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Chapter 9© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
 Drugs that alters a person’s experiences or consciousness Can cause intoxications   A state in which sometimes unpredi...
 Addictive behaviors are habits that have gotten out  of control, with resulting negative effects on a  person’s health ...
 Reinforcement Compulsion or craving Loss of control Escalation Negative consequences                                ...
 Often starts when a person does something to bring  pleasure or to avoid pain Eventually, the behavior no longer brings...
 Commonly referred to as addicts Substance or activity used as substitute for coping    strategies   May have trouble d...
 Eating Watching TV Playing video games Gambling Compulsive exercising Work preoccupation Sex and love addiction C...
 Drugs are chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body   Prescription me...
 The APA’s Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of  Mental Disorders – authoritative reference Abuse   Substance abuse:  ...
 Substance dependence    1. Developing tolerance to the substance    2. Experiencing withdrawal    3. Taking in larger am...
11© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
   All income and education levels   All ethnic groups   All ages   Increased risk from:       Being young       Bei...
 Exciting Illegal Curious Want to escape Rebellious Vulnerable to peer pressure Seeking a spiritual experience Exp...
 Combination of three types of risk factors:   Physical   Psychological   Social Physical risks   Brain chemistry  ...
 Psychological risks   Difficulty in controlling impulses   Strong need for excitement   Feelings of rejection   Host...
 Intoxication Unexpected side effects Unknown drug constituents Risks associated with injection drug use Legal conseq...
        Changes in brain chemistry           Neurotransmitters        Drug factors:           Pharmacological properti...
Psychoactive Drugs   Chapter Nine   18© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
19© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
 Opioids (narcotics)   Natural or synthetic      Opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine,       hydrocodone, oxycod...
 Also known as sedative-hypnotics   Slow down the overall activity of the CNS   Types   Effects         Effects on th...
 Speed up the activity of the nervous or muscular system   Cocaine      Methods of use      Effects      Abuse and de...
 Amphetamines   Effects   From use to abuse         State dependence   Dependence         Psychosis Ritalin Ephedr...
24© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
 Cannabis sativa THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) Short-term effects and uses   Depersonalization Long-term effects and use...
 Altered state of consciousness, perceptions, feelings  and thoughts LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, STP, DMT, MDMA,  Ketami...
 Nearly all inhalants produce effects similar to those of  anesthetics and slow down the body’s functions Several major ...
 Drug research Drugs, society, and families Legalizing Drugs Drug Testing                                             ...
 Medication-assisted treatment   Drug substitution Treatment centers Self-help groups and peer counseling    AA    N...
 Governmental attempts Anti-drug education programs Indirect approaches    Young people’s self-esteem    Improve acad...
Chapter 9© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2.  Drugs that alters a person’s experiences or consciousness Can cause intoxications  A state in which sometimes unpredictable physical and emotional changes occur 2 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3.  Addictive behaviors are habits that have gotten out of control, with resulting negative effects on a person’s health Addiction is a psychological or physical dependence on a substance or behavior Dependence defined by four key characteristics: 1. Compulsive desire for a drug 2. Need to increase the dosage 3. Harmful effects to the individual 4. Harm to society Tolerance 3 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4.  Reinforcement Compulsion or craving Loss of control Escalation Negative consequences 4 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5.  Often starts when a person does something to bring pleasure or to avoid pain Eventually, the behavior no longer brings pleasure, but it is necessary to avoid the pain of going without it Examples of addictive behaviors:  Gambling  Compulsive Exercising  Work Addiction  Sex and love addiction  Compulsive buying or shopping  Internet addiction Characteristics of people with addiction 5 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6.  Commonly referred to as addicts Substance or activity used as substitute for coping strategies May have trouble dealing with stress or emotions May have a genetic predisposition to a particular substance May have problems with impulse control or self-regulation Tend to be risk-takers 6 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7.  Eating Watching TV Playing video games Gambling Compulsive exercising Work preoccupation Sex and love addiction Compulsive buying or shopping Internet usage 7 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8.  Drugs are chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body  Prescription medicines  Antibiotics  Antidepressants  Over-the-counter substances  Tobacco  Alcohol  Caffeine  Illegal substances  LSD  Heroin The drug tradition 8 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9.  The APA’s Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – authoritative reference Abuse  Substance abuse:  Failure to fulfill major responsibilities  Drug use in situations that are hazardous  Drug related legal problems  Drug use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems  Physical dependence may or may not be present 9 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10.  Substance dependence 1. Developing tolerance to the substance 2. Experiencing withdrawal 3. Taking in larger amounts 4. Expressing a persistent desire to cut down 5. Spending great deal of time getting the substance 6. Giving up or reducing important activities 7. Continuing usage even with recognition of a problem Considered physically dependent if experiences either tolerance or withdrawal 10© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. 11© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12.  All income and education levels All ethnic groups All ages Increased risk from:  Being young  Being male  Being a troubled adolescent  Being a thrill-seeker  Being in a dysfunctional family  Being in a peer group that accepts drug use  Being poor  Dating young 12© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13.  Exciting Illegal Curious Want to escape Rebellious Vulnerable to peer pressure Seeking a spiritual experience Experiment Cope with difficulties 13 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14.  Combination of three types of risk factors:  Physical  Psychological  Social Physical risks  Brain chemistry  Metabolism  Exposed to drugs in womb 14 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15.  Psychological risks  Difficulty in controlling impulses  Strong need for excitement  Feelings of rejection  Hostility or aggression  Anxiety or depression  Mental illness  Dual (co-occurring) disorders Social Factors  Growing up in a family with drug abuse  Peer group approval  Poverty  Health care professionals 15 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16.  Intoxication Unexpected side effects Unknown drug constituents Risks associated with injection drug use Legal consequences 16 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17.  Changes in brain chemistry  Neurotransmitters Drug factors:  Pharmacological properties  Dose-response function  Time-action function  Drug use history  Method of use User Factors Social Factors 17 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Psychoactive Drugs Chapter Nine 18© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. 19© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20.  Opioids (narcotics)  Natural or synthetic  Opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, meperidine, and fentanyl  Relieve pain  Cause drowsiness  Induce euphoria  Methods of administration  Injection, absorbed, snorting, sniffing, smoking  Symptoms of overdose 20 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21.  Also known as sedative-hypnotics  Slow down the overall activity of the CNS  Types  Effects  Effects on the body  Medical uses  From use to abuse  Overdosing 21 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22.  Speed up the activity of the nervous or muscular system  Cocaine  Methods of use  Effects  Abuse and dependence  Use during pregnancy 22 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23.  Amphetamines  Effects  From use to abuse  State dependence  Dependence  Psychosis Ritalin Ephedrine Caffeine 23 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. 24© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25.  Cannabis sativa THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) Short-term effects and uses  Depersonalization Long-term effects and uses  Respiratory damage Dependence 25 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26.  Altered state of consciousness, perceptions, feelings and thoughts LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, STP, DMT, MDMA, Ketamine, PCP (angel dust) Synesthesia Flashbacks 26 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27.  Nearly all inhalants produce effects similar to those of anesthetics and slow down the body’s functions Several major groups  Volatile solvents  Aerosols  Nitrites  Anesthetics Methods of use  Sniffing  Snorting  “Bagging”  “Huffing” 27 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28.  Drug research Drugs, society, and families Legalizing Drugs Drug Testing 28 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29.  Medication-assisted treatment  Drug substitution Treatment centers Self-help groups and peer counseling  AA  NA Harm reduction strategies Codependency 29 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30.  Governmental attempts Anti-drug education programs Indirect approaches  Young people’s self-esteem  Improve academic skills  Increase recreational opportunities Direct approaches  Information about the adverse effects  Peer pressure resistance 30 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Chapter 9© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

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