Gender 56

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Gender 56

  1. 1. Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development Chapter 13
  2. 2. Definitions  Sex = biological identity  Gender = social and cultural identity as male/female  Gender-role standard = a behavior, value, or motive that society deems more appropriate for males/females
  3. 3. SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES  Actual Psychological Differences Between the Sexes – Verbal Ability – girls are superior – Visual/Spatial Abilities – boys are superior  Evident by 4, persists across life span – Mathematical Abilities  In adolescence, boys better at arithmetic reasoning  Girls better at computational skills
  4. 4. SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES – Aggression  Boys  physically and verbally  Girls  covert
  5. 5. SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES – Other Sex Differences  Activity level – boys are more physically active (even before birth)  Fear, timidity, and risk-taking – girls are more fearful, timid, and take fewer risks – No difference in cognitive impulsivity  Developmental vulnerability – boys are more vulnerable to prenatal and perinatal hazards and disease
  6. 6. SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES  Conclusions – Differences reflect group averages – Differences are small – Differences are most apparent at the extremes – Males and females are much more psychologically similar than they are different
  7. 7. SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES  Emotional expressivity / sensitivity – Beginning in toddlerhood  Boys  anger  Girls  other emotions  Compliance – girls are more compliant
  8. 8. Gender Differences in Social Behavior  Gender segregation  Play styles  Social Influence Styles – Charlesworth – 4 children, playing with movie viewer designed so only one child could watch at a time
  9. 9. Gender Differences in Social Behavior  Forms of Verbal Influence  Social Interaction – Jacklin & Maccoby – Pairs of neutrally dressed, unacquainted 33 m/o brought to playroom  Group Structure
  10. 10. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Evolutionary Theory – Males and females face different evolutionary pressures
  11. 11. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT – Criticisms of the Evolutionary Approach  Applies to differences that apply cross-culturally  Ignores differences limited to cultures or historical periods  Social roles hypothesis – Cultures assign roles based on gender – Socialization practices
  12. 12. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Evidence for Social-Labeling Influences – Cultural influences  Mead’s study of tribal societies – Arapesh – both males and females were taught to be expressive – Mundugumor – both genders were taught to be “masculine” – Tchambuli – from Western standards, males more feminine, females more masculine
  13. 13. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Evidence for Social-Labeling Influences – Condry & Condry  Saw film of 9 m/o presented with jack-inthe-box  Half told male, half told female  “boy” was described as angry  “girl” was described as afraid
  14. 14. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  A psychobiosocial viewpoint  Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory  Social Learning Theory – Direct tuition/reinforcement – Observational learning
  15. 15. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Kohlberg’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory – – – Basic gender identity Gender stability Gender consistency  Gender Schema Theory (Martin & Halverson)
  16. 16. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Martin & Halverson – Show 5-6 y/o pictures:  Boy engaging in traditional masculine activity  Girl engaging in traditional masculine activity  Boy engaging in traditional feminine activity  Girl engaging in traditional feminine activity – One week later, show pictures…
  17. 17. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Martin – – – 4-10 y/o told story Character in story was either a boy or girl Description was neutral, stereotyped, or counterstereotyped
  18. 18. THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT  An Integrative Theory – Biological theories account for major biological developments – Social-theories account for differential reinforcement processes – Cognitive development explains the growth of categorization skills – Gender schemas are also important as are models as children age
  19. 19. Androgyny – Bem  Historically, masculinity and femininity were at opposite ends of a single dimension  Androgyny – sees them as 2 separate dimensions, allowing individuals to be high in both masculine and feminine traits
  20. 20. Scoring for BEM  Use the scoring guide to tally up scores for a and b answers  A answers: tally scores, divide by 20 (as long as you didn’t omit any “a” answers), place number in the box at the bottom of your sheet labeled R.S. and a.  B answers: tally scores, divide by 20 (as long as you didn’t omit any “b” answers), place number in box labeled R.S. and b.
  21. 21.  Do Androgynous People Really Exist? – In a college student sample  33% were masculine men or feminine women  30% were androgynous  37% undifferentiated or gender-type reversed
  22. 22.  Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous? – – – – More highly adaptable to the situation Higher self-esteem More likeable Perceived as better adjusted  The masculine traits are more important for adjustment – Advantages may differ across lifespan

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