Recent data on the impact ofthe psychedelic experience:  human laboratory studies
Section OverviewWe will review findings on the impact of psychedelics onpeople’s lives as documented in   – Controlled lab...
Healthy Participant StudiesGriffiths and colleagues (@ Johns Hopkins) pioneer:   – Standard instruments from other fields ...
How Personally Meaningful was it?        Single Most    Among Top Five     Among Top Ten Once Every 5 Years       Once a Y...
Impact was still undiminished one year later                      (Griffiths, Richards, Johnson, McCann, Jesse 2008)
Concern: Are effects due tohard-to-copy experimental conditions?                             (Johnson, Richards, Griffiths...
Mystical-type experiences after Salvinorin A in people  NOT chosen for their religious/spiritual practice                 ...
We also see mystical phenomena studying MDA in a hospital   Hood Mysticism Scales  Introvertive Mysticism Interpretive Mys...
Despite careful preparation, anxiety is often present                  (30 mg/70 kg Psilocybin)                     (Griff...
Shroom Hangover?                   (Johnson, Sewell, Griffiths 2011)
Increasing up to a high dose was better tolerated         than starting with a high dose Well-Being / Life Satisfaction   ...
Some participants reported increases in personality dimension “Openness” -- changes correlated with          ratings of my...
The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience   Intellectual, creative, artistic,                          im...
The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience   Intellectual, creative, artistic,                          im...
The Big Five vs. Myers-BriggsOpenness to Experience   Sensing-intuition scale (on the ‘N’ side)Conscientious            Ju...
The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience   Intellectual, creative, artistic,                          im...
The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience   Intellectual, creative, artistic,                          im...
Similar result from early LSD creativity studyMcGlothlin, Cohen, McClothlin. “Long lasting effects of LSD on normals”. Arc...
Openness usually doesnt increasemuch once youre in your 20s Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patte...
Other aspects of personality improve               Agreeableness                                            Conscientiousn...
Patient StudiesGrob and colleagues (2011) conduct a pilot study ofpsilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety in termina...
Terminal cancer patients have reducedanxiety after participation in psilocybinstudyBut lack of a real placebo comparison m...
Psilocybin-OCD pilot study even lessconclusive   Observer-rated OCD severityNo placebo & main OCD measurements only made t...
Issues and CaveatsCan’t predict   – who will be benefit, who won’t   – who will have anxiety, who won’tMechanisms of lasti...
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Impact of the psychedelic experience: lab studies

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Impact of the psychedelic experience: lab studies

  1. 1. Recent data on the impact ofthe psychedelic experience: human laboratory studies
  2. 2. Section OverviewWe will review findings on the impact of psychedelics onpeople’s lives as documented in – Controlled lab studies with healthy participants – Controlled studies with patientsWe will discuss MDMA and neuromechanisms in a separatesection
  3. 3. Healthy Participant StudiesGriffiths and colleagues (@ Johns Hopkins) pioneer: – Standard instruments from other fields (e.g., Hood scale) – Carefully prepared participants & settingBut does this mystical experience only happen to prepareddrug-naïve spiritually inclined people in their lab? – NoSo far impossible to predict who will become very anxious,but dose escalation is better than starting with high doseSeemingly lasting positive effects, reminiscent of earlyresearch on LSD and creativity
  4. 4. How Personally Meaningful was it? Single Most Among Top Five Among Top Ten Once Every 5 Years Once a Year Once a Month Psilocybin Once a Week MethylphenidateEveryday Experience (Griffiths, Richards, McCann, Jesse 2006)
  5. 5. Impact was still undiminished one year later (Griffiths, Richards, Johnson, McCann, Jesse 2008)
  6. 6. Concern: Are effects due tohard-to-copy experimental conditions? (Johnson, Richards, Griffiths 2008)
  7. 7. Mystical-type experiences after Salvinorin A in people NOT chosen for their religious/spiritual practice (Johnson, MacLean, Reissig, Prisinzano, Griffiths 2011)
  8. 8. We also see mystical phenomena studying MDA in a hospital Hood Mysticism Scales Introvertive Mysticism Interpretive Mysticism Extrovertive Mysticism ASC Scales Oceanic BoundlessnessDread of Ego DissolutionPercept. & Cog. Changes 0 20 40 60 80 100 Placebo Percent of Maximum MDA (Baggott et al., 2010) Psilocybin (Griffiths et al., 2006) Psilocybin (Hasler et al., 2004)
  9. 9. Despite careful preparation, anxiety is often present (30 mg/70 kg Psilocybin) (Griffiths, Johnson, Richards, Richards, McCann, Jesse 2011)
  10. 10. Shroom Hangover? (Johnson, Sewell, Griffiths 2011)
  11. 11. Increasing up to a high dose was better tolerated than starting with a high dose Well-Being / Life Satisfaction Persisting Positive Mood (Griffiths, Johnson, Richards, Richards, McCann, Jesse 2011)
  12. 12. Some participants reported increases in personality dimension “Openness” -- changes correlated with ratings of mystical experience (MacLean, Johnson, Griffiths 2011)
  13. 13. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience Intellectual, creative, artistic, imaginative, curious, original Conscientious Organized, systematic, thorough, hardworking, neat, dependable Extraversion Extroverted, talkative, assertive, gregarious, energetic, self-dramatizing Agreeableness Sympathetic, cooperative, warm, tactful, considerate, trustful Neuroticism Unenvious, relaxed, calm, stable, confident, effective (McCrae and Costa 1985)
  14. 14. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience Intellectual, creative, artistic, imaginative, curious, original Conscientious Organized, systematic, thorough, hardworking, neat, dependable Extraversion Extroverted, talkative, assertive, gregarious, energetic, self-dramatizing Agreeableness Sympathetic, cooperative, warm, tactful, considerate, trustful Neuroticism Unenvious, relaxed, calm, stable, confident, effective (McCrae and Costa 1985)
  15. 15. The Big Five vs. Myers-BriggsOpenness to Experience Sensing-intuition scale (on the ‘N’ side)Conscientious Judging-Perceiving scale (‘J’ side)Extraversion Extraversion-Introversion scale (‘E’ side)Agreeableness Thinking-Feeling scale (‘F’ side)Neuroticism Not measured by MBTI (McCrae and Costa 1985)
  16. 16. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience Intellectual, creative, artistic, imaginative, curious, original Conscientious Organized, systematic, thorough, hardworking, neat, dependable Extraversion Extroverted, talkative, assertive, gregarious, energetic, self-dramatizing Agreeableness Sympathetic, cooperative, warm, tactful, considerate, trustful Neuroticism Unenvious, relaxed, calm, stable, confident, effective (McCrae and Costa 1985)
  17. 17. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Openness to Experience Intellectual, creative, artistic, imaginative, curious, original Conscientious Organized, systematic, thorough, hardworking, neat, dependable Extraversion Extroverted, talkative, assertive, gregarious, energetic, self-dramatizing Agreeableness Sympathetic, cooperative, warm, tactful, considerate, trustful Neuroticism Unenvious, relaxed, calm, stable, confident, effective (McCrae and Costa 1985)
  18. 18. Similar result from early LSD creativity studyMcGlothlin, Cohen, McClothlin. “Long lasting effects of LSD on normals”. Arch Gen Psychiat. 1967;17:521-532.
  19. 19. Openness usually doesnt increasemuch once youre in your 20s Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A metaanalysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 3–27.
  20. 20. Other aspects of personality improve Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience (Scored in reverse) Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A metaanalysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 3–27.
  21. 21. Patient StudiesGrob and colleagues (2011) conduct a pilot study ofpsilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety in terminalcancer patients – Results suggestive, but not conclusiveMoreno and colleagues (2006) conduct a pilot study ofpsilocybin for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) – Results even less conclusive
  22. 22. Terminal cancer patients have reducedanxiety after participation in psilocybinstudyBut lack of a real placebo comparison makes it impossibleto say this was due to the psilocybin session (Grob, Danforth, Chopra, Hagerty, McKay, Halberstadt, Greer, 2011)
  23. 23. Psilocybin-OCD pilot study even lessconclusive Observer-rated OCD severityNo placebo & main OCD measurements only made til 24hours after sessions (Moreno, Wiegand, Taitano, Delgado 2006)
  24. 24. Issues and CaveatsCan’t predict – who will be benefit, who won’t – who will have anxiety, who won’tMechanisms of lasting change unknown / unstudied – Vollenweider and Kometer (2010) hypothesize a role for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in sustained antidepressant-like effects of psychedelicsRecent pilot studies in patients show safety but can’t (yet?)prove benefits (newer studies are ongoing, includingpsilocybin for cancer anxiety, smoking cessation)

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