Clean Cities is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy, or DOE.DOE’s mission is to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions.
Participation in Clean Cities is voluntary, with coalitions drawing local stakeholders from the public and private sectors.In 2009, Clean Cities had more than 8,400 stakeholders.In 2009, coalitions reported that 49% of stakeholders were from the private sector. Even though participation in the program is voluntary, the number of stakeholders continues to increase. 2,000 stakeholders were added in 2009.
Mid-America Green Fleets, a green fleet consultation and public recognition vehicle.Electrify Heartland, our regional electric vehicle and electric charging community readiness planning project. Funded by U.S. DOE grant.Missouri – Kansas Propane Autogas Task Force and Midwest CNG Coalition, travel corridor development and legislative strategy for natural gas and propane autogas.Midwest Region Alternative Fuels Project, our regional technology deployment grant project, purchasing 365 alternative fuel vehicles and installing 36 alternative fuel stations in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. Funded by the Recovery Act, total regional investment of $35 million.
To begin, I would like to highlight recent trends in energy and petroleum consumption in the United States.On this slide we see the consumption of liquid fuelsin the United States increasing, with consumption in the transportation sector responsible for the greatest share.
Over the long term, the U.S. has seen a widening gap between domestic production and consumption of petroleum.The United States consumed 19.1 million barrels per day (MMbd) of petroleum products during 2010, making us the world's largest petroleum consumer.The United States was third in crude oil production at 5.5 MMbd.U.S. dependence on imported oil has declined since peaking in 2005.The decline is the result of a variety of factorsThe economic downturn after the financial crisis of 2008 Improvements in efficiencyChanges in consumer behavior and patterns of economic growth At the same time, increased use of domestic biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), and strong gains in domestic production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids expanded domestic supplies and reduced the need for imports.
In 2010, U.S. petroleum made up about half of domestic petroleum demand. (The figure refers to “net imports” because some U.S. crude oil and petroleum products are exported).Petroleum products imported by the United States during 2010 included gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, jet fuel, chemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other products.49% of U.S. crude oil and petroleum products imports came from the Western Hemisphere (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) during 2010. About 18% of our imports of crude oil and petroleum products come from Persian Gulf countries (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates).Our largest sources of net crude oil and petroleum product imports were Canada and Saudi Arabia.
Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from new and used vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled restaurant grease. Biodiesel’s physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning alternative. Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel significantly reduces emissions of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biodiesel is a liquid fuel made up of fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or long-chain mono alkyl esters.
Biodiesel can be legally blended with petroleum diesel in any percentage. B5 contains 5% biodiesel and 95% petroleum diesel; B20 contains 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel; B100 contains 100% biodiesel, and so forth. Blends of B20 or higher qualify for alternative fuel credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Most manufacturers approve blends up to B5 in their vehicles. Some approve blends up to B20, and one manufacturer even approves B100 for use in certain types of its farm equipment. You should check your OEM’s website or speak with a dealer to determine which biodiesel blend is right for your vehicle. B20 is the most common biodiesel blend. B20’s energy content is between those of No. 1 and No. 2 diesel. Engines operating on B20 exhibit similar fuel consumption, horsepower, and torque to engines running on conventional diesel.As biodiesel blend levels increase significantly beyond B20, users must be aware of lower energy content per gallon and potential issues with impact on engine warranties, low-temperature gelling, and microbial contamination.B100 use could also increase nitrogen oxides emissions, although it greatly reduces other toxic emissions. For vehicles manufactured in model year 1994 or later, B20 can be used in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment with little impact on operating performance. But if your vehicle is older than model year 1994, the engine could be assembled with incompatible elastomers, which can break down with repetitive high-blend biodiesel use. It’s important to know that biodiesel has a solvent effect. It cleans your vehicle’s fuel system and could release deposits accumulated from previous diesel fuel use. The release of deposits may initially clog filters, so you should be proactive in checking for and replacing clogged fuel filters when you start using biodiesel. Once the build-up is eliminated, you can return to your regular replacement schedule. This issue is less common with B20 and lower-level blends.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs)—also called electric drive vehicles collectively—use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs.There are three kinds of electric drive vehicles:Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. HEVs do not need to be plugged in and do not use electricity from the grid. HEV emissions vary by type of vehicle and hybrid power system.Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are powered by conventional fuels and by electrical energy stored in a battery. Using electricity from the grid to charge the battery some of the time results in lower costs and reduced fuel consumption. PHEV batteries can be charged by plugging into an electrical power source. The batteries are also charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine. PHEVs have lower tailpipe emissions than similar HEVs and conventional vehicles.All-electric vehicles (EVs) use a battery to store the energy that powers an electric motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electrical power source. These vehicles use no gasoline or other liquid fuel, and they produce zero tailpipe emissions. However, there are emissions associated with electricity generation, unless the electricity comes from a nonpolluting source.
Charging EVs and PHEVs requires plugging the vehicle into charging equipment, also called electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).Charging times vary based on how depleted the battery is, how much energy it holds, the type of battery, and the type of EVSE.The charging time for a fully depleted battery can range from 30 minutes to longer than 20 hours.There are several charging options: Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, and DC fast charging.Level 1 equipment provides charging through a 120V, AC outlet and takes 6 to 20 hours to charge a fully depleted battery. This kind of charging works well in places where vehicles are parked for several hours at a time.Level 2 equipment offers charging through a 208V or 240V AC outlet – the same kind of circuit used by a household clothes dryer. Using this option, a fully depleted battery can reach a full charge in 3 to 8 hours. This type of equipment works well at residences, shopping centers, movie theaters, parking garages, and other places where vehicles are parked for a few hours at a time.Level 3 charging is still in development. It would enable a full charge in 30 minutes or less, and would work best in public charging stations.DC fast charging equipment enables charging along heavy traffic corridors and at public stations. A DC fast charge with today’s equipment can take less than 30 minutes.
Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials, which collectively are called "biomass.“Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol and grain alcohol, has same chemical compound found in alcoholic beverages.Making ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks—such as grass, wood, crop residues, or old newspapers—is more challenging than using starch or sugars, such as those found in corn or sugar beets.About 80% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that can be used in flexible fuel vehicles. E85 contains 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on season and geographical availability.E85 reduces greenhouse gas emissions: On a life-cycle basis, including fuel production and distribution, E85 made with corn ethanol reduces carbon greenhouse gas emissions by 19% to 52%, depending on the production process used. When E85 is made from cellulose materials, such as corn and wheat stalks or forestry waste, it can reduce greenhouse gases by 75%.
E10, a blend containing 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline, is the most common blend. Low-level ethanol blends (up to E10) can be used legally in any gasoline-powered vehicle without modification.(EPA) recently approved blends containing 15% ethanol (E15) for use in model year 2001 and newer vehicles, but several laws and regulations must be modified before E15 can be sold commercially.E85 is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. It can be used in E85-capable FFVs, which are available in a variety of makes and models. The gasoline content in E85 enables FFVs to operate normally under cold conditions; fueling a vehicle with pure ethanol (E100) creates problems during cold-weather operation.As of December 2010, E85 was available at more than 2,000 fueling stations in 44 states.
Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic resources. Hydrogen exists in water, hydrocarbons (such as methane), and other organic matter.The energy in 2.2 lb (1 kg) of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energy in 1 gallon of gasoline.About 95% of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. comes from steam reforming of methane (natural gas).Approximately 9 million tons of hydrogen is produced in the U.S. each year. Currently, most hydrogen is used for refining petroleum, treating metals, producing fertilizer, and processing foods.Hydrogen also can be used to fuel internal combustion engines and fuel cells, both of which can power low- or zero-emissions vehicles such as fuel-cell vehicles. Fuel-cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, have the potential to revolutionize our transportation system. They are potentially 2 to 3 times more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust—their only emission is water.Major research and development efforts are aimed at making hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles practical for widespread use.
Currently hydrogen is used in modified internal combustion engines. There are nocommerciallyavailable models from auto manufacturers.California has the largest number of hydrogen vehicles on the road. Currently, 300 fuel-cell vehicles have been placed on California roads and manufacturers expect to increase that to 4,300 by 2014.Fuel-cell technology is also being used to power transit buses and forklifts, and to produce electricity for industrial uses.
Interest in natural gas as an alternative transportation fuel stems from its clean-burning qualities, its domestic resource base, and its commercial availability. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles.Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons, predominantly methane (CH4). As delivered through the pipeline system, it also contains hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane and other gases such as nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and water vapor.Natural gas has a high octane rating and has excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines.It is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and noncarcinogenic and presents no threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater.Most natural gas is extracted from gas and oil wells.Very small amounts of natural gas are derived from supplemental sources such as synthetic gas, landfill gas, sewage treatment plants, dairy farms and other biogas resources. However, this amount continues to increase through research, development, and demonstration projects.Natural gas accounts for approximately one-quarter of the energy used in the United States. It is used for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, as well as for electricity generation. Only about one-tenth of 1 percent is currently used as transportation fuel.
Because this fuel is a gas, it must be stored onboard a vehicle in either a compressed gaseous or liquefied state. Compressed natural gas, or CNG, and liquefied natural gas, or LNG, are considered alternative fuels under the Energy Policy Act of 1992.Dedicated natural gas vehicles run exclusively on natural gas. There are also vehicles that have two separate fueling systems, which enables the vehicle to use gasoline and natural gas. Compressed Natural Gas:A CNG-powered vehicle gets about the same fuel economy as a conventional gasoline vehicle on a gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) basis. A GGE is the amount of alternative fuel that contains the same amount of energy as a gallon of gasoline. A GGE equals about 5.7 lb (2.6 kg) of CNG. Liquefied Natural Gas:To store more energy onboard a vehicle in a smaller volume, natural gas can be liquefied. One GGE equals about 1.5 gallons of LNG. Because it must be kept at such cold temperatures, LNG is stored in double-wall, vacuum-insulated pressure vessels. LNG fuel systems typically are only used with heavy-duty vehicles.Most natural gas fueling stations dispense compressed natural gas (CNG), which is either compressed on site or compressed off site and transported to the station in tanks. The availability of liquefied natural gas (LNG) stations is more limited.
Propane is a well-established, domestically available, clean-burning fuel. Propane is also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas in Europe. Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used for combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. Propane is the most-used alternative transportation fuel in the world. Propane vehicle technology is well established, and propane fueling stations are widely available. Propane has one of the highest energy densities of all alternative fuels, so propane vehicles go farther on a tank of fuel. Propane has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is non-toxic and presents no threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater. Propane is produced as a by-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining. It accounts for about 2% of the energy used in the United States.Transportation consumes less than 2% of thepropane used in the U.S. Unlike natural gas, propane is not a greenhouse gas (GHG) when released directly into the atmosphere. When considering the entire lifecycle of propane used in converted LDVs, Argonne National Lab found that propane reduced GHG emissions by 21% to 24%.
Dedicated propane fuel systems are available for light- and medium-duty trucks and vans. Roush CleanTech, a conversion company, converts Ford pickup trucks and vans to dedicated propane fuel use to meet OEM-like standards. Other certified installers can economically and reliably retrofit many light-duty vehicles for propane operation. Propane engines and fueling systems are also available for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles such as school buses and street sweepers, including some from OEMs. Propane is also frequently used to replace gasoline in smaller applications, such as forklifts and lawn mowers. Emissions reductions are substantial when one of these engines is replaced by propane. Conversions in the United States require U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval and a licensed propane conversion technician. The upfront costs to convert fleet vehicles to propane can be offset by lower operating and maintenance costs over the lifespan of the vehicles.
To learn more about the technologies discussed in this presentation, please consider joining our coalition and attending some of our events throughout this year.
U.S. Department of Energy Mission To ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutionsKC Clean Cities / 2
Clean CitiesA voluntary, locally-based government-industry partnership Clean Cities Mission: To advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions to reduce petroleum use in transportation. • Established in 1993; Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 • Provides a framework for businesses and government agencies to work together • Reduce U.S. petroleum use by 2.5 billion gallons per year KC Clean Cities / 3
Clean Cities Coalitions • Nearly 100 coalitions in 45 states • 775,000 AFVs using alternative fuels • 6,600 fueling stations KC Clean Cities / 4
Clean Cities Stakeholders Coalitions are made up of local and national stakeholders. • 8,400 stakeholders nationwide • 49% private-sector stakeholders • 51% public-sector stakeholders • In KS-MO Clean Cities, now more than 500 stakeholder companies and government agenciesKC Clean Cities / 5
Programs & Projects Midwest Region Alternative Fuels ProjectKC Clean Cities / 6
U.S. Energy Consumption Liquid fuels consumption by sector, 1990-2035 (million barrels per day)Source: Annual Energy Outlook 2011. Energy Information Administration. KC Clean Cities / 7
U.S. Petroleum Trends Petroleum Consumption, Production, and Import TrendsSource: Monthly Energy Review (May 2011) and Annual Energy Review 2009. Energy Information Administration. KC Clean Cities / 8
U.S. Petroleum Trends Sources of Net Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports: • Canada (25%) • Saudi Arabia (12%) • Nigeria (11%) • Venezuela (10%) • Mexico (9%) Net Imports and Domestic Petroleum as Shares of U.S. DemandSources: Monthly Energy Review (April 2011). Petroleum Supply Monthly (February 2011). EIA KC Clean Cities / 9
Clean Cities Strategies Replace petroleum with alternative and renewable fuels Reduce petroleum use through fuel efficiency measures, smarter driving practices, and idle reduction Eliminate petroleum use by promoting mass transit, trip elimination, and congestion mitigation Eliminate Clean Cities has saved nearly 3 billion gallons of petroleum since 1993.KC Clean Cities / 10
Biodiesel Use• Biodiesel can be blended with diesel in any proportion: B2, B5, B20, B100.• B20 is the most common blend in U.S.• Most OEMs approve up to B5 with no modifications.• Similar payload capacity, range, horsepower, and torque as diesel.• B20 suitable for nearly all unmodified diesel engines.KC Clean Cities / 13
Electricity: Hybrids and Plug-ins Hybrids and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional design Three categories of vehicles: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) All-Electric Vehicles (EVs)KC Clean Cities / 14
Charging EVs and PHEVs• Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)• Charging times for fully depleted batteries vary based on type of battery and type of EVSE – Level 1: AC, 120V, 6-20 hours, residential – Level 2: AC, 240V, 3-8 hours, residential and public – Level 3 (in development): AC, 30 minutes, public – DC Fast: DC, 208-600V, 30 minutes, publicKC Clean Cities / 15
Ethanol• Renewable fuel produced from plant materials (biomass)• Same chemical compound in alcoholic beverages• Comes from starchy feedstocks (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets) and cellulosic feedstocks (yard waste, grasses, poplars)• Blended at low levels into 80% of gasoline sold in the United States• Increasingly available as E85, for use in flex fuel vehicles• High-octane fuel• Reduces greenhouse gas emissions KC Clean Cities / 16
Ethanol Blends E10 • Contains 10% ethanol, 90% gasoline • Most common blend in U.S. E15 • Contains 15% ethanol, 85% gasoline • EPA approved for use in MY2001 and newer vehicles E85 • Contains 51%-83% ethanol • Alternative fuel under Energy Policy Act of 1992 • Used in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) • Available in most statesKC Clean Cities / 17
Hydrogen• Hydrogen exists in water, hydrocarbons (such as methane), and organic matter.• The energy in 2.2 lb of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energy in 1 gallon of gasoline.• Steam reforming of methane (natural gas) accounts for about 95% of the hydrogen produced in the U.S.• About 9 million tons of hydrogen is produced in the U.S. each year.• Fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen potentially 2 to 3 times more efficient than conventional vehicles.KC Clean Cities / 18
Hydrogen Use• Currently used in modified internal combustion engines.• Several OEMs have pre-production light-duty vehicles in demonstration projects.• Hydrogen can be blended with natural gas to create a fuel for natural gas vehicles.KC Clean Cities / 19
Natural Gas Natural Gas • Hydrocarbons, predominantly methane (CH4) • High octane rating • Nontoxic, noncorrosive, and noncarcinogenic • Not a threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater • Extracted from gas and oil wells • Existing pipeline distribution systemKC Clean Cities / 20
Natural Gas: CNG and LNG Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) • Stored in onboard tanks under high pressure • Fuel economy similar to gasoline • 1 GGE = 5.7 lb CNG Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) • Kept at cold temperatures • Stored in double-wall, vacuum-insulated pressure vessels • Heavy-duty vehicles • 1 GGE = 1.5 gal LNGKC Clean Cities / 21
Propane • Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) • Colorless, odorless liquid (when stored under pressure) • High octane rating • Nontoxic • By-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining • Less than 2% of propane used in U.S. used in transportation • Lower GHG emissionsKC Clean Cities / 22
Propane VehiclesPropane Vehicle Availability• Light-duty vehicles available• Engines and fueling systems for heavy- and medium-duty vehicles• Conversions KC Clean Cities / 23
Coalition Activities • Apr 20 – Electrify Heartland press event to launch project • Apr 30–May 1 – First Responder Training for Alternative Fuels • Late Spring (date tbd) – Biofuels and Idle-reduction Workshop for Fleets and Retailers • July (dates tbd) – Energy Independence Days, biofuels discounts and more, at participating fuel retailers • October 23 – Clean Transportation Exposition • As needed – Technician trainings for gaseous fuels KC Clean Cities / 24
Clean Cities Web ResourcesClean CitiesAFDCFuelEconomy.govKC Clean Cities / 25
Websites and Tools Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) Access all of the tools and information at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/info_resources.html KC Clean Cities / 26
Important Web Sites and ResourcesClean Cities www.cleancities.energy.govAlternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center www.afdc.energy.govClean Cities Coordinator Contact Information and Coalitions www.afdc.energy.gov/cleancities/coalitions/coalition_locations.phpTechnical Response Service Email: firstname.lastname@example.org KC Clean Cities / 27
Contact Information & Important Links Kelly Gilbert Director of Transportation Metropolitan Energy Center 3810 Paseo Blvd. Office: (816) 561-1625 E-mail: KGilbert@KCenergy.org Kansas City Regional Clean Cities Website: www.kcenergy.org/transportation.aspx Clean Cities Website: www.cleancities.energy.gov Fuel Economy Guide and Website: www.FuelEconomy.gov Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center: www.afdc.energy.gov DOE National Idling Reduction Network : http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/resources/fcvt_national_idling.html KC Clean Cities / 28