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3) spanish colonialism in north america

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3) spanish colonialism in north america

  1. 1.   New Spain was created shortly after Mexico’s conquest by Cortes  The Viceroyalty was set up to leave majority of power with the crown  Viceroy had limited power  An Audiencia was set up to help the Viceroy  No elected assembly  Colonies led by three groups: Viceroy, Archbishop, Audiencia  Gold and Silver were the main exports out of the region  New Spain also became highly urbanized for a colony  210 chartered towns by 1628 AD Creation of New Spain
  2. 2.  North American Exploration  After 1530’s the Spanish began to look to the fringes of the America’s for opportunity  Focus was on gaining access to gold and silver  Rumors drove much of the exploration  Cabeza de Vaca was the first Spaniard to explore North America  Traveled in North America from 1528 to 1536 traveling from Texas to Central Mexico  Was revered by the Native Americans for his “Healing Powers”  Despite his report of no precious metals exploration soared after his return
  3. 3.  De Soto Exploration  Hernando de Soto led first major expedition into the Southeast  Had participated in the conquest of Central America and Peru but wanted more  Explored from 1539-43  Relied heavily on local Natives for support but treated them terribly  Soto never found any precious metals and died on the banks of the Mississippi in 1542  The rest of the force soon gave up and returned to Mexico
  4. 4.  Coronado’s Expedition  Started with the false report from Fray Marcos de Niza  Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led main expedition in 1640  The Spanish soon discovered the truth  Coronado proceeds across the Rio Grande looking for riches  First runs into the Pueblo peoples  They tell him of the city of Quivira sending him into the Great Plains  Proceeded to Massacre the pueblos on their return to Mexico in 1542
  5. 5.   Due to the combination of the failures of northern expeditions and need to protect Mexico Spanish focus switched to Florida  Pedro Menendez de Aviles charged with setting up a colony to counter the French at Fort Carolina in 1565  Menendez and his soldiers surprised the French and massacred them  He then proceeded to found San Agustin in 1565  Menendez went on to build a number of other forts along the coast even as far north as the Chesapeake  Despite this early success by 1587 all of the Spanish possessions other than San Agustin failed Florida
  6. 6.   As Florida was shrinking the Spanish once again looked to the Rio Grande valley for expansion/protection  The Spanish also changed their tactics with the adoption of the Royal Orders for New Discoveries in 1573  Stated all new conquest were called “pacifications”  Called for adelantado’s to act peacefully  Don Juan de Onate was given the Adelantado for the Rio Grande Valley calling it New Mexico  In 1598 Onate set off with 500 colonists founding their settlement in the middle of a Pueblo community New Mexico Colony
  7. 7.  New Mexico Cont.  Onate was focused on gaining support for the colony via silver mines which failed to materialize  He then turned to the Great Plains and the pacific coast but found nothing  As a result the Pueblo’s fell victim to Spanish atrocities due to Onate’s inability to lead  Finally in 1607 Onate was removed from power and the Franciscan’s took control of the colony  While the colony continued to remain poor and weak the Franciscans did enjoy success converting the Pueblo’s  By 1628 the friars had spread 50 missions through the Rio Grande Valley mainly in existing Pueblo villages

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