The Revolution

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The Revolution

  1. 1. The Revolution
  2. 2. Colonial Ties <ul><li>The French threat </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and hard currency </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Language, culture, religion </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Commonwealthsmen <ul><li>Harrington and Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>Cato’s Letters – Trenchard and Gordon </li></ul><ul><li>The Rockingham Whigs </li></ul><ul><li>The re-birth of English Radicalism: the case of Wilkes </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Albany Plan <ul><li>Threat from French and Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin and plans for unity </li></ul>
  5. 5. P-DIDDY
  6. 6. The French and Indian War <ul><li>The Ohio country and the Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Necessity and George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>The Acadian exile </li></ul>
  7. 7. Towards Victory <ul><li>Pitt the Elder </li></ul><ul><li>Louisbourg </li></ul><ul><li>General Wolfe and the Plains of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>A world war… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pontiac’s War <ul><li>Neolin – the “Delaware Prophet” </li></ul><ul><li>Pontiac </li></ul><ul><li>The western frontiers </li></ul><ul><li>The Siege of Fort Detroit </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Proclamation of 1763 <ul><li>England and the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Squatters and frontiersmen </li></ul><ul><li>Land speculation and colonial expansion </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Stamp Act - 1765 <ul><li>Parliamentary revenue schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Internal taxation vs. external trade regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on tax collectors </li></ul><ul><li>The paper elite </li></ul>
  11. 11. James Otis and Patrick Henry <ul><li>James Otis: Rights of the British Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry: the Stamp Act Resolves </li></ul><ul><li>Towards Separatism </li></ul>
  12. 12. Popular Revolt and the Sons of Liberty <ul><li>Samuel Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphlet culture </li></ul><ul><li>The refractory effects of class </li></ul><ul><li>Popular unrest </li></ul><ul><li>“ The greatest abhorrence of lawlessness…” </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Townshend Duties - 1767 <ul><li>External taxation or revenue raising </li></ul><ul><li>Government salaries </li></ul><ul><li>English legal jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Dickinson’s Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Boston Massacre - 1770 <ul><li>North ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers vs. Laborers – a “Guy Thing” </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams for the Defense </li></ul><ul><li>The Committees of Correspondence </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Trouble with Tea <ul><li>The Tea Duty </li></ul><ul><li>The East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>Direct trade: good for everyone? </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Adams and the Boston Tea Party (1773) </li></ul><ul><li>Why Indians? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The “Intolerable” Acts - 1774 <ul><li>Boston Port Act </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Government Act </li></ul><ul><li>The Administration of Justice Act </li></ul><ul><li>The Quartering Act </li></ul><ul><li>The Quebec Acts </li></ul>
  17. 17. Continental Congresses <ul><li>First Continental Congress – 1774 </li></ul><ul><li>The Continental Association </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress - 1775 </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Shot Heard Round the World <ul><li>Lexington and Concord </li></ul><ul><li>Bunker Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Ticonderoga </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Ministry <ul><li>American Secretary: Lord George Germain </li></ul><ul><li>First Lord of the Treasury: Frederick, Lord North </li></ul><ul><li>Lord of the Admiralty: Earl of Sandwich (yes, it’s really him) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Towards a Provisional Government <ul><li>Appointment of General Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Virginians and liberty </li></ul>
  21. 21. Citizen Tom Paine <ul><li>Common Sense – 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Radical artisan tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Against mixed government </li></ul><ul><li>The laws of gravity </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Northern Theatre <ul><li>Germain’s plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sir William Howe and the pleasures of urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Gentleman John Burgoyne </li></ul><ul><li>Saratoga: turning point of the War </li></ul>
  23. 23. Absolutist France: natural ally of the Revolution <ul><li>Franklin, the Noble Savage </li></ul><ul><li>Vergennes and the American alliance </li></ul><ul><li>The British Peace Commission </li></ul><ul><li>France and Spain declare war </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Southern Theatre <ul><li>Clinton replaces Howe </li></ul><ul><li>A political solution </li></ul><ul><li>Cornwallis’ circuitous path to Yorktown </li></ul><ul><li>The fall of the North Ministry </li></ul>
  25. 25. Peace <ul><li>The return of the Rockingham Whigs </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay and the Treaty of Paris (1782) </li></ul><ul><li>Land cession from Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>The French “Alliance” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>The revolution was fomented by an educated, dissatisfied elite, who brilliantly tapped and directed popular unrest towards an external enemy. Not all colonists supported the Revolution; John Adams said it was about 1/3 for, 1/3 against, 1/3 neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of ideological and economic grievances made, for an influential subset of American colonists, a previously happy political relationship seem distressing. </li></ul><ul><li>The years leading up to the Revolution witnessed growing alienation between the theory of colonial subordination and the practice of colonial autonomy. The Americans already were free before the fighting ever began. </li></ul>

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