NDOR Research Conference: Dr. Tuan


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Nebraska Department of Roads Conference 2012
Presented by Dr. Chris Tuan

Published in: Automotive, Technology, Business
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NDOR Research Conference: Dr. Tuan

  1. 1. Performance Rating of De-Icing Chemicals for Winter Operations Chris Tuan, Ph.D., P.E. Barbara Gerbino-Bevins, Civil Engineer Mike Mattison, P.E.
  2. 2. Objectives• Research and develop standardized tests to analyze the performance of chemical deicers• Correlate laboratory data with field data• Research and develop best practices regarding the use of chemical deicers
  3. 3. Overview• Literature Survey• Shaker Test – Procedure – Results• Field Data Collection – Road Condition Rating System – MDSS and AVL Data• Best Practices
  4. 4. Literature Survey• Chemical Deicers – NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 , Potassium Acetate, “Beet Juice” – Liquids and Solids• Practices – De-icing: Reactive – Anti-icing: Proactive – Prewet Solids
  5. 5. Literature Survey• SHRP Handbook of Test Methods for Evaluating Chemical Deicers – SHRP Ice Melting Capacity Test: Does not correlate well with field data – Resulting roadway friction after treatment – Ice penetration and Ice debonding – Thermal Properties• Research Sponsored by Clear Roads and Northwest Pacific Snowfighters
  6. 6. Shaker Test Thermocouple Martini Shaker 1-mL Ice Cube Tray Freezer
  7. 7. Shaker Test Results
  8. 8. Shaker Test: Liquid Results
  9. 9. Shaker Test: Liquid Results
  10. 10. Shaker Test: Liquid Results
  11. 11. Shaker Test: Beet JuiceResults
  12. 12. Shaker Test: Solid Results
  13. 13. K Ace Reaction
  14. 14. Shaker Test: Conclusions• Test Results – Low Variance for Each Temperature Group – K Ace Reacts with Road Salt – How Beet Juice Works• The Shaker Test – Quick, Simple, Inexpensive – Repeatable – Produces Consistent Results for Liquids and Solids at 20°F, 10°F, and 0°F
  15. 15. Field Data Collection• Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) – Web-based software – Records Vehicle Location – Weather Data• Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) – Time Stamps of Plow Truck Locations – Records Data about Chemical Application – Takes Pictures from the Cab
  16. 16. Field Data Collection• Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) – Weather Data
  17. 17. Field Data Collection• Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) – Records and time stamps vehicle location
  18. 18. Road Condition RatingSystem• Based on what can be seen from the truck – Lines and wheel tracks • 100% Covered – Cannot see roadway • 75% Covered – Can see some roadway – Cannot see two defined, continuous wheel tracks or any lines.
  19. 19. Road Condition RatingSystem• 50% Covered – Can see two defined, continuous wheel tracks – Cannot see lines• 25% Covered – Can see two or more wheel tracks – Can see one or more lines• 0% Covered – Can see inner and outer lines – Little or no snow is on roadway
  20. 20. Beet Juice Treatment withand without Sunlight
  21. 21. Road Salt Treatment underHigh Winds
  22. 22. Best Practices Liquids• Best used at temperatures greater than 20°F• Pencil nozzles work well for post-treatment of ice or compacted snow layers greater than ¼ inch.• Best choice for anti-icing• Can be used during events with precipitation rates less than 0.5 in/hr• Retreat every 1½ to 2 hours to prevent refreeze Solids• Can use at temperatures as low as 12°F• Works well for post-treatment of ice and compacted snow• Smaller gradations tend to work faster, but also refreeze quicker• Coarse grained deicers can be used during events with precipitation rates greater than 0.5 in/hr
  23. 23. Best Practices• Not recommended to use deicers or abrasives if wind speed is greater than 15 mph• Abrasives with a pre-wet are much more effective than dry abrasives• MgCl2 and CaCl2 work better than NaCl at temperatures lower than 20°F, but can cause slippery roads if humidity is higher than 40%.• Beet juice works well in direct sunlight
  24. 24. Conclusions• Shaker Test can be used to screen new deicers or compare the performance of different deicers• Field Data Collection – Processing MDSS and AVL Data is Time Consuming – Provides Useful Snow Events Information for Correlation Study – More Data Required for Statistical Significance
  25. 25. Acknowledgments• NDOR Technical Advisory Committee: – Jasmine Dondlinger, Jodi Gibson, Lieska Halsey, Wally Heyen, Dalyce Ronnau, Amy Starr, and Gary Story.• District Maintenance Managers: – Ray Branstiter, Dale Butler, Kelly Doyle, Chris Ford, Allen Horak, Roger Klasna, and Roger Kalkwarf.• City of Omaha Public Works: – Scott McIntyre.
  26. 26. CREDITS Barb Gerbino-Bevins, NDOR Mike Mattison, NDOR Chris Tuan, Ph.D., UNLSlide design © 2009, Mid-America Transportation Center. All rights reserved.