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  1. 1. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 SECTION 9 - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Part A D = nominal diameter of prestressing steel (Articles General Requirements and Materials 9.17 and 9.28) + d = distance from extreme compressive fiber to cen­9.1 APPLICATION troid of the prestressing force, or to centroid of negative moment reinforcing for precast girder9.1.1 General bridges made continuous dt = distance from the extreme compressive fiber to The specifications of this section are intended for the centroid of the non-prestressed tension rein­design of prestressed concrete bridge members. Mem­ forcement (Articles 9.7 and 9.17-9.19)bers designed as reinforced concrete, except for a per­ ES = loss of prestress due to elastic shortening (Articlecentage of tensile steel stressed to improve service behav­ 9.16)ior, shall conform to the applicable specifications ofSection 8. e = base of Naperian logarithms (Article 9.16) Exceptionally long span or unusual structures require fcds = average concrete compressive stress at the c.g. ofdetailed consideration of effects which under this Section the prestressing steel under full dead load (Articlemay have been assigned arbitrary values. 9.16) fcir = average concrete stress at the c.g. of the prestress­9.1.2 Notations ing steel at time of release (Article 9.16) f c = compressive strength of concrete at 28 daysAs = area of non-prestressed tension reinforcement (Articles 9.7 and 9.19) f ci = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress (Article 9.15)As = area of compression reinforcement (Article 9.19) fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweightA*s = area of prestressing steel (Article 9.17) aggregate concrete, psiAsf = steel area required to develop the compressive fd = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme strength of the overhanging portions of the flange fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by (Article 9.17) externally applied loads (Article 9.20)Asr = steel area required to develop the compressive fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance strength of the web of a flanged section (Articles for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section 9.17-9.19) resisting externally applied loads or at junction ofAv = area of web reinforcement (Article 9.20) web and flange when the centroid lies within theb = width of flange of flanged member or width of flange (In a composite member, fpc is resultant rectangular member compressive stress at centroid of composite sec­bv = width of cross section at the contact surface being tion, or at junction of web and flange when the investigated for horizontal shear (Article 9.20) centroid lies within the flange, due to both pre­ stress and moments resisted by precast memberb = width of a web of a flanged member acting alone.) (Article 9.20)CRc = loss of prestress due to creep of concrete (Article fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective 9.16) prestress forces only (after allowance for all pre­CRs = loss of prestress due to relaxation of prestressing stress losses) at extreme fiber of section where steel (Article 9.16) tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (Article 9.20) SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-1
  2. 2. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000fps = guaranteed ultimate tensile strength of the pre­ p = As /bd, ratio of compression reinforcement (Ar­ stressing steel, A*sf s ticle 9.19)fr = the modulus of rupture of concrete, as defined in Pu = factored tendon force Article (Article 9.18) Q = statical moment of cross-sectional area, above or∆fs = total prestress loss, excluding friction (Article below the level being investigated for shear, about 9.16) the centroid (Article 9.20)fse = effective steel prestress after losses SH = loss of prestress due to concrete shrinkage (Ar­f*su = average stress in prestressing steel at ultimate ticle 9.16) load s = longitudinal spacing of the web reinforcementf s = ultimate stress of prestressing steel (Articles 9.15 (Article 9.20) and 9.17) Sb = non-composite section modulus for the extremefsy = yield stress of non-prestressed conventional rein­ fiber of section where the tensile stress is caused forcement in tension (Article 9.19 and 9.20) by externally applied loads (Article 9.18)f y = yield stress of non-prestressed conventional rein­ Sc = composite section modulus for the extreme fiber forcement in compression (Article 9.19) of section where the tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (Article 9.18)f*y = yield stress of prestressing steel (Article 9.15) t = average thickness of the flange of a flanged mem­ = 0.90 f s for low-relaxation wire or strand ber (Articles 9.17 and 9.18) = 0.85 f s for stress-relieved wire or strand To = steel stress at jacking end (Article 9.16) = 0.85 f s for Type I (smooth) high-strength bar Tx = steel stress at any point x (Article 9.16) = 0.80 f s for Type II (deformed) high-strength bar v = permissible horizontal shear stress (Article 9.20)h = overall depth of member (Article 9.20) Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete (Ar­I = moment of inertia about the centroid of the cross ticle 9.20) section (Article 9.20) Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete whenK = friction wobble coefficient per foot of prestress­ diagonal cracking results from combined shear ing steel (Article 9.16) and moment (Article 9.20)L = length of prestressing steel element from jack end Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when to point x (Article 9.16) diagonal cracking results from excessive princi­Mcr = moment causing flexural cracking at section due pal tensile stress in web (Article 9.20) to externally applied loads (Article 9.20) Vd = shear force at section due to unfactored dead loadM*cr = cracking moment (Article 9.18) (Article 9.20)Md/c = composite dead load moment at the section (Com­ Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally mentary to Article 9.18) applied loads occurring simultaneously with MmaxMd/nc = non-composite dead load moment at the section (Article 9.20) (Article 9.18) Vnh = nominal horizontal shear strength (Article 9.20)Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to Vp = vertical component of effective prestress force at externally applied loads (Article 9.20) section (Article 9.20)Mn = nominal moment strength of a section Vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear rein­Mu = factored moment at section ≤ Mn (Articles 9.17 forcement (Article 9.20) and 9.18) Vu = factored shear force at section (Article 9.20)p = As /bdt, ratio of non-prestressed tension reinforce­ Yt = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, ment (Articles 9.7 and 9.17-9.19) neglecting reinforcement, to extreme fiber in ten­ sion (Article 9.20)p* = A*s /bd, ratio of prestressing steel (Articles 9.17 µ = friction curvature coefficient (Article 9.16) and 9.19)9-2 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  3. 3. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 = total angular change of prestressing steel profile Diaphragm—Transverse stiffener in girders to main­ in radians from jacking end to point x (Article tain section geometry. 9.16) Duct—Hole or void formed in prestressed member to accommodate tendon for post-tensioning. = factor for concrete strength, as defined in Article Edge Distance—Distance from the center of the an­ (Articles 9.17-9.19) chorage device to the edge of the concrete member. γ* = factor for type of prestressing steel (Article 9.17) Effective Prestress—Stress remaining in concrete due to prestressing after all calculated losses have been de­ = 0.28 for low-relaxation steel ducted, excluding effects of superimposed loads and = 0.40 for stress-relieved steel weight of member; stress remaining in prestressing ten­ = 0.55 for bars dons after all losses have occurred excluding effects of dead load and superimposed load. 9.1.3 Definitions Elastic Shortening of Concrete—Shortening of mem­ ber caused by application of forces induced by prestress­ The following terms are defined for general use. ing. Specialized definitions appear in individual articles. End Anchorage—Length of reinforcement, or me­ chanical anchor, or hook, or combination thereof, be­ Anchorage device—The hardware assembly used for yond point of zero stress in reinforcement. transferring a post-tensioning force from the tendon End Block—Enlarged end section of member designed wires, strands or bars to the concrete. to reduce anchorage stresses. Anchorage Seating—Deformation of anchorage or seat­ Friction (post-tensioning)—Surface resistance between ing of tendons in anchorage device when prestressing tendon and duct in contact during stressing. force is transferred from jack to anchorage device. General Zone—Region within which the concentrated Anchorage Spacing—Center-to-center spacing of an­ prestressing force spreads out to a more linear stressαβ 1 chorage devices. distribution over the cross section of the member (Saint Anchorage Zone—The portion of the structure in which Venant Region) (Article the concentrated prestressing force is transferred from Grout Opening or Vent—Inlet, outlet, vent, or drain in the anchorage device into the concrete (Local Zone), and post-tensioning duct for grout, water, or air. then distributed more widely into the structure (General Intermediate Anchorage—Anchorage not located at Zone) (Article 9.21.1). the end surface of a member or segment; usually in the Basic Anchorage Device—Anchorage device meeting form of embedded anchors, blisters, ribs, or recess pock­ the restricted bearing stress and minimum plate stiffness ets. requirements of Articles through; Jacking Force—Temporary force exerted by device no acceptance test is required for Basic Anchorage De­ that introduces tension into prestressing tendons. vices. Local Zone—The volume of concrete surrounding and Bonded Tendon—Prestressing tendon that is bonded to immediately ahead of the anchorage device, subjected to concrete either directly or through grouting. high local bearing stresses (Article Coating—Material used to protect prestressing ten­ Loss of Prestress—Reduction in prestressing force dons against corrosion, to reduce friction between tendon resulting from combined effects of strains in concrete and and duct, or to debond prestressing tendons. steel, including effects of elastic shortening, creep and Couplers (Couplings)—Means by which prestressing shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of steel stress, and for force is transmitted from one partial-length prestressing post-tensioned members, friction and anchorage seating. tendon to another. Post-Tensioning—Method of prestressing in which Creep of Concrete—Time-dependent deformation of tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened. concrete under sustained load. Precompressed Zone—Portion of flexural member Curvature Friction—Friction resulting from bends or cross-section compressed by prestressing force. curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile. Prestressed Concrete—Reinforced concrete in which Debonding (blanketing)—Wrapping, sheathing, or internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential coating prestressing strand to prevent bond between tensile stresses in concrete resulting from loads. strand and surrounding concrete. Pretensioning—Method of prestressing in which ten­ dons are tensioned before concrete is placed. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-3
  4. 4. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Relaxation of Tendon Stress—Time-dependent reduc­ 9.3.2 Non-Prestressed Reinforcementtion of stress in prestressing tendon at constant strain. Shear Lag—Non-uniform distribution of bending stress Non-prestressed reinforcement shall conform to theover the cross section. requirements in Article 8.3. Shrinkage of Concrete—Time-dependent deformationof concrete caused by drying and chemical changes(hydration process). Special Anchorage Device—Anchorage device whoseadequacy must be proven experimentally in the standard­ized acceptance tests of Division II, Section Tendon—Wire, strand, or bar, or bundle of such ele­ments, used to impart prestress to concrete. Transfer—Act of transferring stress in prestressingtendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concretemember. Transfer Length—Length over which prestressing forceis transferred to concrete by bond in pretensioned mem­bers. Wobble Friction—Friction caused by unintended de­viation of prestressing sheath or duct from its specifiedprofile or alignment. Wrapping or Sheathing—Enclosure around a prestress­ing tendon to avoid temporary or permanent bond be­tween prestressing tendon and surrrounding concrete.9.2 CONCRETE The specified compressive strength, f c, of the con­crete for each part of the structure shall be shown on theplans.9.3 REINFORCEMENT9.3.1 Prestressing Steel Wire, strands, or bars shall conform to one of thefollowing specifications. “Uncoated Stress-Relieved Wire for Prestressed Con­ crete”, AASHTO M 204. “Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Strand for Pre­ stressed Concrete”, AASHTO M 203. “Uncoated High-Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete”, ASTM A 722. Wire, strands, and bars not specifically listed inAASHTO M 204, AASHTO M 203, or ASTM A 722 maybe used provided they conform to the minimum require­ments of these specifications.9-4 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  5. 5. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Part B ments, the secondary moments or shears induced by Analysis prestressing (with a load factor of 1.0) shall be added algebraically to the moments and shears due to factored9.4 GENERAL or ultimate dead and live loads. Members shall be proportioned for adequate strength 9.7.2 Bridges Composed of Simple-Spanusing these specifications as minimum guidelines. Con­ Precast Prestressed Girders Madetinuous beams and other statically indeterminate struc­ Continuoustures shall be designed for adequate strength and satisfac­tory behavior. Behavior shall be determined by elastic Generalanalysis, taking into account the reactions, moments,shear, and axial forces produced by prestressing, the When structural continuity is assumed in calculatingeffects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, axial deforma­ live loads plus impact and composite dead load moments,tion, restraint of attached structural elements, and foun­ the effects of creep and shrinkage shall be considered indation settlement. the design of bridges incorporating simple span precast, prestressed girders and deck slabs continuous over two or9.5 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION more spans.9.5.1 In all bridges, provisions shall be made in the Positive Moment Connection atdesign to resist thermal stresses induced, or means shall Piersbe provided for movement caused by temperature changes. Provision shall be made in the design9.5.2 Movements not otherwise provided for, for the positive moments that may develop in the negativeincluding shortening during stressing, shall be provided moment region due to the combined effects of creep andfor by means of hinged columns, rockers, sliding plates, shrinkage in the girders and deck slab, and due to theelastomeric pads, or other devices. effects of live load plus impact in remote spans. Shrink­ age and elastic shortening of the pier shall be considered9.6 SPAN LENGTH when significant. The effective span lengths of simply supported beams Non-prestressed positive moment con­shall not exceed the clear span plus the depth of the beam. nection reinforcement at piers may be designed at aThe span length of continuous or restrained floor slabs working stress of 0.6 times the yield strength but not toand beams shall be the clear distance between faces of exceed 36 Where fillets making an angle of 45 degrees ormore with the axis of a continuous or restrained slab are Negative Momentsbuilt monolithic with the slab and support, the span shallbe measured from the section where the combined depth Negative moment reinforcement shallof the slab and the fillet is at least one and one-half times be proportioned by strength design with load factors inthe thickness of the slab. Maximum negative moments accordance with Article 9.14.are to be considered as existing at the ends of the span, asabove defined. No portion of the fillet shall be considered The ultimate negative resisting mo­as adding to the effective depth. ment shall be calculated using the compressive strength of the girder concrete regardless of the strength of the9.7 FRAMES AND CONTINUOUS diaphragm concrete. CONSTRUCTION 9.7.3 Segmental Box Girders9.7.1 Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Bridges General The effect of secondary moments due to prestressingshall be included in stress calculations at working load. In Elastic analysis and beam theory maycalculating ultimate strength moment and shear require­ be used in the design of segmental box girder structures. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-5
  6. 6. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 In the analysis of precast segmental 9.8.2 Box Girdersbox girder bridges, no tension shall be permitted acrossany joint between segments during any stage of erection For cast-in-place box girders with nor­or service loading. mal slab span and girder spacing, where the slabs are considered an integral part of the girder, the entire slab In addition to the usual substructure width shall be assumed to be effective in considerations, unbalanced cantilever momentsdue to segment weights and erection loads shall be For box girders of unusual proportions,accommodated in pier design or with auxiliary struts. including segmental box girders, methods of analysisErection equipment which can eliminate these unbal­ which consider shear lag shall be used to determineanced moments may be used. stresses in the cross-section due to longitudinal bending. Flexure Adequate fillets shall be provided at the intersections of all surfaces within the cell of a box girder, The transverse design of segmental box girders for except at the junction of web and bottom flange whereflexure shall consider the segments as rigid box frames. none are required.Top slabs shall be analyzed as variable depth sectionsconsidering the fillets between the top slab and webs. 9.8.3 Precast/Prestressed Concrete BeamsWheel loads shall be positioned to provide maximum with Wide Top Flangesmoments, and elastic analysis shall be used to determinethe effective longitudinal distribution of wheel loads for For composite prestressed concreteeach load location (see Article 3.11). Transverse pre­ where slabs or flanges are assumed to act integrally withstressing of top slabs is generally recommended. the precast beam, the effective web width of the precast beam shall be the lesser of (1) six times the maximum Torsion thickness of the flange (excluding fillets) on either side of the web plus the web and fillets, and (2) the total width of In the design of the cross section, consideration shall the top given to the increase in web shear resulting fromeccentric loading or geometry of structure. The effective flange width of the com­ posite section shall be the lesser of (1) one-fourth of the9.8 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH span length of the girder, (2) six (6) times the thickness of the slab on each side of the effective web width as9.8.1 T-Beams determined by Article plus the effective web width, and (3) one-half the clear distance on each side of For composite prestressed construction the effective web width plus the effective web width.where slabs or flanges are assumed to act integrally withthe beam, the effective flange width shall conform to theprovisions for T-girder flanges in Article 8.10.1. 9.9 FLANGE AND WEB THICKNESS— BOX GIRDERS For monolithic prestressed construction,with normal slab span and girder spacing, the effective 9.9.1 Top Flangeflange width shall be the distance center-to-center ofbeams. For very short spans, or where girder spacing is The minimum top flange thickness for non-segmental +excessive, analytical investigations shall be made to box girders shall be 1/30th of the clear distance between +determine the anticipated width of flange acting with the fillets or webs but not less than 6 inches, except thebeam. minimum thickness may be reduced for factory produced precast, pretensioned elements to 51/2 inches. For monolithic prestressed design of iso­ The top flange thickness for segmental box girders +lated beams, the flange width shall not exceed 15 times shall be determined in accordance with Article +the web width and shall be adequate for all design loads.9-6 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  7. 7. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 9.9.2 Bottom Flange For segmental box girders, diaphragms shall be placed within the box at span ends. Intermediate+ The minimum bottom flange thickness for non-seg­ diaphragms are not required for bridges with inside+ mental and segmental box girders shall be determined by radius of curvature of 800 feet or greater.+ maximum allowable unit stresses as specified in Article+ 9.15, but in no case shall be less than 1/30th of the clear For all types of prestressed boxes in distance between fillets or webs or 51/2 inches, except the bridges with inside radius of curvature less than 800 feet, minimum thickness may be reduced for factory produced intermediate diaphragms may be required and the spac­ precast, pretensioned elements to 5 inches. ing and strength of diaphragms shall be given special consideration in the design of the structure. 9.9.3 Web 9.11 DEFLECTIONS Changes in girder stem thickness shall be tapered for a minimum distance of 12 times the difference in web 9.11.1 General thickness. Deflection calculations shall consider dead load, live 9.10 DIAPHRAGMS load, prestressing, erection loads, concrete creep and shrinkage, and steel relaxation. 9.10.1 General 9.11.2 Segmental Box Girders Diaphragms shall be provided in accordance with Article 9.10.2 and 9.10.3 except that diaphragms may be Deflections shall be calculated prior to casting of omitted where tests or structural analysis show adequate segments and they shall be based on the anticipated strength. casting and erection schedules. Calculated deflections shall be used as a guide against which actual deflection 9.10.2 T-Beams, Precast I and Bulb-tee measurements are checked. Girders 9.11.3 Superstructure Deflection Diaphragms or other means shall be used at span ends Limitations to strengthen the free edge of the slab and to transmit lateral forces to the substructure. Intermediate dia­ When making deflection computations, the following phragms shall be placed between the beams at the points criteria are recommended. of maximum moment for spans over 40 feet. Members having simple or continuous 9.10.3 Box Girders spans preferably should be designed so that the deflection due to service live load plus impact shall not exceed 1/800 For spread box beams, diaphragms shall of the span, except on bridges in urban areas used in part be placed within the box and between boxes at span ends by pedestrians whereon the ratio preferably shall not and at the points of maximum moment for spans over 80 exceed 1/1000. feet. The deflection of cantilever arms due to For precast box multi-beam bridges, dia­ service live load plus impact preferably should be limited phragms are required only if necessary for slab-end to 1/300 of the cantilever arm except for the case including support or to contain or resist transverse tension ties. pedestrian use, where the ratio preferably should be 1/375. For cast-in-place box girders, dia­ 9.12 DECK PANELS phragms or other means shall be used at span ends to resist lateral forces and maintain section geometry. Inter­ 9.12.1 General mediate diaphragms are not required for bridges with inside radius of curvature of 800 feet or greater. Precast prestressed deck panels used as permanent forms spanning between stringers may be SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-7
  8. 8. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000designed compositely with the cast-in-place portion ofthe slabs to support additional dead loads and live loads. The panels shall be analyzed assumingthey support their self-weight, any construction loads,and the weight of the cast-in-place concrete, and shall beanalyzed assuming they act compositely with the cast-in­place concrete to support moments due to additional deadloads and live loads.9.12.2 Bending Moment Live load moments shall be computed inaccordance with Article 3.24.3. In calculating stresses in the deck paneldue to negative moment near the stringer, no compres­sion due to prestressing shall be assumed to exist.9-8 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  9. 9. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Part C ments respond to superimposed loads as a unit shall Design conform to the provisions of Articles through,, and the following. 9.13 GENERAL Where an entire member is assumed to 9.13.1 Design Theory and General resist the vertical shear, the design shall be in accordance Considerations with the requirements of Articles 9.20.1 through 9.20.3. Members shall meet the strength require­ The design shall provide for full transfer ments specified herein. of horizontal shear forces at contact surfaces of intercon­ nected elements. Design for horizontal shear shall be in Design shall be based on strength (Load accordance with the requirements of Article 9.20.4. Factor Design) and on behavior at service conditions (Allowable Stress Design) at all load stages that may be In structures with a cast-in-place slab on critical during the life of the structure from the time the precast beams, the differential shrinkage tends to cause prestressing is first applied. tensile stresses in the slab and in the bottom of the beams. Because the tensile shrinkage develops over an extended + The prestressing force and required concrete strength time period, the effect on the beams is reduced by creep. + shall be determined by allowable stress design using Differential shrinkage may influence the cracking load + elastic theory for loads at the service level considering and the beam deflection profile. When these factors are + HS loads. particularly significant, the effect of differential shrink­ + The ultimate moment capacity and the shear design age should be added to the effect of loads. + shall be based on load factor design with factored HS or + P loads. 9.14 LOAD FACTORSφ Stress concentrations due to the pre­ The computed strength capacity shall not be less than stressing shall be considered in the design. the largest value from load factor design in Article 3.22. For the design of post-tensioned anchorage zones a load The effects of temperature and shrink­ factor of 1.2 shall be applied to the maximum tendon age shall be considered. jacking force. The following strength capactity reduction factors 9.13.2 Basic Assumptions shall be used: The following assumptions are made for design pur­ For factory produced precast prestressed concrete mem­ poses for monolithic members. bers φ = 1.0 Strains vary linearly over the depth of For post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete members the member throughout the entire load range. = 0.95 For shear = 0.90 Before cracking, stress is linearly pro­ portional to strain. For anchorage zones = 0.85 for normal weight concrete and = 0.70 for lightweight concrete. After cracking, tension in the concrete is neglected. 9.15 ALLOWABLE STRESSES 9.13.3 Composite Flexural Members The design of precast prestressed members ordinarily shall be based on f c = 5,000 psi. An increase to 6,000 psi Composite flexural members consisting of precast is permissible where, in the Engineer’s judgment, it is and/or cast-in-place concrete elements constructed in reasonable to expect that this strength will be obtained separate placements but so interconnected that all ele­ consistently. Still higher concrete strengths may be SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-9
  10. 10. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 considered on an individual area basis. In such cases, the Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds Engineer shall satisfy himself completely that the con­ this value, bonded reinforcement shall be trols over materials and fabrication procedures will pro­ provided to resist the total tension force vide the required strengths. The provisions of this Section in the concrete computed on the assump­ are equally applicable to prestressed concrete structures tion of an uncracked section. The maxi­ and components designed with lower concrete strengths. mum tensile stress shall not In Environmental Area III use f c = 5,000 psi maxi­ exceed .................................................... 7.5 ′ f ci mum because of required air entrainment. 9.15.1 Prestressing Steel Stress at Service Load After Losses Have Occurred Pretensioned members: Stress immediately prior to transfer— Compression: Low-relaxation strands ............................... 0.75 f s Stress-relieved strands ................................ 0.70 f s (a) The compressive stresses under all load combina­ Post-tensioned members: tions, except as stated in (b) and (c), shall not Stress immediately after seating— exceed 0.60f c. At anchorage ............................................ 0.70 f s (b) The compressive stresses due to effective pre­ At the end of the seating loss zone.......... 0.83 f*y stress plus permanent (dead) loads shall not ex­+ Maximum jacking stress .............................. 0.75 f s ceed 0.40f c.+ For longer frame structures, tensioning to (c) The compressive stress due to live loads plus one­ 0.90 f*y for short periods of time prior to half of the sum of compressive stresses due to seating may be permitted to offset seating prestress and permanent (dead) loads shall not and friction losses provided the stress at exceed 0.40f c. the anchorage does not exceed the above value. Tension in the precompressed tensile zone: Stress at service load after losses ................ 0.80 f*y Service load consists of all loads con­ Service Load Condition: tained in Article 3.2 but does not include (a) For members with bonded reinforcement, overload provisions. including bonded prestressed strands .. 6 f c′ (b) For Environmental Area III and Marine + 9.15.2 Concrete Environment......................................... 3 f c′ + Temporary Stresses Before (c) For members without bonded reinforcement .... 0 Losses Due to Creep and Shrinkage Dead and Additional Dead Load Condition: ........... 0 Compression: Tension in other areas is limited by allowable tempo­ Pretensioned members .................................0.60f ci rary stresses specified in Article Post-tensioned members .............................. 0.55f ci Tension: Cracking Stress (Refer to Article Precompressed tensile zone ............. No temporary 9.18) allowable stresses are specified. See Ar­ ticle for allowable stresses after Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available. losses. For normal weight concrete ......................... 7.5 f c′ Other areas: In tension areas with no bonded For sand-lightweight concrete ...................... 6.3 f c′ reinforcement............................200 psi or 3 For all other lightweight concrete ................ 5.5 f c′ 9-10 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  11. 11. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Anchorage Bearing Stress Friction losses occur prior to anchoring but should be estimated for design and checked during stressing opera­ Post-tensioned anchorage at service load .... 3,000 psi tions. Rigid ducts shall have sufficient strength to main­ (but not to exceed 0.9 f ci) tain their correct alignment without visible wobble dur­ ing placement of concrete. Rigid ducts may be fabricated 9.16 LOSS OF PRESTRESS with either welded or interlocked seams. Galvanizing of the welded seam will not be required. 9.16.1 Friction Losses 9.16.2 Prestress Losses Friction losses in post-tensioned steel shall be based on experimentally determined wobble and curvature co­ General efficients, and shall be verified during stressing opera­ tions. The values of coefficients assumed for design, and Loss of prestress due to all causes, excluding friction, the acceptable ranges of jacking forces and steel elonga­ may be determined by the following method. The method tions shall be shown on the plans. These friction losses is based on normal weight concrete and one of the shall be calculated as follows: following types of prestressing steel: 250 or 270 ksi, seven-wire, stress-relieved or low-relaxation strand; 240 To = Tx e( KL+ µα ) (9-1) ksi stress-relieved wires; or 145 to 160 ksi smooth or deformed bars. Refer to documented tests for data regard­ ing the properties and the effects of lightweight aggregate When (KL + µα ) is not greater than 0.3, the following concrete on prestress losses. equation may be used: Should more exact prestressed losses be desired, data representing the materials to be used, the methods ofµ∆f s = SH + ES + CRc + CRs To = Tx (1+ KL + µα ) (9-2) curing, the ambient service condition and any pertinent structural details should be determined for use in accor­ dance with a method of calculating prestress losses that is The following values for K and µ may be used when supported by appropriate research data. See also FHWA experimental data for the materials used are not available: Report FHWA/RD 85/045, Criteria for Designing Light- weight Concrete Bridges. + Type of Steel Type of Duct K/ft. ∗∗ Wire or strand Rigid and semi­ TOTAL LOSS rigid galvanized metal sheathing + (9-3) Tendon Length: + 0 - 600 feet 0.0002 0.15 + 600 - 900 feet 0.0002 0.20 where: + 900 - 1200 feet 0.0002 0.25 + >1200 feet 0.0002 0.25* ∆fs = total loss excluding friction in pounds per square Polyethylene 0.0002 0.23 inch; SH = loss due to concrete shrinkage in pounds per Rigid steel pipe 0.0002 0.25* square inch; High-strength Galvanized metal ES = loss due to elastic shortening in pounds per bars sheathing 0.0002 0.15 square inch; *Lubrication will probably be required. CRc = loss due to creep of concrete in pounds per + **Add effect of horizontal curvature if any. square inch; CRs = loss due to relaxation of prestressing steel in pounds per square inch. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-11
  12. 12. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Shrinkage of the concrete and tendon friction for post­ tensioned members. The reductions to initial Pretensioned Members: tendon stress due to these factors can be esti­ mated, or the reduced tendon stress can be taken SH = 17,000 – 150RH (9-4) as 0.63 f s for stress relieved strand or 0.69 f s for low relaxation strand in typical pretensioned Post-tensioned Members: members.) SH = 0.80(17,000 – 150RH) (9-5) Creep of Concrete where RH = mean annual ambient relative humidity in Pretensioned and post-tensioned members percent (see Figure CRc = 12fcir – 7fcds (9-9) Elastic Shortening where: Pretensioned Members fcds = concrete stress at the center of gravity of the Es prestressing steel due to all dead loads except ES = fcir (9-6) the dead load present at the time the prestressing Eci force is applied. Post-tensioned Members (certain tensioning proce­ Relaxation of Prestressing Steeldures may alter the elastic shortening losses). The relaxation losses are based on an initial stress equal to the stress at anchorages allowed by Article Es 9.15.1. ES = 0.5 f cir (9-7) Eci Pretensioned Memberswhere: 250 to 270 ksi Strand Es = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel strand, CRs = 20,000 – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) which can be assumed to be 28 x 106 psi; for stress relieved strand (9-10) Eci = modulus of elasticity of concrete in psi at trans­ fer of stress, which can be calculated from: CRs = 5,000 – 0.10 ES – 0.05 (SH + CRc) for low relaxation strand (9-10A) ′ Eci = 33w3/ 2 f ci (9-8) Post-tensioned Members in which w is the concrete unit weight in pounds 250 to 270 ksi Strand ′ per cubic foot and f ci is in pounds per square inch; CRs = 20,000 – 0.3 FR – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) f cir = concrete stress at the center of gravity of the for stress relieved strand (9-11) prestressing steel due to prestressing force and dead load of beam immediately after transfer; CRs = 5,000 – 0.07FR – 0.1 ES – 0.05 (SH + CRc) fcir shall be computed at the section or sections of for low relaxation strand (9-11A) maximum moment. (At this stage, the initial stress in the tendon has been reduced by elastic 240 ksi Wire shortening of the concrete and tendon relaxation during placing and curing the concrete for CRs = 18,000 – 0.3 FR – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) pretensioned members, or by elastic shortening (9-12)9-12 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  13. 13. Mean Annual Relative Humidity {%) BRIDGE D ESIGN S PECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000SECTION 9PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Based on 1:30 a.m. & p.m. and 7:30 a.m. & p.m., e.s.t. observations for 20 years or more through 1964. A A A HAWAII9-13 Figure Mean Annual Relative Humidity
  14. 14. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 145 to 160 ksi Bars 9.17 FLEXURAL STRENGTH CRs = 3,000 9.17.1 General where: Prestressed concrete members may be assumed to act as uncracked members subjected to combined axial and FR = friction loss stress reduction in psi below bending stresses within specified service loads. In calcu­ the level of 0.70f s at the point under con­ lations of section properties, the transformed area of sideration, computed according to Article bonded reinforcement may be included in pretensioned 9.16.1; members and in post-tensioned members after grouting; ES, SH, prior to bonding of tendons, areas of the open ducts shall and CRc = appropriate values as determined for either be deducted. and CRc pre-tensioned or post-tensioned members. 9.17.2 Rectangular Sections Estimated Losses For rectangular or flanged sections having prestress­ ing steel only, which the depth of the equivalent rectan­ In lieu of the preceding method, the following esti­ gular stress block, defined as (A*s f*su)/(0.85f cb), is not mates of total losses may be used for prestressed mem­ greater than the compression flange thickness “t”, and bers or structures of usual design. These loss values are which satisfy Eq. (9-20), the design flexural strength based on use of normal weight concrete, normal prestress shall be assumed as: levels, and average exposure conditions. For exception­ ally long spans, or for unusual designs, the method in Article or a more exact method shall be used. [ p* f su ]] * φM n = φ [ As f su d [ − 0.6 * * 1 ] [ [ f c ]] ′ (9-13) TABLE Estimate of Prestress Losses Total Loss Type of For rectangular or flanged sections with non-pre­+ Normal Weight Light Weight Prestressing Steel stressed tension reinforcement included, in which the+ Aggregate Aggregate+ Concrete Concrete depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, defined as (A*s f*su + As fsy)/(0.85 f cb), is not greater than the+ Pretensioning: compression flange thickness “t”, and which satisfy Eq.+ Normal Relaxation+ (9-24), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Strand 45,000 psi 50,000 psi+ Low Relaxation+ Strand 35,000 psi 40,000 psi { * * [ p* f * d pf sy ]+ Post-Tensioning*: φM n = φ As f su d [1 − 0.6[ su + t ]]+ Normal Relaxation { [ [ f c′ d f c ]] ′ + Strand or wires 32,000 psi 40,000 psi+ Low Relaxation [ d p* f * pf ] {+ Strand 20,000 psi 30,000 psi + A f sy dt [1 − 0.6[ s su + sy ]]+ Bars 22,000 psi [ [ dt fc′ fc′ ]] { (9-13a) * Losses due to friction are excluded. Friction losses should be computed according to Article 9.16.1. 9-14 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  15. 15. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 9.17.3 Flanged Sections 9.17.4 Steel Stress For sections having prestressing steel only, in which Unless the value of f*su can be more the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, accurately known from detailed analysis, the following defined as (Asr f*su)/(0.85 f cb) is greater than the com­ values may be used: pression flange thickness “t”, and which satisfy Eq. (9­ 21), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Bonded members ........ with prestressing only (as defined); { [A f* ] φMn =φ Asr f su d [1 −0.6[ sr su * ]] γ* p * f s′ { [ [ b′df c′ ] ] f su = f s′ 1 − * β1 f c′ (9-17) + 0.85 fc (b − b′)(t )(d − 0.5t ) ′ (9-14) with non-prestressed tension reinforcement included; For sections with non-prestressed tension reinforce­ ment included, in which the depth of the equivalent γ * p* f s′ d t pf sy rectangular stress block, defined as (Asr f*su)/(0.85 f cb) f su = f s′ 1 − * + (9-17a) is greater than the compression flange thickness “t”, and β1 f c ′ d f c′ which satisfy Eq. (9-25), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Unbonded members ..... { [A f* ] * f su = f se + 900((d − yu ) / I e ) (9-18) φMn =φ Asr f su d [1 −0.6[ sr su * ]] +A f ( −d ) s sy d t { [ [ b′df c ′ ]] but shall not exceed f*y. where: + 0.85 fc (b − b′) (t )(d − 0.5t ) ′ (9-14a) yu = distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis assuming the tendon prestressing where: steel has yielded. le = li/(1 + 0.5Ns); effective tendon length. Asr = A*s – Asf in Eq. (9-14); (9-15) li = tendon length between anchorages (in.). Ns = number of support hinges crossed by the ten­ Asr = A*s + (As fsy /f*su) - Asf in Eq. (9-14a) (9-15a) don between anchorages or discretely bonded points.+ Asr = the steel area required to develop the ultimate+ compressive strength of the web of a flanged provided that:+ section. (1) The stress-strain properties of the prestressing Asf = 0.85 f c (b – b)t/f*su; (9-16) steel approximate those specified in Division II, Article Asf = the steel area required to develop the ultimate (2) The effective prestress after losses is not less than compressive strength of the overhanging por­ 0.5 f s. tions of the flange. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-15
  16. 16. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 At ultimate load, the stress in the pre­ For flanged sections:stressing steel of precast deck panels shall be limited to: * j 2 f su = x + f se D 3 (9-19) [( ) φM n = φ 0.36 β1 − 0.08 β1 fc′b′d 2 + 2 but shall not be greater than f*su as given by the equations 0.85 fc (b − b′) t (d − 0.5t )] ′ (9-23)in Article In the above equation: 9.18.2 Minimum Steel D = nominal diameter of strand in inches; f = effective stress in prestressing strand after losses The total amount of prestressed and non­ se in kips per square inch; prestressed reinforcement shall be adequate to develop f x = distance from end of prestressing strand to an ultimate moment at the critical section at least 1.2 center of panel in inches. * times the cracking moment M cr .9.18 DUCTILITY LIMITS9.18.1 Maximum Prestressing Steel φM n ≥ 1.2M cr * Prestressed concrete members shall be designed so where:that the steel is yielding as ultimate capacity is ap­ ( )proached. In general, the reinforcement index shall besuch that: M cr = f r + f pe S c − M d / nc (Sc / Sb −1) * f* Appropriate values for Md/nc and Sb shall be used for p * su (for rectangular sections) (9-20) f′ any intermediate composite sections. Where beams are designed to be noncomposite, substitute Sb for Sc in the * above equation for the calculation of M cr .and * The requirements of Article may Asr f su (for flanged sections) (9-21) be waived if the area of prestressed and non-prestressed b′df c ′ reinforcement provided at a section is at least one-third greater than that required by analysis based on the load­ ing combinations specified in Article 3.22.does not exceed 0.36 β 1. (See Article 9.19 for reinforce­ment indices of sections with non-prestressed reinforce­ The minimum amount of non-prestressedment.). longitudinal reinforcement provided in the cast-in-place portion of slabs utilizing precast prestressed deck panels For members with reinforcement indices greater than shall be 0.25 square inch per foot of slab width.0.36 β 1, the design flexural strength shall be assumed notgreater than: 9.19 NON-PRESTRESSED For rectangular sections: REINFORCEMENT ( 2 ) φM n = φ 0.36 β1 − 0.08 β1 f c′bd 2 (9-22) Non-prestressed reinforcement may be considered as contributing to the tensile strength of the beam at ultimate strength in an amount equal to its area times its yield point, provided that9-16 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  17. 17. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 For rectangular sections: where Vu is the factored shear force at the section consid­ ered, Vc is the nominal shear strength provided by con­ crete and Vs is the nominal shear strength provided by web reinforcement. pf sy dt p* f su * p′f y′ + − ≤ 0.36β1 ′ fc d fc′ ′ fc (9-24) When the reaction to the applied loads introduces compression into the end regions of the mem­ ber, sections located at a distance less than h/2 from the For flanged sections: face of the support may be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance h/2. As f sy A f* ′ ′ As f y Reinforced keys shall be provided in the + sr su − ≤ 0.36β1 b′dfc b′dfc b′df c ′ ′ ′ (9-25) webs of precast segmental box girders to transfer erection shear. Possible reverse shearing stresses in the shear keys shall be investigated, particularly in segments near a pier. Design flexural strength shall be calculated based on At time of erection, the shear stress carried by the shearEq. (9-13a) of Eq. (9-14a) if these values are met, and on key shall not exceed 2 f c′ .Eq. (9-22) or Eq. (9-23) if these values are exceeded. 9.20.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete9.20 SHEAR The shear strength provided by con­ The method for design of web reinforcement pre­ crete, Vc, shall be taken as the lesser of the values Vci orsented in the 1979 Interim AASHTO Standard Specifica- Vcw.tions for Highway Bridges is an acceptable alternate. The shear strength, Vci, shall be com­9.20.1 General puted by: Prestressed concrete flexural members, VMexcept solid slabs and footings, shall be reinforced for Vci = 0.6 f c′ b′d +Vd + i cr (9-27)shear and diagonal tension stresses. Voided slabs shall be M maxinvestigated for shear, but shear reinforcement may beomitted if the factored shear force, Vu, is less than half theshear strength provided by the concrete φVc. but need not be less than 1.7 fc b′d and d need not be ′ taken less than 0.8h. Web reinforcement shall consist of stir­ The moment causing flexural cracking at the sectionrups perpendicular to the axis of the member or welded due to externally applied loads, Mcr, shall be computedwire fabric with wires located perpendicular to the axis of by:the member. Web reinforcement shall extend to a dis­tance d from the extreme compression fiber and shall becarried as close to the compression and tension surfacesof the member as cover requirements and the proximity M cr = I Yt ( 6 f c′ + f pe − f d ) (9-28)of other reinforcement permit. Web reinforcement shallbe anchored at both ends for its design yield strength inaccordance with the provisions of Article 8.27. The maximum factored moment and factored shear at the section due to externally applied loads, Mmax and Vi, Members subject to shear shall be de­ shall be computed from the load combination causingsigned so that maximum moment at the section. Vu ≤ φ (Vc +Vs ) (9-26) The shear strength, Vcw, shall be com­ puted by: SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-17
  18. 18. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 ( ) Vcw = 3.5 fc + 0.3 f pc b′d + V p ′ (9-29) ment shall be: The minimum area of web reinforce­but d need not be taken less than 0.8h. 50b′s Av = (9-31) f sy For a pretensioned member in which thesection at a distance h/2 from the face of support is closerto the end of the member than the transfer length of the where b and s are in inches and fsy is in psi.prestressing tendons, the reduced prestress shall be con­sidered when computing Vcw. The prestress force may be The design yield strength of web rein­assumed to vary linearly from zero at the end of the forcement, fsy, shall not exceed 60,000 psi.tendon to a maximum at a distance from the end of thetendon equal to the transfer length, assumed to be 50 9.20.4 Horizontal Shear Design—Compositediameters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire. Flexural Members The provisions for computing the shear In a composite member, full transfer ofstrength provided by concrete, Vci and Vcw, apply to horizontal shear forces shall be assured at contact sur­normal weight concrete. When lightweight aggregate faces of interconnected elements.concretes are used (see definition, concrete, structurallightweight, Article 8.1.3), one of the following modifi­ Design of cross sections subject to hori­cations shall apply: zontal shear may be in accordance with provisions of Article or, or any other shear transfer (a) When fct is specified, the shear strength, Vci and design method that results in prediction of strength in Vcw, shall be modified by substituting fct/6.7 for substantial agreement with results of comprehensive ′ f ci , but the value of fct/6.7 used shall not tests. exceed f c . ′ (b) When fct is not specified, Vci and Vcw shall be Design of cross sections subject to hori­ modified by multiplying each term containing zontal shear may be based on: ′ f c by 0.75 for “all lightweight” concrete, and 0.85 for “sand-lightweight” concrete. Linear Vu ≤ φVnh (9-31a) interpolation may be used when partial sand re­ placement is used. where Vu is factored shear force at a section considered,9.20.3 Shear Strength Provided by Web Vnh is nominal horizontal shear strength in accordance Reinforcement with the following, and where d is for the entire compos­ ite section. The shear strength provided by web re­inforcement shall be taken as: (a) When contact surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened, shear strength Vnh Av f sy d shall not be taken greater than 80bvd, in pounds. Vs = (9-30) (b) When minimum ties are provided in accordance s with Article, and contact surface is clean and free of laitance, but not intentionally rough­where Av is the area of web reinforcement within a ened, shear strength Vnh shall not be taken greaterdistance s. Vs shall not be taken greater than 8 f c′ b ′d than 80bvd, in pounds. (c) When minimum ties are provided in accordanceand d need not be taken less than 0.8h. with Article, and contact surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened to a The spacing of web reinforcing shall not full amplitude of approximately 1/4 in., shearexceed 0.75h or 24 inches. When Vs exceeds 4 f ci b′d , ′ strength Vnh shall not be taken greater than 350bvd,this maximum spacing shall be reduced by one-half. in pounds.9-18 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  19. 19. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 (d) For each percent of tie reinforcement crossing the For multiple slab anchorages, both width contact surface in excess of the minimum re­ and length of the anchorage zone shall be taken as equal quired by article, shear strength Vnh may to the center-to-center spacing between stressed tendons, be increased by (160fy /40,000)bvd, in pounds. but not more than the length of the slab in the direction of the tendon axis. The thickness of the anchorage zone Horizontal shear may be investigated by shall be taken equal to the thickness of the slab.computing, in any segment not exceeding one-tenth ofthe span, the change in compressive or tensile force to be For design purposes, the anchorage zonetransferred, and provisions made to transfer that force as shall be considered as comprised of two regions; thehorizontal shear between interconnected elements. The general zone as defined in Article and the localfactored horizontal shear force shall not exceed horizon­ zone as defined in Article shear strength φVnh in accordance with Article,except that the length of segment considered shall be 9.21.2 General Zone and Local Zonesubstituted for d. General Zone Ties for Horizontal Shear The geometric extent of the general (a) When required, a minimum area of tie reinforce­ zone is identical to that of the overall anchorage zone as ment shall be provided between interconnected defined in Article 9.21.1 and includes the local zone. elements. Tie area shall not be less than 50bvs/fy, and tie spacing “s” shall not exceed four times the Design of general zones shall meet the least web width of support element, nor 24 inches. requirements of Articles 9.14 and 9.21.3. (b) Ties for horizontal shear may consist of single bars or wire, multiple leg stirrups, or vertical legs Local Zone of welded wire fabric. All ties shall be adequately anchored into interconnected elements by em­ The local zone is defined as the rectan­ bedment or hooks. gular prism (or equivalent rectangular prism for circular or oval anchorages) of concrete surrounding and imme­9.21 POST-TENSIONED ANCHORAGE diately ahead of the anchorage device and any integral ZONES confining reinforcement. The dimensions of the local zone are defined in Article Geometry of the Anchorage Zone Design of local zones shall meet the The anchorage zone is geometrically requirements of Articles 9.14 and 9.21.7 or shall be baseddefined as the volume of concrete through which the on the results of experimental tests required in Articleconcentrated prestressing force at the anchorage device and described in Article of Division II.spreads transversely to a linear stress distribution across Anchorage devices based on the acceptance test of Divi­the entire cross section. sion II, Article, are referred to as special anchor- age devices. For anchorage zones at the end of amember or segment, the transverse dimensions may be Responsibilitiestaken as the depth and width of the section. The longitu­dinal extent of the anchorage zone in the direction of the The engineer of record is responsibletendon (ahead of the anchorage) shall be taken as not less for the overall design and approval of working drawingsthan the larger transverse dimension but not more than for the general zone, including the specific location of the11/ 2 times that dimension. tendons and anchorage devices, general zone reinforce­ ment, and the specific stressing sequence. The engineer For intermediate anchorages in addition of record is also responsible for the design of local zonesto the length of Article the anchorage zone shall based on Article and for the approval of specialbe considered to also extend in the opposite direction for anchorage devices used under the provisions of Sectiona distance not less than the larger transverse dimension. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-19
  20. 20. BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 20009.21.7.3. All working drawings for the local zone must be Nominal Material Strengthsapproved by the engineer of record. The nominal tensile strength of bonded Anchorage device suppliers are respon­ reinforcement is limited to fsy for non-prestressed rein­sible for furnishing anchorage devices which satisfy the forcement and to fy for prestressed reinforcement. Theanchor efficiency requirements of Division II, Article nominal tensile strength of unbonded prestressed rein­10.3.2. In addition, if special anchorage devices are used, forcement is limited to fse + 15,000 psi.the anchorage device supplier is responsible for furnish­ing anchorage devices that satisfy the acceptance test The effective nominal compressiverequirements of Article and of Division II, strength of the concrete of the general zone, exclusive ofArticle This acceptance test and the anchor confined concrete, is limited to 0.7fc. The tensile strengthefficiency test shall be conducted by an independent of the concrete shall be neglected.testing agency acceptable to the engineer of record. Theanchorage device supplier shall provide records of the The compressive strength of concreteacceptance test in conformance with Division II, Article at transfer of prestressing shall be specified on the con­ to the engineer of record and to the construc­ struction drawings. If not otherwise specified, stresstor and shall specify auxiliary and confining reinforce­ shall not be transferred to concrete until the compressivement, minimum edge distance, minimum anchor spac­ strength of the concrete as indicated by test cylinders,ing, and minimum concrete strength at time of stressing cured by methods identical with the curing of the mem­required for proper performance of the local zone. ber, is at least 4,000 psi. The responsibilities of the constructor Use of Special Anchorage Devicesare specified in Division II, Article 10.4. Whenever special anchorage devices which do not9.21.3 General Zone and Local Zone meet the requirements of Article are to be used, reinforcement similar in configuration and at least equiva­ Design Methods lent in volumetric ratio to the supplementary skin rein­ forcement permitted under the provisions of Division II, The following methods may be used for the design of Article shall be furnished in the correspondinggeneral zones: regions of the anchorage zone. (1) Equilibrium based plasticity models (strut-and­ General Design Principles and tie models) (see Article 9.21.4) Detailing Requirements (2) Elastic stress analysis (finite element analysis or equivalent) (see Article 9.21.5) Good detailing and quality workmanship are essential (3) Approximate methods for determining the com­ for the satisfactory performance of anchorage zones. pression and tension forces, where applicable. Sizes and details for anchorage zones should respect the (See Article 9.21.6) need for tolerances on the bending, fabrication and place­ ment of reinforcement, the size of aggregate and the needRegardless of the design method used, all designs shall for placement and sound consolidation of the concrete.conform to the requirements of Article Compressive stresses in the concrete The effects of stressing sequence and three-dimen­ ahead of basic anchorage devices shall meet thesional effects shall be considered in the design. When requiremens of Article three dimensional effects appear significant, theymay be analyzed using three-dimensional analysis proce­ Compressive stresses in the concretedures or may be approximated by considering two or ahead of special anchorage devices shall be checked at amore planes. However, in these approximations the distance measured from the concrete-bearing surfaceinteraction of the planes’ models must be considered, and equal to the smaller of:the model loadings and results must be consistent.9-20 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE