The Gathering Storm

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The Gathering Storm

  1. 1. The Gathering Storm: America’s Road to Civil War
  2. 2. Manifest Destiny <ul><li>Territorial Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Popular support and the Penny Press </li></ul><ul><li>Party political tendencies </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Texas Revolution <ul><li>The Empresario plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Slavery issue </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Ana and Texan insurgency </li></ul><ul><li>Annexation attempts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Expansionism and the 1844 Election <ul><li>Foreign recognition of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Fifty-four forty or fight </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern veto </li></ul><ul><li>James K. Polk </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Mexican War <ul><li>The Nueces or the Rio Grande </li></ul><ul><li>Spot Resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>The Bear Flag Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, Scott, and the “Halls of Montezuma” </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Pacific Coast <ul><li>Sutter’s Mill and the Gold Rush of 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Social life in the wild west coast </li></ul><ul><li>The move towards statehood </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Politics of Labor <ul><li>Wilmot Proviso </li></ul><ul><li>The Slave Power </li></ul><ul><li>“… what time of night it is.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Frontier Thesis <ul><li>Frederick Jackson Turner </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery and the future of white labor </li></ul><ul><li>Who controls western territories? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>The Immortal Trio and Clay’s last compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions of the compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Northern response to the Fugitive Slave Law </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>The Trans-continental Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>The Demise of the Missouri Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Jayhawkers vs. Bushwhackers </li></ul><ul><li>“ the harlot slavery” </li></ul><ul><li>The Lecompton Constitution </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Third Party System <ul><li>The collapse of the Whigs </li></ul><ul><li>The Know-Nothings </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Nebraska Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Republican ideology </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Dred Scott Case <ul><li>Scott on free soil </li></ul><ul><li>Taney and the majority decision </li></ul><ul><li>Black citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>The cruel logic of the Scott decision </li></ul>
  13. 13. Majority Opinion delivered by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney <ul><li>The question is simply this: Can a negro, whose ancestors were imported into this country, and sold as slaves, become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States, and as such become entitled to all the rights, and privileges, and immunities, guarantied by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States in the cases specified in the constitution... </li></ul><ul><li>The words &quot;people of the United States&quot; and &quot;citizens&quot; are synonymous terms, and mean the same thing. They both describe the political body who, according to our republican institutions, form the sovereignty, and who hold the power and conduct the government through their representatives. They are what we familiarly call the &quot;sovereign people,&quot; and every citizen is one of this people, and a constituent member of this sovereignty. The question before us is, whether the class of persons described in the plea in abatement compose a portion of this people, and are constituent members of this sovereignty? We think they are not, and that they are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word &quot;citizens&quot; in the constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States. On the contrary, they were at that time considered as a subordinate and inferior class of beings, who had been subjugated by the dominant race, and, whether emancipated or not, yet remained subject to their authority, and had no rights or privileges but such as those who held the power and the government might choose to grant them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Panic of 1857 <ul><li>International commerce and the decline of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Bursting the speculative bubble </li></ul><ul><li>The Scott decision and raiload stocks </li></ul><ul><li>“ Invincible” King Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Hinton Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South </li></ul>
  15. 15. John Brown <ul><li>The Harper’s Ferry raid </li></ul><ul><li>The “Secret Six” </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown’s ghost </li></ul><ul><li>The persistent debate </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Election of 1860 <ul><li>The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>The Charleston Convention and the Democratic split </li></ul><ul><li>The four-way split </li></ul><ul><li>The path to Republican victory </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Die is Cast… <ul><li>The Crittenden Compromise plan </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina secession convention </li></ul><ul><li>Buchanan’s paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Union Forever </li></ul>
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>American victory in the Mexican War unleashed a chain reaction of events that ultimately eluded the ability of the nation’s political elites to maintain unity. The expansion of slavery into the territories alarmed northerners, while the actions of abolitionists, while the growth of the Republican party led many Southerners to see their interests better served outside of the Union. Ultimately, though, compromise failed because those involved followed the logic of their own views (always constructed ex post facto) to the ultimate conclusion that, to paraphrase Lincoln, a house divided against itself cannot stand. </li></ul>

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