Transformations of Graphs
http://www.lahc.edu/math/precalculus/math_260a.html
Transformations of Graphs
Function Calisthenics (Origin Unknown)
eyes, lips, and faces
Objective:
* Vertical stretches and
compressions of graphs
* Vertical and horizontal translations
of graphs
Transformation...
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images.
Transformations of Graphs
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images. For example, from the original
image below,
Tra...
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images. For example, from the original
image below, we ...
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images. For example, from the original
image below, we ...
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images. For example, from the original
image below, we ...
Using image manipulation software, we can drag and
drop or stretch images. For example, from the original
image below, we ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown,
the output f(x) = y represents the ...
The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation
of the graph (x, f(x)).
Vertical Translations
Vertical Translat...
The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation
of the graph (x, f(x)).
Vertical Translations
P = (x, f(x)) y= ...
The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation
of the graph (x, f(x)).
Vertical Translations
P = (x, f(x)) y= ...
Vertical Translations
P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x)
(x, f(x)+c)
where c > 0
(x, f(x)+c)
where c < 0
Here are the graphs of:
y = f(...
Vertical Translations
P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x)
(x, f(x)+c)
where c > 0
(x, f(x)+c)
where c < 0
Here are the graphs of:
y = f(...
The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation
of the graph (x, f(x)). Assuming c > 0,
move the graph (x, f(x)...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Vertical Stretches and Compressions...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x)
...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x)
...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x)
...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x)
...
Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x))
a generic point on the graph as shown.
Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x)
...
Vertical Stretches and Compressions
Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the
vertical-stretch or compression of y = f...
Vertical Stretches and Compressions
Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the
vertical-stretch or compression of y = f...
Vertical Stretches and Compressions
Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the
vertical-stretch or compression of y = f...
Vertical Stretches and Compressions
Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the
vertical-stretch or compression of y = f...
Vertical Stretches and Compressions
Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the
vertical-stretch or compression of y = f...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P
vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown.
P = (x, f(x)...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
x
Vertical Stretches...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Example A.
a. Given the graph of y = f(x),
graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3
(–3, 1)
(–1, –1)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
“–2f(x)" corresponds...
Horizontal Translations
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Horizontal Translations
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and the goal is to graph g(x).
Horizontal Translations
x
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and the goal is to graph g(x)....
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Horizontal Translations
x
(x+1, f(x+1))
ht =f(x+1)
y= f(x)
x
Let y = f(x) be as shown.
Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1),
and t...
Hence to obtain the graph of y = f(x + 1),
shift the entire graph of y = f(x) left by 1 unit.
Horizontal Translations
x
(x...
Hence to obtain the graph of y = f(x + 1),
shift the entire graph of y = f(x) left by 1 unit.
Horizontal Translations
x
(x...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units,
Hor...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units,
Hor...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Translations
The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts
(or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, ass...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
0
y= f(x)
Horizontal ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the point x,
the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the point x,
the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the point x,
the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
ht =f(2x) x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
ht =f(2x) x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
ht =f(2x) x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
ht =f(2x) x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(2x).
For the ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
(u,g(u))=f(2u)
ht =f(2x)
y=g(x)=f(2x)
x
2u
(2u, f(2u))
ht = f(2u)
u
Let y = f(x) ...
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
2x
(u,g(u))=f(2u)
ht =f(2x)
y=g(x)=f(2x)
x
2u
(2u, f(2u))
ht = f(2u)
u
Let y = f(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
...
Horizontal Reflections
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
...
Horizontal Reflections
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
...
Horizontal Reflections
Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Horizontal Reflections
x
Let y = f(x) with its graph
shown here and let
g(x) = f(–x).
For the point x,
the output is g(x) ...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0).
Transformations of Graphs
Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches
and Co...
x
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x)
–2–3
y
Horizontal Stretches
and Compressions
Summary of hor...
x
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x)
–2–3
y
Horizontal Stretches
and Compressions
y = f(x + c) m...
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
Horizontal Stretches
and Compressions
y = f(x + c) mo...
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
Horizontal Stretches
and Compressio...
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
Horizontal Stretches
and Compressio...
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
y=f(x) y=f(2x)
–2–3
y
Horizontal...
x
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
y=f(x) y=f(2x)
–2–3
y=f(3x)
y
...
x
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
y=f(x)y=f(x/2)y=f(x/3) y=f(2x)...
x
–1
Transformations of Graphs
Horizontal Shifts
y=f(x)
y=f(x+2)
y=f(x+1)
y=f(x–2)
y=f(x–1)
y=f(x)y=f(x/2)y=f(x/3) y=f(2x)...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
y
1
x
2 3½
y = f(x)
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
The graph of y = g(x) ...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
The graph of y = g(x) ...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
y
y = f(x)
1
x
2 3
The...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
The graph of y = g(x) ...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
y
y = f(x)
1
x
2 3
The...
Horizontal Translations
Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1]
as its domain as shown.
y
y = f(x)
1
x
2 3
The...
Horizontal Translations
Example C.
a. Given the graph of the function
y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2],
graph y = (x – 3)2...
Horizontal Translations
Example C.
a. Given the graph of the function
y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2],
graph y = (x – 3)2...
Horizontal Translations
Example C.
a. Given the graph of the function
y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2],
graph y = (x – 3)2...
Horizontal Translations
Example C.
a. Given the graph of the function
y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2],
graph y = (x – 3)2...
Horizontal Translations
x
(4,2)
(0,0)
y=g(x)=√x
4
b. Given the graphs of the function y = g(x) = √x
and y = G(x) a transfo...
Horizontal Translations
The graph of y = G(x) is
obtained by horizontally
compressing the graph of
x
(4,2)
(0,0)
y=g(x)=√x...
Horizontal Translations
The graph of y = G(x) is
obtained by horizontally
compressing the graph of
x
(4,2)
(0,0)
y=g(x)=√x...
Horizontal Translations
The graph of y = G(x) is
obtained by horizontally
compressing the graph of
x
(4,2)
(0,0)
y=g(x)=√x...
Absolute-Value Flip
Absolute-Value Flip
y = f(x) = x
x -2 -1 0 1
y -2 -1 0 1
Absolute-Value Flip
y = f(x) = x
x -2 -1 0 1
y -2 -1 0 1
Absolute-Value Flip
y = f(x) = x y = |f(x)| = |x|
x -2 -1 0 1
y -2 -1 0 1
x -2 -1 0 1
y 2 1 0 1
Absolute-Value Flip
y = f(x) = x y = |f(x)| = |x|
x -2 -1 0 1
y -2 -1 0 1
x -2 -1 0 1
y 2 1 0 1
Absolute-Value Flip
y = f(x) = x
The graph of y = |f(x)| is obtained by reflecting the
portion of the graph below the x-ax...
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1
(0,–1)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
(0,–1)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
(0,–1)
(1,0)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
y = |x2 – 1| – 1
(0,–1)
(1,0)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
y = |x2 – 1| – 1
(0,–1)
(0,0)
(1,0)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
y = |x2 – 1| – 1 y = 2(|x2 – 1| – 1)
(0,–1)
(0,0)
(1,0)
Absolute-Value Flip
Another example,
y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1|
y = |x2 – 1| – 1 y = 2(|x2 – 1| – 1)
(0,–1)
(0,0) (0,0)
(1,0)
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of
the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
y = f(x) =...
Horizontal Flip
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all even powers
are even. The graph on the
right is the even polynomi...
Horizontal Flip
A function is said to be odd
iff f(–x) = – f(x).
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all even powers
are ...
Horizontal Flip
y = x4 – 4x2
A function is said to be odd
iff f(–x) = – f(x).
Graphs of odd functions
are symmetric to the...
Horizontal Flip
A function is said to be odd
iff f(–x) = – f(x).
Graphs of odd functions
are symmetric to the origin,
that...
Horizontal Flip
Graph of an odd function
A function is said to be odd
iff f(–x) = – f(x).
Graphs of odd functions
are symm...
Horizontal Flip
Graph of an odd function
A function is said to be odd
iff f(–x) = – f(x).
Graphs of odd functions
are symm...
Horizontal Flip
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all even powers
are even. The graph on the
right is the even polynomi...
Horizontal Flip
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all odd powers are
odd.
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all odd powers are
odd. The graph on the right is
the odd...
Horizontal Flip
Polynomial-functions whose
terms are all odd powers are
odd. The graph on the right is
the odd polynomial–...
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
Horizontal Flip
y = x3 – 4x
Theorem (even and odd):
I. The sum of even functions is even.
The sum of odd functions is odd....
HW
Use the graph of y=x2, sketch the
graphs of:
1. y = 3x2
2. y = -2x2
3. y = -0.5x2
4. y=x2 – 1
5. y=2x2 – 1
6. y= -x2 – ...
Transformations of Graphs
Transformations of Graphs
Transformations of Graphs
Transformations of Graphs
Transformations of Graphs
2.8 translations of graphs
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2.8 translations of graphs

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2.8 translations of graphs

  1. 1. Transformations of Graphs http://www.lahc.edu/math/precalculus/math_260a.html
  2. 2. Transformations of Graphs Function Calisthenics (Origin Unknown)
  3. 3. eyes, lips, and faces
  4. 4. Objective: * Vertical stretches and compressions of graphs * Vertical and horizontal translations of graphs Transformations of Graphs
  5. 5. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. Transformations of Graphs
  6. 6. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. For example, from the original image below, Transformations of Graphs y = f(x)
  7. 7. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. For example, from the original image below, we can elongate it, stretch Transformations of Graphs y = f(x)
  8. 8. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. For example, from the original image below, we can elongate it, drag and lower it, stretch lower Transformations of Graphs y = f(x)
  9. 9. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. For example, from the original image below, we can elongate it, drag and lower it, stretch lower vertically reflected and reflect it vertically to create another pattern. Transformations of Graphs y = f(x)
  10. 10. Using image manipulation software, we can drag and drop or stretch images. For example, from the original image below, we can elongate it, drag and lower it, stretch lower vertically reflected and reflect it vertically to create another pattern. If the original image is the graph of the function y = f(x), then these transformations can be tracked easily with the notation of functions. Transformations of Graphs y = f(x)
  11. 11. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) x Vertical Translations
  12. 12. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. Hence expressions in terms of f(x) may be translated precisely into the corresponding manipulation of the graph. x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) x Vertical Translations
  13. 13. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. Hence expressions in terms of f(x) may be translated precisely into the corresponding manipulation of the graph. Vertical Translations x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) x Vertical Translations
  14. 14. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) Hence expressions in terms of f(x) may be translated precisely into the corresponding manipulation of the graph. Vertical Translations Changing the y–coordinate to f(x) + 3 moves P vertically up 3 units. (x, f(x)+3) x Vertical Translations
  15. 15. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) Hence expressions in terms of f(x) may be translated precisely into the corresponding manipulation of the graph. Vertical Translations Changing the y–coordinate to f(x) + 3 moves P vertically up 3 units. (x, f(x)+3) y= f(x) + 3 Hence setting y = f(x) + 3 to all the points on the graph means to move the entire graph 3 units up as shown. x Vertical Translations
  16. 16. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown, the output f(x) = y represents the height of the point. x P = (x, f(x)) f(x) = ht y= f(x) Hence expressions in terms of f(x) may be translated precisely into the corresponding manipulation of the graph. Vertical Translations Changing the y–coordinate to f(x) + 3 moves P vertically up 3 units. Hence setting y = f(x) + 3 to all the points on the graph means to move the entire graph 3 units up as shown. Likewise changing the y–coordinate to f(x) – 3 corresponds to moving y = f(x) down 3 units. (x, f(x)+3) (x, f(x)–3) y= f(x) – 3 y= f(x) + 3 x Vertical Translations
  17. 17. The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Vertical Translations Vertical Translations
  18. 18. The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Vertical Translations P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) (x, f(x)+c) where c > 0 (x, f(x)+c) where c < 0 Vertical Translations
  19. 19. The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Vertical Translations P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) (x, f(x)+c) where c > 0 (x, f(x)+c) where c < 0 Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) + 5 = x2 + 5 y = x2 y = x2 + 5 (0, 0) (0, 5) Vertical Translations
  20. 20. Vertical Translations P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) (x, f(x)+c) where c > 0 (x, f(x)+c) where c < 0 Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) + 5 = x2 + 5 y = x2 y = x2 + 5 (0, 0) (0, 5) x Vertical Translations The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Assuming c > 0, move the graph (x, f(x)) up to obtain the graph (x, f(x) + c). (0, 5)
  21. 21. Vertical Translations P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) (x, f(x)+c) where c > 0 (x, f(x)+c) where c < 0 Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) + 5 = x2 + 5 y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) – 5 = x2 – 5 y = x2 y = x2 + 5 y = x2 – 5 y = x2 (0, 0) (0, 5) (0, 0) (0, –5) x x Vertical Translations The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Assuming c > 0, move the graph (x, f(x)) up to obtain the graph (x, f(x) + c). (0, 5)
  22. 22. The graph of (x, y = f(x) + c) is the vertical translation of the graph (x, f(x)). Assuming c > 0, move the graph (x, f(x)) up to obtain the graph (x, f(x) + c). Vertical Translations move the graph (x, f(x)) down to obtain the graph (x, f(x) – c). P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) (x, f(x)+c) where c > 0 (x, f(x)+c) where c < 0 Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) + 5 = x2 + 5 y = f(x) = x2 vs. y = f(x) – 5 = x2 – 5 y = x2 y = x2 + 5 y = x2 – 5 y = x2 (0, 0) (0, 5) (0, 0) (0, –5) x x Vertical Translations
  23. 23. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  24. 24. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x) would triple the height of the point P. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  25. 25. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x) would triple the height of the point P. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = 3f(x) to all the points on the graph means to elongate the entire graph 3 times while the x–intercepts (x, 0)’s remain fixed because 3(0) = 0. y= 3f(x) Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  26. 26. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x) would triple the height of the point P. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = 3f(x) to all the points on the graph means to elongate the entire graph 3 times while the x–intercepts (x, 0)’s remain fixed because 3(0) = 0. y= 3f(x) Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  27. 27. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x) would triple the height of the point P. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = 3f(x) to all the points on the graph means to elongate the entire graph 3 times while the x–intercepts (x, 0)’s remain fixed because 3(0) = 0. Likewise setting y = (1/3)f(x) would compress the entire graph to a third of it’s original size while the x–intercepts or (x, 0)’s remain fixed. y= 3f(x) Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  28. 28. Given a function y = f(x) and P = (x, y = f(x)) a generic point on the graph as shown. Changing the y–coordinate to 3f(x) would triple the height of the point P. Vertical Stretches and Compressions P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = 3f(x) to all the points on the graph means to elongate the entire graph 3 times while the x–intercepts (x, 0)’s remain fixed because 3(0) = 0. Likewise setting y = (1/3)f(x) would compress the entire graph to a third of it’s original size while the x–intercepts or (x, 0)’s remain fixed. y= 3f(x) y= f(x)/3 Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  29. 29. Vertical Stretches and Compressions Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the vertical-stretch or compression of y = f(x). Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  30. 30. Vertical Stretches and Compressions Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the vertical-stretch or compression of y = f(x). Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = 3f(x) = 3(4 – x2) y = 4 – x2 y = 3(4 – x2) (0, 4) (0, 12) (–2, 0) (2, 0) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  31. 31. Vertical Stretches and Compressions Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the vertical-stretch or compression of y = f(x). If c > 1, it is a vertical stretch by a factor of c. Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = 3f(x) = 3(4 – x2) y = 4 – x2 y = 3(4 – x2) (0, 4) (0, 12) (–2, 0) (2, 0) c = 3 x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  32. 32. Vertical Stretches and Compressions Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the vertical-stretch or compression of y = f(x). If c > 1, it is a vertical stretch by a factor of c. Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = 3f(x) = 3(4 – x2) y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = f(x)/2 = (4 – x2)/2 y = 4 – x2 y = 3(4 – x2) y = 4 – x2 y = (4 – x2)/2 (0, 4) (0, 12) (0, 4) (0, 2) (–2, 0) (2, 0) (–2, 0) (2, 0) c = 3 c = 1/2 x x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  33. 33. Vertical Stretches and Compressions Assuming c > 0, the graph of y = cf(x) is the vertical-stretch or compression of y = f(x). If c > 1, it is a vertical stretch by a factor of c. If 0 < c < 1, it is a vertical compression by a factor of c. Here are the graphs of: y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = 3f(x) = 3(4 – x2) y = f(x) = 4 – x2 vs. y = f(x)/2 = (4 – x2)/2 y = 4 – x2 y = 3(4 – x2) y = 4 – x2 y = (4 – x2)/2 (0, 4) (0, 12) (0, 4) (0, 2) (–2, 0) (2, 0) (–2, 0) (2, 0) c = 3 c = 1/2 x x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  34. 34. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  35. 35. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Q = (x, –f(x)) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  36. 36. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = –f(x) to all the points on the graph means to reflect the entire graph vertically across the x–axis. y= –f(x)Q = (x, –f(x)) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  37. 37. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = –f(x) to all the points on the graph means to reflect the entire graph vertically across the x–axis. Hence setting y = –cf(x) = c*(–f(x)) to all the points means to reflect the entire graph (x, f(x)) vertically, then stretch the reflection by a factor of c. y= –f(x)Q = (x, –f(x)) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  38. 38. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = –f(x) to all the points on the graph means to reflect the entire graph vertically across the x–axis. Hence setting y = –cf(x) = c*(–f(x)) to all the points means to reflect the entire graph (x, f(x)) vertically, then stretch the reflection by a factor of c. y= –f(x) y= –2f(x) Q = (x, –f(x)) (x, –2f(x)) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  39. 39. Changing the y-coordinate to –f(x) reflects the point P vertically across the x–axis to Q(x, –f(x)) as shown. P = (x, f(x)) y= f(x) Hence setting y = –f(x) to all the points on the graph means to reflect the entire graph vertically across the x–axis. Hence setting y = –cf(x) = c*(–f(x)) to all the points means to reflect the entire graph (x, f(x)) vertically, then stretch the reflection by a factor of c. The order of applying stretching vs. reflecting does not matter, “reflect then stretch” or “stretch then reflect” yields the same result. This is not the case for “stretch” vs. “vertical shift”. y= –f(x) y= –2f(x) Q = (x, –f(x)) (x, –2f(x)) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  40. 40. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  41. 41. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  42. 42. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  43. 43. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. x Vertical Stretches and Compressions
  44. 44. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. (–3, 1) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3y = f(x)
  45. 45. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. (–3, 1) (–3, –2f(–3) + 3 = 1) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3y = f(x)
  46. 46. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. (–3, 1) (–3, –2f(–3) + 3 = 1) (–1, –1) (–1, –2f(–1) + 3 = 5) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3y = f(x)
  47. 47. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. (–3, 1) (–3, –2f(–3) + 3 = 1) (–1, –1) (–1, –2f(–1) + 3 = 5) (1, 1) (1, –2f(1) + 3 = 1) (2, 1) (2, –2f(2) + 3 = 1) x Vertical Stretches and Compressions y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3y = f(x)
  48. 48. Example A. a. Given the graph of y = f(x), graph y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3 (–3, 1) (–1, –1) (1, 1) (2, 1) “–2f(x)" corresponds stretching the graph by a factor of 2, then reflecting the entire graph across the x axis. Afterwards move the graph vertically up by 3. To draw the graph, track the “important points” on the graph. Plug in their x–values to find the corresponding y–values, then plot their destinations. (–3, 1) (–3, –2f(–3) + 3 = 1) (–1, –1) (–1, –2f(–1) + 3 = 5) (1, 1) (1, –2f(1) + 3 = 1) (2, 1) (2, –2f(2) + 3 = 1) (–3, 1) (–1, 5) (1, 1) (2, 1) x x Vertical Stretches and Compressions y = g(x) = –2f(x) + 3y = f(x) Graph of y = g(x)
  49. 49. Horizontal Translations y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown.
  50. 50. Horizontal Translations y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x).
  51. 51. Horizontal Translations x y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1),
  52. 52. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), x+1
  53. 53. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). x+1
  54. 54. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). x+1 (x, f(x +1))
  55. 55. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). ux+1 (x, f(x +1)) Likewise if the input is u,
  56. 56. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). u (u+1, f(u+1)) ht = f(u+1) u+1x+1 (x, f(x +1)) Likewise if the input is u, then y = g(u) = f(u + 1)
  57. 57. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). u (u+1, f(u+1)) ht = f(u+1) u+1x+1 (x, f(x +1)) (u, f(u +1)) Likewise if the input is u, then y = g(u) = f(u + 1) so the point (u, f(u +1)) is on the graph of g(x).
  58. 58. Hence to obtain the graph of y = f(x + 1), shift the entire graph of y = f(x) left by 1 unit. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). u (u+1, f(u+1)) ht = f(u+1) u+1x+1 y = g(x) or y = f(x + 1) (x, f(x +1)) (u, f(u +1)) Likewise if the input is u, then y = g(u) = f(u + 1) so the point (u, f(u +1)) is on the graph of g(x). Shifting left by 1
  59. 59. Hence to obtain the graph of y = f(x + 1), shift the entire graph of y = f(x) left by 1 unit. Horizontal Translations x (x+1, f(x+1)) ht =f(x+1) y= f(x) x Let y = f(x) be as shown. Let’s define g(x) = f(x + 1), and the goal is to graph g(x). For the point x, the output is y = g(x) = f(x + 1), so the point (x, g(x) = f(x +1)) is on the graph of g(x). u (u+1, f(u+1)) ht = f(u+1) u+1x+1 y = g(x) or y = f(x + 1) (x, f(x +1)) (u, f(u +1)) Likewise if the input is u, then y = g(u) = f(u + 1) so the point (u, f(u +1)) is on the graph of g(x). Shifting left by 1 Similarly demonstrations show that to obtain the graph of y = f(x – 1), shift the graph of y = f(x) right by 1 unit.
  60. 60. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, Horizontal Translations
  61. 61. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, Horizontal Translations Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Horizontal Shifts
  62. 62. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) x y=x 2 Horizontal Shifts
  63. 63. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. x y=x 2 Horizontal Shifts
  64. 64. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: y=(x + 2)2 Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Horizontal Shifts
  65. 65. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: y=(x + 2)2 Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. The vertex of g(x) = (x + 2)2 is (–2, 0). x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Horizontal Shifts (–2, 0)
  66. 66. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: y=(x + 2)2 Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). moves y = f(x) to the right for y = f(x – c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. The vertex of g(x) = (x + 2)2 is (–2, 0). x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Horizontal Shifts (–2, 0)
  67. 67. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: y=(x + 2)2 Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). moves y = f(x) to the right for y = f(x – c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. The vertex of g(x) = (x + 2)2 is (–2, 0). x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Shift the graph of y = x2 right 2 units. The vertex of h(x) is (2, 0). Horizontal Shifts (–2, 0)
  68. 68. Horizontal Translations The graphs of y = f(x + c) are the horizontal shifts (or translations) of y = f(x) by c units, assuming c > 0: y=(x + 2)2 y=(x – 2)2 Horizontal Translations moves y = f(x) to the left for y = f(x + c). moves y = f(x) to the right for y = f(x – c). Example B. Graph the following functions by shifting the graph of y = f(x) = x2. Label their vertices. a. g(x) = (x + 2)2 = f(x + 2) Shift of the graph of y = x2 left 2 units. The vertex of g(x) = (x + 2)2 is (–2, 0). x y=x 2 b. h(x) = (x – 2)2 = f(x – 2) Shift the graph of y = x2 right 2 units. The vertex of h(x) is (2, 0). Horizontal Shifts (–2, 0) (2, 0)
  69. 69. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
  70. 70. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) x0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x
  71. 71. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x
  72. 72. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x ht =f(2x) (2x, f(2x)) x
  73. 73. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x ht =f(2x) x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions (x, g(x)=f(2x))
  74. 74. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x ht =f(2x) x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(2u) so the point (u, y = f(2u)) is on the graph of g(x). (x, g(x)=f(2x)) u
  75. 75. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x ht =f(2x) x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x 2u (2u, f(2u)) ht = f(2u) Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(2u) so the point (u, y = f(2u)) is on the graph of g(x). (x, g(x)=f(2x)) u
  76. 76. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x ht =f(2x) x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x 2u (2u, f(2u)) ht = f(2u) Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(2u) so the point (u, y = f(2u)) is on the graph of g(x). (x, g(x)=f(2x)) u (u,g(u))=f(2u)
  77. 77. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x (u,g(u))=f(2u) ht =f(2x) y=g(x)=f(2x) x 2u (2u, f(2u)) ht = f(2u) u Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(2u) so the point (u, y = f(2u)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) Horizontal stretch by a factor of 2 Hence we see that the graph of y = f(2x) is the horizontal compression of the graph y = f(x) by a factor of ½ . (x, g(x)=f(2x)) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
  78. 78. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions 2x (u,g(u))=f(2u) ht =f(2x) y=g(x)=f(2x) x 2u (2u, f(2u)) ht = f(2u) u Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(2x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(2x) so the point (x, y = f(2x)) is on the graph of g(x). Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(2u) so the point (u, y = f(2u)) is on the graph of g(x). x0 y= f(x) Horizontal stretch by a factor of 2 Hence we see that the graph of y = f(2x) is the horizontal compression of the graph y = f(x) by a factor of ½ . Similarly, the graph of y = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch the graph of y = f(x) by a factor of 2. (Convince yourself of this fact.) (x, g(x)=f(2x)) (2x, f(2x)) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions
  79. 79. Horizontal Reflections Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). x y= f(x) y 0 Horizontal reflection
  80. 80. Horizontal Reflections Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) x y= f(x) x y 0 Horizontal reflection
  81. 81. Horizontal Reflections Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). x y= f(x) x y –x 0 Horizontal reflection
  82. 82. Horizontal Reflections Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). x y= f(x) x y –x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) 0 Horizontal reflection
  83. 83. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) u Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). y Horizontal reflection
  84. 84. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) –uu Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). y Horizontal reflection
  85. 85. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) –uu Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). (u, g(u)=f(–u)) y Horizontal reflection
  86. 86. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) –uu Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). (u, g(u)=f(–u)) y Horizontal reflection Hence we reflect the graph of y = f(x) horizontally across the y–axis to obtain the graph of y = f(–x).
  87. 87. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) –uu (u, g(x)=f(–x)) Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). (u, g(u)=f(–u)) y Horizontal reflection Hence we reflect the graph of y = f(x) horizontally across the y–axis to obtain the graph of y = f(–x).
  88. 88. Horizontal Reflections x Let y = f(x) with its graph shown here and let g(x) = f(–x). For the point x, the output is g(x) = f(–x) so the point (x, y = f(–x)) is on the graph of g(x). 0 y= f(x) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions x–x (x, g(x)=f(–x)) –uu (u, g(x)=f(–x)) Likewise for the point u, the output is g(u) = f(–u) so the point (u, y = f(–u)) is on the graph of g(x). (u, g(u)=f(–u)) y Horizontal reflection Hence we reflect the graph of y = f(x) horizontally across the y–axis to obtain the graph of y = f(–x). To graph y = f(–2x), we compress y = f(x) by a factor of ½ to obtain the graph of y = f(2x), then reflect the result to obtain the graph of y = f(–2x).
  89. 89. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions x y= f(x) y= f(x) x
  90. 90. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions x y= f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c x
  91. 91. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c x
  92. 92. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c x
  93. 93. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c x c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically
  94. 94. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= 2f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically x
  95. 95. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= 3f(x) y= 2f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically x
  96. 96. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= 3f(x) y= f(x)/3 y= 2f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically 0 < c < 1, y = cf(x) compresses f x
  97. 97. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= 3f(x) y= f(x)/3 y= 2f(x) y= –f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically y = –f(x) reflects f vertically 0 < c < 1, y = cf(x) compresses f x
  98. 98. Summary of vertical transformations of graphs (c > 0). Transformations of Graphs Vertical Shifts Vertical Stretches and Compressions y= f(x)–1 y= f(x) + 1 x y= f(x) + 2 y= f(x)–2 y= f(x)–3 y= f(x) y= 3f(x) y= f(x)/3 y= 2f(x) y= –f(x) y= –2f(x) y= –3f(x) y= f(x) y = f(x) + c moves f up by c y = f(x) – c move f down by c c > 1, y = cf(x) stretches f vertically y = –f(x) reflects f vertically 0 < c < 1, y = cf(x) compresses f x
  99. 99. x –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x) –2–3 y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  100. 100. x –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x) –2–3 y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  101. 101. Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x x –1 y=f(x) –2–3 y
  102. 102. Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x x –1 y=f(x) –2–3 y
  103. 103. Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) Horizontal Stretches and Compressions y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x x –1 y=f(x) –2–3 y c > 1, y = f(cx) compresses f horizontally 0 < c < 1, y = f(cx) stretches f horizontally.
  104. 104. –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) y=f(x) y=f(2x) –2–3 y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions (0,f(0)) y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c c > 1, y = f(cx) compresses f horizontally 0 < c < 1, y = f(cx) stretches f horizontally. Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  105. 105. x –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) y=f(x) y=f(2x) –2–3 y=f(3x) y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions (0,f(0)) y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c c > 1, y = f(cx) compresses f horizontally 0 < c < 1, y = f(cx) stretches f horizontally. Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  106. 106. x –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) y=f(x)y=f(x/2)y=f(x/3) y=f(2x) –2–3 y=f(3x) y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions (0,f(0)) y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c c > 1, y = f(cx) compresses f horizontally 0 < c < 1, y = f(cx) stretches f horizontally. Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  107. 107. x –1 Transformations of Graphs Horizontal Shifts y=f(x) y=f(x+2) y=f(x+1) y=f(x–2) y=f(x–1) y=f(x)y=f(x/2)y=f(x/3) y=f(2x) –2–3 y=f(3x) y Horizontal Stretches and Compressions y = f(–x) reflect f horizontally y=f(–x/3) (0,f(0)) y = f(x + c) moves f left by c y = f(x – c) moves f right by c c > 1, y = f(cx) compresses f horizontally 0 < c < 1, y = f(cx) stretches f horizontally. Summary of horizontal transformations of graph (c > 0). x
  108. 108. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. y 1 x 2 3½ y = f(x)
  109. 109. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). y 1 x 2 3½ y = f(x) y=g(x)=f(½ * x)
  110. 110. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). The domain of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) correspondingly is the stretch of the domain of y = f(x), from [0, 1] to [0, 2]. y 1 x 2 3½ y = f(x) y=g(x)=f(½ * x)
  111. 111. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. y y = f(x) 1 x 2 3 The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). The domain of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) correspondingly is the stretch of the domain of y = f(x), from [0, 1] to [0, 2]. y=g(x)=f(½ * x) ½ y = f(x/3)
  112. 112. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). The domain of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) correspondingly is the stretch of the domain of y = f(x), from [0, 1] to [0, 2]. Similarly the domain of y = h(x) = f(2x) is the compression from [0, 1] to [0, ½ ]. y 1 x 2 3½ y = f(x) y=g(x)=f(½ * x)y = f(2x) y = f(x/3)
  113. 113. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. y y = f(x) 1 x 2 3 The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). The domain of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) correspondingly is the stretch of the domain of y = f(x), from [0, 1] to [0, 2]. Similarly the domain of y = h(x) = f(2x) is the compression from [0, 1] to [0, ½ ]. y = f(x/3)y=g(x)=f(½ * x)y = f(2x) y = f(3x) ½
  114. 114. Horizontal Translations Let y = f(x) be a function with the interval [0, 1] as its domain as shown. y y = f(x) 1 x 2 3 The graph of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) is the horizontal stretch, by a factor of 2, of the graph of y = f(x). The domain of y = g(x) = f(½ * x) correspondingly is the stretch of the domain of y = f(x), from [0, 1] to [0, 2]. Similarly the domain of y = h(x) = f(2x) is the compression from [0, 1] to [0, ½ ]. y=g(x)=f(½ * x) The Domain of y = f(cx), c > 0 If the domain of y = f(x) is [0, a], then the domain of y = f(cx) is [0, a/c]. y = f(2x) ½ y = f(x/3) y = f(3x)
  115. 115. Horizontal Translations Example C. a. Given the graph of the function y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2], graph y = (x – 3)2 – 1 by applying the transformation rules. Give the new domain and label the end points of the graph. f(x)=x2 x (2,4)(–2,4) 2–2 (0,0)
  116. 116. Horizontal Translations Example C. a. Given the graph of the function y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2], graph y = (x – 3)2 – 1 by applying the transformation rules. Give the new domain and label the end points of the graph. f(x)=x2 x (2,4)(–2,4) 2–2 i. Shift right 3 units the graph of f(x) = x2 to obtain the graph of y = (x – 3)2. (0,0) 2–2 Shift right 3 units
  117. 117. Horizontal Translations Example C. a. Given the graph of the function y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2], graph y = (x – 3)2 – 1 by applying the transformation rules. Give the new domain and label the end points of the graph. f(x)=x2 x (2,4)(–2,4) 2–2 i. Shift right 3 units the graph of f(x) = x2 to obtain the graph of y = (x – 3)2. (0,0) ii. Lower the graph of y = (x – 3)2 by 1 unit for the graph of y = (x – 3)2 – 1. 2–2 (5,3)(1,3) (3,–1) Shift right 3 units Lower by 1 unit
  118. 118. Horizontal Translations Example C. a. Given the graph of the function y = f(x) with the domain [–2, 2], graph y = (x – 3)2 – 1 by applying the transformation rules. Give the new domain and label the end points of the graph. f(x)=x2 x (2,4)(–2,4) 2–2 i. Shift right 3 units the graph of f(x) = x2 to obtain the graph of y = (x – 3)2. (0,0) ii. Lower the graph of y = (x – 3)2 by 1 unit for the graph of y = (x – 3)2 – 1. 2–2 (5,3)(1,3) (3,–1) Shift right 3 units Lower by 1 unit The new domain is [–2 + 3, 2 + 3] = [1, 5]. The new vertex is (3, –1) and end points (1, 3) and (5, 3).
  119. 119. Horizontal Translations x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 b. Given the graphs of the function y = g(x) = √x and y = G(x) a transformation of y = g(x) as shown, express G(x) using g(x). cy=G(x) (6,2) 62
  120. 120. Horizontal Translations The graph of y = G(x) is obtained by horizontally compressing the graph of x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 b. Given the graphs of the function y = g(x) = √x and y = G(x) a transformation of y = g(x) as shown, express G(x) using g(x). cy=G(x) (6,2) 62 y = g(x) by a factor of ½, which gives the graph of h(x) = g(2x) = √2x as shown, x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 62 (2,2) c y=h(x)=√2x horizontal compression
  121. 121. Horizontal Translations The graph of y = G(x) is obtained by horizontally compressing the graph of x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 b. Given the graphs of the function y = g(x) = √x and y = G(x) a transformation of y = g(x) as shown, express G(x) using g(x). cy=G(x) (6,2) 62 y = g(x) by a factor of ½, which gives the graph of h(x) = g(2x) = √2x as shown, x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 62 (2,2) c then moving h(x) to the right by 4 units. y=h(x)=√2x x (0,0) 4 cy=G(x) (6,2) 62 (2,2) c y=h(x)=√2x horizontal compression horizontal shift
  122. 122. Horizontal Translations The graph of y = G(x) is obtained by horizontally compressing the graph of x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 b. Given the graphs of the function y = g(x) = √x and y = G(x) a transformation of y = g(x) as shown, express G(x) using g(x). cy=G(x) (6,2) 62 y = g(x) by a factor of ½, which gives the graph of h(x) = g(2x) = √2x as shown, x (4,2) (0,0) y=g(x)=√x 4 62 (2,2) c then moving h(x) to the right by 4 units. Hence G(x) = h(x – 4) = √2(x – 4) or that G(x) = √2x – 8. y=h(x)=√2x x (0,0) 4 cy=G(x) (6,2) 62 (2,2) c y=h(x)=√2x horizontal compression horizontal shift
  123. 123. Absolute-Value Flip
  124. 124. Absolute-Value Flip y = f(x) = x x -2 -1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1
  125. 125. Absolute-Value Flip y = f(x) = x x -2 -1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1
  126. 126. Absolute-Value Flip y = f(x) = x y = |f(x)| = |x| x -2 -1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1 x -2 -1 0 1 y 2 1 0 1
  127. 127. Absolute-Value Flip y = f(x) = x y = |f(x)| = |x| x -2 -1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1 x -2 -1 0 1 y 2 1 0 1
  128. 128. Absolute-Value Flip y = f(x) = x The graph of y = |f(x)| is obtained by reflecting the portion of the graph below the x-axis to above the x-axis. y = |f(x)| = |x| x -2 -1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1 x -2 -1 0 1 y 2 1 0 1
  129. 129. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 (0,–1)
  130. 130. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| (0,–1)
  131. 131. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| (0,–1) (1,0)
  132. 132. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| y = |x2 – 1| – 1 (0,–1) (1,0)
  133. 133. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| y = |x2 – 1| – 1 (0,–1) (0,0) (1,0)
  134. 134. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| y = |x2 – 1| – 1 y = 2(|x2 – 1| – 1) (0,–1) (0,0) (1,0)
  135. 135. Absolute-Value Flip Another example, y = x2 – 1 y = |x2 – 1| y = |x2 – 1| – 1 y = 2(|x2 – 1| – 1) (0,–1) (0,0) (0,0) (1,0)
  136. 136. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis.
  137. 137. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2
  138. 138. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2
  139. 139. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2 y = f(-x) = – x3 – x2
  140. 140. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2 y = f(-x) = – x3 – x2
  141. 141. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2 y = f(-x) = – x3 – x2 A function is said to be even if f(x) = f(– x). Graphs of even functions are symmetric to the y-axis.
  142. 142. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2 y = f(-x) = – x3 – x2 A function is said to be even if f(x) = f(– x). Graphs of even functions are symmetric to the y-axis. Graph of an even function x (x, f(x)) –x (–x, f(–x))
  143. 143. Horizontal Flip The graph of y = f(–x) is the horizontal reflection of the graph of y = f(x) across the y axis. y = f(x) = x3 – x2 y = f(-x) = (-x)3 – (-x)2 y = f(-x) = – x3 – x2 A function is said to be even if f(x) = f(– x). Graphs of even functions are symmetric to the y-axis. Graph of an even function x (x, f(x)) –x (–x, f(–x))
  144. 144. Horizontal Flip Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2
  145. 145. Horizontal Flip A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2
  146. 146. Horizontal Flip y = x4 – 4x2 A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Graphs of odd functions are symmetric to the origin, Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2.
  147. 147. Horizontal Flip A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Graphs of odd functions are symmetric to the origin, that is, they're the same as reflecting across the y-axis followed by reflecting across the x-axis. Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2
  148. 148. Horizontal Flip Graph of an odd function A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Graphs of odd functions are symmetric to the origin, that is, they're the same as reflecting across the y-axis followed by reflecting across the x-axis. x–x 0 (x, f(x)) (–x, –f(x)) Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2
  149. 149. Horizontal Flip Graph of an odd function A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Graphs of odd functions are symmetric to the origin, that is, they're the same as reflecting across the y-axis followed by reflecting across the x-axis. x–x 0 (x, f(x)) (–x, –f(x)) u (u, f(u)) (–u, –f(u)) –u Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2
  150. 150. Horizontal Flip Polynomial-functions whose terms are all even powers are even. The graph on the right is the even polynomial– function y = x4 – 4x2. y = x4 – 4x2 Graph of an odd function A function is said to be odd iff f(–x) = – f(x). Graphs of odd functions are symmetric to the origin, that is, they're the same as reflecting across the y-axis followed by reflecting across the x-axis. x–x 0 (x, f(x)) (–x, –f(x)) u (u, f(u)) (–u, –f(u)) –u
  151. 151. Horizontal Flip Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd.
  152. 152. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  153. 153. Horizontal Flip Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x. y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd):
  154. 154. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  155. 155. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  156. 156. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  157. 157. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. The product of an even function with an odd function is odd. Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  158. 158. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. The product of an even function with an odd function is odd. (The same hold for quotient.) Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  159. 159. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. The product of an even function with an odd function is odd. (The same hold for quotient.) is odd,x x4 + 1 Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  160. 160. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. The product of an even function with an odd function is odd. (The same hold for quotient.) is odd, is even,x x4 + 1 x2 x4 + 1 Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  161. 161. Horizontal Flip y = x3 – 4x Theorem (even and odd): I. The sum of even functions is even. The sum of odd functions is odd. II. The product of even functions is even. The product of odd functions is even. The product of an even function with an odd function is odd. (The same hold for quotient.) is odd, is even, x + 1 is neither.x x4 + 1 x2 x4 + 1 Polynomial-functions whose terms are all odd powers are odd. The graph on the right is the odd polynomial–function y = x3 – 4x.
  162. 162. HW Use the graph of y=x2, sketch the graphs of: 1. y = 3x2 2. y = -2x2 3. y = -0.5x2 4. y=x2 – 1 5. y=2x2 – 1 6. y= -x2 – 2 7. y=(x+1)2 8. y=(x–3)2
  163. 163. Transformations of Graphs
  164. 164. Transformations of Graphs
  165. 165. Transformations of Graphs
  166. 166. Transformations of Graphs
  167. 167. Transformations of Graphs

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