as an unstable and malleable social relation between a particular self-definedsocial group and those aspects of its actually existing or yet-to-be-created social and/or physical environment deemed crucial to its life and livelihood. There is, in effect, a social practice ofcommoning. This practice produces or establishes a social relation with a common whose uses are either exclusive to a social group or partially or fully open to all and sundry. At the heart ofthe practice of commoning lies the principle that the relation between the social group and that aspect of the environment being treated as a common shall be both collective and non-commodified - off limits to the logic of market exchange and market valuations.” (Emph added)
  22. 22. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons? a shared space for creating resources with a communityFriday, October 28, 11
  23. 23. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons? a dynamic space for sharing and creating resources with (and within) a communityFriday, October 28, 11
  24. 24. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY “the process of creating public knowledge [is] an additional good, because such work builds social capital, strengthens communities, and gives people skills that they need for effective citizenship.” -- Peter LevineFriday, October 28, 11“For the most part, the other chapters of this book treat knowledge as a good. The authors advocate better ways to create, disseminate, preserve, and organize knowledge as a commonresource. While I certainly share the goals of those chapters, the focus here is somewhat different. I take the process of creating public knowledge as an additional good,because such work builds social capital, strengthens communities, and gives people skills that they need for effective citizenship. If this is correct, then we should aim to include as manypeople as possible in the collaborative creation of “free” (i.e., open-access) knowledge. Not only scholars and librarians, but ordinary people should be knowledge creators.” -- Peter Levine
  25. 25. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY CUNY PIE DiFara’s!Friday, October 28, 11
  26. 26. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY “the cornucopia of the commons”: more value is created as more people use the resource and join the social community. The operative principle is “the more, the merrier.”Friday, October 28, 11Indeed, many information commons exemplify what some commentatorshave called “the cornucopia of the commons,” in which morevalue is created as more people use the resource and join the social community.12 The operative principle is “the more, the merrier.”
  27. 27. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Open Access Knowledge Commons From Commons to Community Case Study: Debates in the Digital Humanities Prospective Design Principles for Social RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  28. 28. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  29. 29. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  30. 30. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  31. 31. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  32. 32. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  33. 33. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  34. 34. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  35. 35. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  36. 36. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  37. 37. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  38. 38. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  39. 39. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY The Open Access Knowledge Commons From Commons to Community Case Study: Debates in the Digital Humanities Challenges, Possibilities, and Principles for Social RepositoriesFriday, October 28, 11
  40. 40. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  41. 41. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  42. 42. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  43. 43. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  44. 44. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  45. 45. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  46. 46. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  47. 47. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY ChallengesFriday, October 28, 11
  48. 48. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  49. 49. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Challenges A GROUP OF SILOED REPOSITORIESFriday, October 28, 11
  50. 50. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Challenges INTERACTION FATIGUEFriday, October 28, 11
  51. 51. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Challenges PROPRIETARY PLATFORMSFriday, October 28, 11
  52. 52. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Challenges SECONDARY ENCLOSURES, THREATS TO COLLABORATION: PATENTS, TRADEMARKS, COPYRIGHT “MONOPOLIES OF INVENTION”Friday, October 28, 11
  53. 53. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Possibilities BUILD SOCIAL REPOSITORIESFriday, October 28, 11cuny ac -- email stats. Siva.
  54. 54. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Possibilities BUILD GENERATIVE SPACESFriday, October 28, 11cuny ac -- email stats. Siva.
  55. 55. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY “Generativity is a system’s capacity to produce unanticipated change through unfiltered contributions from broad and varied audiences. . . . Generativity pairs an input consisting of unfiltered contributions from diverse people and groups, who may or may not be working in concert, with the output of unanticipated change.” – Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the Internet - And How to Stop It (2008)Friday, October 28, 11
  56. 56. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Build generative commons spaces that talk to one anotherFriday, October 28, 11
  57. 57. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Federated modelsFriday, October 28, 11
  58. 58. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Open APIsFriday, October 28, 11
  59. 59. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Linked DataFriday, October 28, 11
  60. 60. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY Possibilities OUR COMMUNITIES ARE OUR RESOURCESFriday, October 28, 11cuny ac -- email stats. Siva.
  61. 61. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TYFriday, October 28, 11
  62. 62. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons? a shared space for creating resources with a communityFriday, October 28, 11
  63. 63. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY What is a commons? Not (just) the park, but the human microphoneFriday, October 28, 11
  64. 64. MATT HEW K. G O LD / O PEN A C C E S S P UBLI S HI NG : F RO M C O M M O N S TO C O M M U N I TY OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING: FROM COMMONS TO COMMUNITY Matthew K. Gold NYC College of Technology & CUNY Graduate Center mkgold.net @mkgold 28 October 2011 CC-licensed untitled photo from nicepix25216: http://www.flickr.com/photos/24343741@N06/5712547947/Friday, October 28, 11

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