Medieval China

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Medieval China

  1. 1. China: Medieval China from the Fall of the Han to the Ming
  2. 2. Romance of the Three Kingdoms <ul><li>An Empire’s Fall: comparison with the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>The Three Kingdoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic and social decline </li></ul><ul><li>Northern nomads and “soap bubble” states </li></ul><ul><li>Northern and Southern Dynasties: military rule </li></ul><ul><li>Sinification </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chinese Buddhism <ul><li>Gautama Buddha and Indian Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Alien elements of Buddhist culture and thought: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monasticism and celibacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asceticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mendicancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherworldliness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhism in the North </li></ul><ul><li>“ Like eating rice another man has chewed…” – the joys of translation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Philosophical Daoism <ul><li>The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove </li></ul><ul><li>Against tradition-minded Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Towards a popular religion: borrowing from Buddha and the Mahayana </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Sui Unification (581-618) <ul><li>Yang Jian and reunification </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the period of division </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-political solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstitution of unitary state apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land equalization system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Korean defeat and domestic rebellion (611) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Tang Ascendancy <ul><li>Li Yuan and the alliance process </li></ul><ul><li>Li Shih-min: apex of imperial skill </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant relations </li></ul><ul><li>Success in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Conspicuous Consumption in Tang China </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tang Society <ul><li>Religious toleration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manichaeanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoroastrianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nestorianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Chinese Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Block-printing </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Reforms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Decline of the Tang <ul><li>Court Intrigue: Xuanzong </li></ul><ul><li>Yang Guifei and the revolt of 755 </li></ul><ul><li>The Rule of the Eunuchs </li></ul><ul><li>The Historical Office </li></ul><ul><li>The Ten Kingdoms and the Five Dynasties </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Northern Song <ul><li>Song Taizu and diplomatic reunification </li></ul><ul><li>The apogee of the Confucian exam system </li></ul><ul><li>Artisanal manufacturing and the Chinese guild system </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization and the tax base </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reforming Chinese Society <ul><li>Wang Anshi’s reform plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low interest loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash-for-corvee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deed registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State economic facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable property taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic Response </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections on reform in China </li></ul>
  11. 11. Barbarians at the Gate <ul><li>The Peasant military </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute to the North </li></ul><ul><li>The Jurchen invasion (1126) </li></ul><ul><li>The Jin and the Xi Xia </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder: from fire-lances to cannons </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Southern Song <ul><li>Decline of the Silk Road </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime trade and the commercial tax </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese town air </li></ul><ul><li>The gentrification of merchants and the decline of the ancient aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Confucianism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rise of the Mongols <ul><li>Temujin proclaimed Genghis Khan, unites the Mongols (1206) </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive against the Jurchens and Xi Xia </li></ul><ul><li>The Cavalry Archer and Compound Bow </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Genghis Khan (1227) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Mongols in the West <ul><li>The Destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate (1258) </li></ul><ul><li>In Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Khanate of the Golden Horde </li></ul><ul><li>Tamerlane’s Empire </li></ul>
  15. 15. Yuan China <ul><li>From farm to pasture: dealing with a sednetary population </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese collaborators </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan and Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><li>The political significance of the shaved head </li></ul><ul><li>Pax Mongolica ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Foundation of the Ming <ul><li>The White Lotus sect </li></ul><ul><li>Zhu Yuanzhang and the Guabgzhou province rebellion (1352) </li></ul><ul><li>The brilliant dynasty </li></ul>
  17. 17. Early Ming Culture <ul><li>Chinese nationalism and the return to the “Middle Kingdom” attitude </li></ul><ul><li>The Song—with teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Ming material culture </li></ul><ul><li>Autocracy </li></ul>

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