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Quincas Borba

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Quincas Borba

  1. 1. PROF. PATRÍCIA FERNANDES
  2. 2.  A história inicia-se em 1867, em Barbacena, MG, estendendo-se para o Rio de Janeiro , a partir de 1870. O desfecho dramático de Rubião é, também, em Barbacena, alguns anos depois.
  3. 3.  O principal elemento da estrutura da narrativa de Machado de Assis é o narrador. No livro, também é um personagem dúplice, narrando em primeira ou terceira pessoa , ele está fora da narrativa, mas às vezes, assume o “eu narrado. Ex.: “Este Quincas Borba, se acaso me fizeste o favor de ler as...”. É onisciente, e interfere na história, fazendo comentários e dirigindo-se ao leitor.
  4. 4.  Quincas Borba – filósofo, amigo de Brás Cubas ( aparece no livro anterior) Quincas Borba – Cão, reprodução de seu dono. Rubião – Ingênuo professor que será explorado pelo casal Sofia e Cristiano Sofia – mulher manipuladora, que gosta de ser admirada, possui “olhos de convite”. Cristiano palha – Marido de Sofia, gosta de expor a mulher aos olhos dos outros.
  5. 5.  Major Siqueira – representa com a filha o desejo por conseguir ascensão social, que não atingem. Tonica – filha major Siqueira, solteirona, interessada em Rubião. D. Fernanda- mulher muito conceituada, da alta sociedade, parente de D. Carlos Maria Carlos Maria – jovem da sociedade, casa-se com Maria Benedita. Maria Benedita - prima de Sofia, do interior, sente ciúmes da prima com Carlos Maria. Camacho – jornalista inescrupuloso, sócio de Rubião no jornal Ataiala.
  6. 6.  É a história de um professor mineiro, Rubião, para quem o filósofo Quincas Borba deixa todos os seus bens, com a condição de que o herdeiro cuide de seu cachorro, também chamado Quincas Borba. Quincas Borba é bajulado por Rubião, que quase se havia tornado cunhado. Já louco, Quincas morre enquanto estava no Rio de Janeiro.
  7. 7.  Trocando a pacata vida provinciana pela agitação da corte, Rubião muda-se para o Rio de Janeiro, após a morte de seu amigo. Leva consigo o cão, também chamado de Quincas Borba. Durante a viagem de trem para o Rio de Janeiro, Rubião conhece o casal Sofia e Palha, que logo percebem estar diante de um rico e ingênuo provinciano. Atraído pela amabilidade do casal e, sobretudo, pela beleza de Sofia, Rubião passa freqüentar a casa deles, confiando cegamente no novo amigo.
  8. 8.  Palha, este novo amigo, se destaca como um esperto comerciante e administra a fortuna de Rubião, tirando parte de seus lucros. Com o tempo, Rubião sente-se cada vez mais atraído por Sofia, com seus “olhos de convite”, que mantém com ele atitude esquiva, encorajando-o e ao mesmo tempo impondo uma certa distância.
  9. 9.  Por outro lado, a ingenuidade de Rubião torna-o presa fácil de várias outras pessoas interessadas e oportunistas, que se aproximam dele para explorá-lo financeiramente. Aos poucos, acompanhando a trajetória de Rubião, percebe-se como funciona a engrenagem social da época, como ocorre a disputa entre as pessoas, as lutas pelo poder político e pela ascensão econômica da época. O romance projeta um quadro também bastante crítico das relações sociais da época.
  10. 10.  Manipulado por Sofia, depois de algum tempo, Rubião começa a manifestar sintomas de loucura, a mesma loucura de que fora vítima o seu amigo, o filósofo Quincas Borba, de quem herda a fortuna. Acaba sendo internado em um asilo por D. Fernanda, mas foge e volta para Barbacena.
  11. 11.  Chega na cidade delirando e achando que era Napoleão Bonaparte, na rua, pega chuva e contrai a tuberculose e morre. O cão Quincas Borba, é encontrado morto três dias depois. Louco e explorado até ficar reduzido à miséria, o destino trágico de Rubião exemplifica a tese do Humanitismo. “Ao vencedor as batatas”
  12. 12.  Esse Principio de Quincas Borba: nunca há mor te, há encontro de duas expansões, ou expansão de duas formas.    Explicando de uma melhor maneira, criou a frase: "Ao vencedor às Batatas!", principio este, que marcou e é o enfoque principal do enredo.
  13. 13.  - "Supõe-se em um campo e duas tribos famintas. As batatas apenas chegam para alimentam somente uma das tribos, que assim adquire forças para transpor a montanha e ir à outra vertente, onde há batatas em abundância; mas se as duas tribos dividirem em paz as batatas do campo, não chegam a nutri-se suficientemente e morrerão de inanição. A paz, neste caso, é a destruição; a guerra, é a esperança. Uma das tribos extermina a outra recolhe os despojos.  Daí a alegria da vitória, os hinos, as aclamações. Se a guerra não fosse isso, tais demonstrações não chegariam a dar-se. Ao vencido, o ódio ou compaixão... Ao vencedor, as batatas !"
  14. 14.  Seguindo a trajetória do Humanitismo, a filosofia inventada por Quincas Borba, de que a vida é um campo de batalha onde só os mais fortes sobrevivem. Os fracos e ingênuos, como Rubião, são manipulados e aniquilados pelos mais fortes e mais espertos, como Palha e Sofia, que no final, estão vivos e ricos, tal como dizia a teoria do Humanitismo.
  15. 15.  O cachorro é um elemento curioso na obra. Pode- se dizer que o título refere-se a ele, num mecanismo que engana o leitor – o livro não é, na verdade, sobre o homem Quincas Borba. Pode-se, também, ver no animal uma extensão, dentro dos próprios ditames do Humanistas, do princípio do antigo dono. Tanto que algumas vezes o Rubião tinha preocupações com suas ações imaginando que o mestre havia sobrevivido na criatura.

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