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Protectionism  and Trade Liberalisation
Protectionism and Trade Liberalisation
Protectionism
Protectionism <ul><li>Means by which trade between countries is restricted in some way – normally through measures to redu...
Protectionism <ul><li>Tariff:  A tax on a good  coming into a country </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the price of the good an...
Impact of a Tariff on Steel Price of Steel  (US $ per kg) Quantity of Steel Bought and  Sold from Abroad S D 20 S + Tariff...
Impact of a Quota on Steel Price of Steel  (US $ per Kg) Quantity of Steel Bought and  Sold from Abroad S D 20 500 Pre-tra...
Non-Tariff Barriers <ul><li>Any methods not covered by a tariff,  most usually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul...
Non-Tariff Barriers <ul><li>Examples include setting exacting standards on fuel emissions from cars, the documentation req...
Reasons <ul><li>Protect domestic industries </li></ul><ul><li>Protect domestic employment </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic reas...
Trade Liberalisation
Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>Aims to free up world trade  and break down the barriers  to international trade </li></ul><u...
Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs  and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>First signed in 1947 –  talk...
Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>Potential benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes international specialisation  and increase...
Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>World agreements are very difficult to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Witness the issues  over the...
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Free Trade Vs Protectionism

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Free Trade Vs Protectionism

  1. 1. Protectionism and Trade Liberalisation
  2. 2. Protectionism and Trade Liberalisation
  3. 3. Protectionism
  4. 4. Protectionism <ul><li>Means by which trade between countries is restricted in some way – normally through measures to reduce the number of imports coming into a country </li></ul><ul><li>Main means are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Tariff Barriers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Protectionism <ul><li>Tariff: A tax on a good coming into a country </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the price of the good and makes it less competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Quota: Physical restriction on the number of goods coming into a country </li></ul>
  6. 6. Impact of a Tariff on Steel Price of Steel (US $ per kg) Quantity of Steel Bought and Sold from Abroad S D 20 S + Tariff Amount of the tariff per unit 500 28 350
  7. 7. Impact of a Quota on Steel Price of Steel (US $ per Kg) Quantity of Steel Bought and Sold from Abroad S D 20 500 Pre-trade position before a quota. Quota level 250 30 The quota restricts the supply to a set amount (250 in the example) which is likely to result in a shortage of this good and a subsequent rise in its price.
  8. 8. Non-Tariff Barriers <ul><li>Any methods not covered by a tariff, most usually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exacting Standards or Specifications </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Non-Tariff Barriers <ul><li>Examples include setting exacting standards on fuel emissions from cars, the documentation required to be able to sell drugs in different countries, the ingredients in products – some of which may be banned in the destination country </li></ul><ul><li>NTBs are difficult to prove – when do you accuse a country of protectionism – could be a legal or cultural issue? </li></ul><ul><li>The main method involved in NTBs is not to prevent trade but to make the cost of doing so prohibitive to the potential exporter </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reasons <ul><li>Protect domestic industries </li></ul><ul><li>Protect domestic employment </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Protect culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent ‘Dumping’ – selling goods in the destination country below cost to break into that market </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trade Liberalisation
  12. 12. Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>Aims to free up world trade and break down the barriers to international trade </li></ul><ul><li>Basic philosophy rests on the principle of comparative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Talks to achieve trade liberalisation have been ongoing for many years </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>First signed in 1947 – talks on-going since then! </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay Round 1994 – set up the World Trade Organisation (WTO) as well as agreements covering a range of trade liberalisation measures </li></ul><ul><li>WTO provides the forum through which trade issues can be negotiated and works to help implement and police trade agreements </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>Potential benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes international specialisation and increases world output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes efficient use and allocation of world resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows developing countries access to the heavily protected markets of the developed world thus helping promote development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates the working of the international market system and the working of price signals to ensure efficient allocation of resources, international competition and the associated benefits to all </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Trade Liberalisation <ul><li>World agreements are very difficult to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Witness the issues over the removal or reduction of agricultural subsidies, tariffs on steel in the United States, the banana wars, etc! </li></ul>
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