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Hospital organizational structures

Hospital organizational structures for healthcare sector

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Hospital organizational structures

  1. 1. HospitalHospital OrganizationalOrganizational StructuresStructures By MATHANKUMAR.S
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATIONS OFCLASSIFICATIONS OF HEALTH CAREHEALTH CARE  Primary Care  Secondary Care  Tertiary Care
  3. 3. Primary CarePrimary Care Consists of basic curative care, including simple diagnosis and treatment, provided at the point of entry into the health care system. (Example: walk-in-clinic)
  4. 4. Secondary CareSecondary Care Consists of specialized care requiring more sophisticated and complicated diagnosis and treatment than is provided at the primary health care level. Normally involves hospitalization. (Example: Patient ward in general hospital)
  5. 5. Tertiary CareTertiary Care Consists of highly specialized diagnostic and therapeutic services which can usually only be provided in centers specifically designed staffed and equipped for this purpose. (Example: Neonatal intensive care unit)
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATIONS OFCLASSIFICATIONS OF SERVICESERVICE GENERAL HOSPITAL SPECIALITY HOSPITAL REHABILITATION HOSPITAL LONG-TERM CARE HOSPITAL (AUXILIARY) NURSING HOME
  7. 7. GENERAL HOSPITALGENERAL HOSPITAL Provides primarily for the diagnosis and short-term treatment of patients for a wide range of diseases or injuries.
  8. 8. SPECIALITY HOSPITALSPECIALITY HOSPITAL Provides primarily for the diagnosis and short-term treatment of patients for a limited range of diseases or injuries.
  9. 9. REHABILITATIONREHABILITATION HOSPITALHOSPITAL Provides for the continuing assessment and treatment of patients whose condition is expected to improve significantly.
  10. 10. LONG-TERM CARELONG-TERM CARE HOSPITALHOSPITAL Provides primarily for the continuing treatment of patients with long-term illness or with a low potential for recovery.
  11. 11. NURSING HOMENURSING HOME Institution where residents are accommodated who require nursing and personal care on a continuing basis.
  12. 12. REGULATORY AGENCIESREGULATORY AGENCIES Provincial hospital authorities responsible for: ◦ Approving hospital budgets ◦ Licensing and inspecting hospitals ◦ Health and safety of hospital workers Agencies regulating the various health professions Agencies approving various hospital based training programs
  13. 13. REGULATORY AGENCIESREGULATORY AGENCIES Review committees within hospitals Hospital administration and regulations Canadian Council on Healthcare Facility Accreditation (CCHFA), representing: ◦ Canadian Hospital Association ◦ Canadian Medical Association ◦ Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada ◦ L'Association des Medecins de Langue Francaise du Canada ◦ The Canadian Nurses Association
  14. 14. A hospital is perhaps theA hospital is perhaps the most complexmost complex organization in our society.organization in our society.
  15. 15. Clinical Engineer Must UnderstandClinical Engineer Must Understand Roles and interaction between multiple professional groups Role of the hospital administration in coordinating these groups
  16. 16. WELL DEVELOPEDWELL DEVELOPED INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS ARE ESSENTIAL TOARE ESSENTIAL TO CLINICAL ENGINEERING!CLINICAL ENGINEERING!
  17. 17. Impact of TechnologyImpact of Technology Advancements in medical technology have had an enormous impact on hospital management. Each new development has given birth to another discrete body of knowledge. ◦ Ultrasound, CT, MRI ◦ Lithotrity ◦ Nuclear Medicine ◦ Laser Surgery ◦ Laparoscopic Surgery
  18. 18. Each technology has its own:Each technology has its own: Professional Group Cherished Role Diversified Nomenclature Self Image.
  19. 19. Professional GroupsProfessional Groups Medical Specialties Nursing Specialties Clinical Technicians (i.e., Lab Techs, X-Ray Techs, Respiratory Therapists, Physiotherapists, etc.) There are more than 200 health occupations!
  20. 20. Administrative ChallengesAdministrative Challenges Professionals typically cherish their "right" to self-regulation.
  21. 21. Administrative ChallengesAdministrative Challenges Group conflict is unavoidable. Internal communications are impeded. Consensus is more apt to be absent.
  22. 22. Administrative ChallengesAdministrative Challenges Internal ◦ Medical Staff ◦ Competition Between Health Professions ◦ Unions ◦ Physical Resources ◦ Size and Complexity of Organization External ◦ Government ◦ Funding ◦ Regulatory Agencies ◦ Public Demands
  23. 23. Hospital Administrators Require:Hospital Administrators Require: Interpersonal skills Effective communications skills. Leadership skills.
  24. 24. THE HOSPITAL AS A DELIVERYTHE HOSPITAL AS A DELIVERY SYSTEMSYSTEM Primarily a non-profit system. A third party (government) financed system. Demand for services can bear no direct relationship to societal needs or the available supply of necessary resources. The rate of hospital admissions has increased, but the average length of stay has decreased. The health care system is presently undergoing rapid, radical change.
  25. 25. HOSPITAL ORGANIZATIONHOSPITAL ORGANIZATION GOVERNING BOARD MEDICAL HOSPITAL STAFF ADMINISTRATOR
  26. 26. Hospital Management ModelHospital Management Model Governing Board (government appointed) Chief Executive Officer (Hospital Administrator) Medical Staff Organization.
  27. 27. Functions of the Governing BoardFunctions of the Governing Board To determine the policies of the institution within the context of community needs. To provide equipment and facilities to conduct patient care programs. To see that proper professional standards are defined and maintained. To co-ordinate professional interests with administrative, financial and community needs.
  28. 28. Functions of the Governing BoardFunctions of the Governing Board To provide adequate financing by securing sufficient income and by enforcing business like control of expenditures. To provide for the safe administration of funds given in trust, (e.g., gifts and contributions). To maintain accurate records of its finances and activities. To surround the patient with a safe environment.
  29. 29. THE HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORTHE HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATOR Function is identical to that of the president of any corporation. Individual styles are judged to be successful if the determined results further the organization toward its goals.
  30. 30. Being a hospitalBeing a hospital administrator places more ofadministrator places more of a strain on character than ona strain on character than on intellect.intellect.
  31. 31. Functions of the HospitalFunctions of the Hospital AdministratorAdministrator Submitting for board approval a plan of organization and recommending changes when necessary. Preparing a plan for accomplishing the institutional objectives as approved by the board and periodically reviewing and evaluating it. Selecting, employing, controlling, and discharging employees. Submitting for board approval an annual budget.
  32. 32. Functions of the HospitalFunctions of the Hospital AdministratorAdministrator Safeguarding the operating funds of the enterprise. Maintaining all physical properties (plant and equipment) in safe operating condition. Representing the hospital in its relationships with the community and other health agencies. Serving as liaison between the board or its committees and the medical staff.
  33. 33. Functions of the HospitalFunctions of the Hospital AdministratorAdministrator Assisting the medical staff with its organizational and administrative responsibilities. Submitting to the board annual reports which describe the nature and volume of the services delivered during the past year. Advising the governing board on matters of policy formulation.
  34. 34. THE MEDICAL STAFFTHE MEDICAL STAFF
  35. 35. Doctors represent theDoctors represent the initiators of every action thatinitiators of every action that results in the direct provisionresults in the direct provision of patient care services.of patient care services.
  36. 36. Doctors determine:Doctors determine: Who Will Be Admitted When Where What Medical Services Are to Be Provided, in What Sequence, in What Dosage, With What Equipment and Supplies When, Where and by Whom Who Is Discharged and When.
  37. 37. The doctor is not anThe doctor is not an employee of the hospital,employee of the hospital, he/she is outside of thehe/she is outside of the hospital organization.hospital organization.
  38. 38. Doctors control, yet are notDoctors control, yet are not accountable, for nearly 90accountable, for nearly 90 percent of hospitalpercent of hospital expenditures.expenditures.
  39. 39. Medical StaffMedical Staff Participation by the medical staff in the decision-making process is in the best interest of both the hospital and the patients. Physician involvement leads to physician accountability.
  40. 40. The physician may view theThe physician may view the problems of medical practiceproblems of medical practice from afrom a personalpersonal rather thanrather than anan organizationalorganizational perspective.perspective.
  41. 41. The administrator isThe administrator is primarily concerned with theprimarily concerned with the maximum utilization ofmaximum utilization of available health resources andavailable health resources and personnel.personnel.
  42. 42. Organization of medicalOrganization of medical resources may require aresources may require a degree of control anddegree of control and surveillance over the doctor'ssurveillance over the doctor's work which maybework which maybe unattractive to him/her.unattractive to him/her.
  43. 43. Medical StaffMedical Staff The chief of medical staff is the elected representative of the medical staff. The chief of staff appoints all of the committees other than the executive committee whose members are elected by the staff or appointed by the board administrator.
  44. 44. Functions of the Medical StaffFunctions of the Medical Staff To advise the governing body on medical affairs. To accept accountability for the quality of care rendered to patients in the hospital. To request, review and act upon reports of medical staff committees. To scrutinize the professional ethics of its members and to initiate corrective action as indicated. To develop, implement, and review medical staff policies.
  45. 45. Functions of the Medical StaffFunctions of the Medical Staff To recommend action to the administrator on all medical- administrative matters. To assure that the standards of the Canadian Council on Healthcare Facility Accreditation (CCHFA) are followed as a basic guideline for standards of care.
  46. 46. INTERRELATIONSHIPSINTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG HEALTHAMONG HEALTH WORKERSWORKERS
  47. 47. The complex tasks of highlyThe complex tasks of highly skilled professionals demand askilled professionals demand a participatory decision-makingparticipatory decision-making structure while the repetitivestructure while the repetitive tasks performed by unskilledtasks performed by unskilled workers require a moreworkers require a more formal hierarchical structure.formal hierarchical structure.
  48. 48. Organizational StructuresOrganizational Structures Highly structured and routine tasks can lead to worker alienation and boredom. Loosely knit, associational activities of highly skilled professionals results in personal gratification to the individual employee but works against the centralized control and co-ordination needs of management.

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