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Nuremberg Trials


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Nuremberg Trials

  1. 1. Justice at Nuremberg
  2. 2. “ The privilege of opening the first trial in history for crimes against the peace of the world imposes a great responsibility. The four great nations flushed with victory and stung with injury, stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law. The crimes which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated.” Justice Robert Jackson, Chief Prosecutor for the United States
  3. 3. Setting the Stage <ul><li>The French, Russians, and British supported summary executions of war criminals </li></ul><ul><li>United States pushed for a trial </li></ul><ul><li>August, 1945 - Allies create the International Military Tribunal </li></ul><ul><li>London Charter outlined rules of trial and crimes to be tried </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Crimes <ul><li>Conspiracy to Wage Aggressive War - focused on policies before the war </li></ul><ul><li>Waging Aggressive War - the planning and initiation of war </li></ul><ul><li>War Crimes - treatment of POWs, bombing of civilians, and slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes Against Humanity - Death camps, killing squads, and concentration camps </li></ul>
  5. 5. Selection of Defendants <ul><li>Six Nazi organizations tried </li></ul><ul><li>24 men who represented the major branches of Nazi government </li></ul><ul><li>Hermann Goering and Rudolph Hess were the two highest ranking Germans tried </li></ul>
  6. 6. Selection of Defendants
  7. 7. Selection of Defendants
  8. 8. Evidence
  9. 9. Evidence
  10. 10. Evidence
  11. 11. Evidence
  12. 12. Evidence
  13. 13. Evidence
  14. 14. Evidence
  15. 15. Results <ul><li>Three organizations found guilty </li></ul><ul><li>3 acquitted, 8 given sentences, 13 sentenced to death </li></ul><ul><li>Goering would cheat his sentence and commit suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Only Albert Speer would admit guilt </li></ul>
  16. 16. Results
  17. 17. Legacy <ul><li>While 100’s of Nazis were prosecuted throughout Europe, many escaped </li></ul><ul><li>Many claimed they were just “following orders” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Crimes Against Humanity” established </li></ul><ul><li>A permanent international tribunal on war crimes - only moderately successful </li></ul><ul><li>Nuremberg proceedings immediately documented Hitler’s rise to power and his role in the war </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ [Germany] allowed itself to be robbed of its conscience and its very soul. Evil masters came who awakened its primitive passions and made possible the atrocities which I have described to you. In truth, the crime of these men is that they caused the German people to retrogress more than 12 centuries. - French prosecutor, Charles Dubost