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Sexuality education in malaysia


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Sexuality education in malaysia

  1. 1. Sorting Facts from Fiction By Masuri Binti Masood MARA TESL Cohort 1 Student ID: 2013796173
  2. 2. “Sexuality education provides young people with the knowledge, skills and efficacy to make informed decisions about their sexuality and lifestyle.” - Youth and Comprehensive Sexuality Education, UNYouth “Sexuality education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values. It encompasses sexual development, sexual and reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body image, and gender roles.” - Sexuality Information and Education Council US (SIECUS) -
  3. 3. Sexual education elements have been part of the secondary school curriculum since 1989, and subsequently introduced in primary schools in 1994. Not as a stand alone subject, but incorporated into subjects like Biology, Science, Moral Education and Islamic Studies. Currently starting from 2006, sex education Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PEERS, or Social and Reproductive Health Education) Starting this year (2014), a teen pregnancy prevention module called “Modul Pekerti”, designed by LPPKN will be introduced to 8000 students in 47 schools nationwide.
  4. 4. There is a need for formal sexual education due to the following factors:  A rise in the number of births as a result of unprotected sex  Between 2008 – 2010, there were 152,182 reported cases, with Sabah having the highest number of cases  Between 1996 - 2012, there were 627 cases of baby dumping, 80% of which are among Malay couples  The transmission of the HIV virus through sexual intercourse in Malaysia is on the rise and alarming  48.6 percent more than cases of transmission through the sharing of needles among drug addicts.  In 2012, 33,732 HIV sufferers are aged between 13 to 29 years of age and had the disease as early as in their early 20s or during their adolescent years.
  5. 5. Malaysian teenagers are becoming sexually active at a younger age  A research was carried out in 2011 among 1,000 secondary school students (aged 15 to 17) in 50 schools in Johor.  10 per cent admitted they had sexual intercourse and some admitted to having intercourse with multiple partners.  students who took part in the research also admitted practising "friends with benefits" (friends with sexual relationships without emotional attachments). - Faizah Abd Ghani, UTM
  6. 6. Rape cases are also on the increase. Year 2005 - 2007 (By Victims Age) Age 2005 2006 2007 Below 16 years 925 1303 1653 Above 16 years 1006 1128 1445 Total 1931 2431 3098
  7. 7. Based on the study “Analysis on Sex Education in Schools Across Malaysia” (2011):  95% of the respondents thought that sex education was not held formally in schools.  Science teachers did a good job at explaining on the development of sex organs, the reproduction system and the fertilization process, but only in this context.  Teachers were not enthusiastic to deliver the right message on sex education.
  8. 8. The teachers were found to not have related the topic on a wider scale concerning sexuality such as the sexual intercourse itself, the pregnancy process, STDs and sex within the Islamic context. The teaching process was considered vague, incomplete, lack depth and insufficient.
  9. 9. The physical development of a child into an adolescent The reproduction system Sexual intercourse Pregnancy and childbirth Pregnancy control/contraceptive uses Dealing or judging sexual advances from the opposite sex Sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) Illicit sex Sexual orientations (homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality, etc.)
  10. 10. Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programmes  teach abstinence as the only morally correct option of sexual expression for teenagers.  They usually censor information about contraception and condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. Abstinence-Plus Education  Programs which include information about contraception and condoms in the context of strong abstinence messages.
  11. 11. Comprehensive Sexual Education  It teaches about abstinence as the best method for avoiding STDs and unintended pregnancy, but also teaches about condoms and contraception to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy and of infection with STDs, including HIV.  It also teaches interpersonal and communication skills and helps young people explore their own values, goals, and options. Condoms Availability Programmes in Schools  Schools are supplied with free condoms and distributed to the students during their Sexual Education classes, or condoms are put in a clear container at a common area and are free to be taken by students
  12. 12. Two landmark studies, both released in 2007, conducted broad examinations of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs and comprehensive sexuality education programs. What these studies found is as important as it is unsurprising. - Malone, P & Rodriguez, M. (2011)
  13. 13. The first study, dealing with abstinence-only-until-marriage programs, focused on four federally funded abstinence-only-until- marriage programs in different communities. The study found that  no evidence that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs increased rates of sexual abstinence.  students in the abstinence-only-until-marriage programs had a similar number of sexual partners as their peers in the control group  they have a similar age of first intercourse.  the same rate of unprotected sexual intercourse. -“Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs,”. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
  14. 14. The second study came to the conclusion that  there was no strong evidence that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs delay the initiation of sexual intercourse, hasten the return to abstinence, or reduce the number of sexual partners.  two-thirds of the comprehensive programs examined had at least one positive sexual behavioural effect.  40 percent of the comprehensive programs examined achieved the three important effects of delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse, reducing the number of sexual partners, and increasing condom or contraceptive use. - Kirby, D (1997). “Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.”
  15. 15. This paper discusses 22 studies of abstinence education.  Sixteen studies examined abstinence programs that were primarily intended to teach abstinence. Of these 16 studies, 12 reported positive findings.  The other six studies analyzed virginity pledges, and of these six studies, five reported positive findings.  Overall, 17 of the 22 studies reported statistically significant positive results, such as delayed sexual initiation and reduced levels of early sexual activity, among youths who have received abstinence education.  Five studies did not report any significant results.
  16. 16. 1. Offer age- and culturally appropriate sexual health information in a safe environment for participants; 2. Are developed in cooperation with members of the target community, especially young people; 3. Assist youth to clarify their individual, family, and community values; 4. Assist youth to develop skills in communication, refusal, and negotiation; 5. Provide medically accurate information about both abstinence and also contraception, including condoms;
  17. 17. 6. Have clear goals for preventing HIV, other STIs, and/or teen pregnancy; 7. Focus on specific health behaviours related to the goals, with clear messages about these behaviours; 8. Address psychosocial risks and protective factors with activities to change each targeted risk and to promote each protective factor; 9. Respect community values and respond to community needs; 10. Rely on participatory teaching methods, implemented by trained educators and using all the activities as designed
  18. 18.  “The condom availability program appears not to have produced an increase in sexual activity among high school students, and it appears to have led to improved condom use among males. The apparent strong effect on students' intention to use condoms and on males' use at first vaginal intercourse suggests that such programs may have a particular impact on the least sexually experienced adolescents.” - Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 30(2):67-72 &88
  19. 19. “In Europe and Canada where comprehensive sexuality education and convenient, confidential access to condoms are more common, the rates of adolescent sexual intercourse are no higher than in the United States.” - American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence. Condom availability for youth. Pediatrics 1995
  20. 20. “A comparison of public high schools in New York City and Chicago found positive effects of condom availability programs. With the same sexual activity among senior high school students in both cities (NYC, 59.7 percent; Chicago, 60.1 percent), sexually active students in New York, where there is a condom availability program, were more likely to report using a condom at last intercourse than were those in Chicago, where condoms are not available in school (60.8 to 55.5 percent) - Guttmacher S, Lieberman L, Ward D, et al. (1997)
  21. 21. “In a two-year study of Philadelphia health resource centers (HRCs) that make condoms available, the percentage of students using condoms at their last intercourse increased from 52 to 58 percent. In schools with high HRC use, the number of students ever having intercourse dropped from 75 to 66 percent, while condom use at the last intercourse rose from 37 to 50 percent.” - Furstenberg FF, Geitz LM, Teitler JO, et al. (1997)
  22. 22. “By comparison, in schools reporting lower HRC use, the percentage of sexually active teens decreased from 61 to 56 percent, while condom use a last intercourse rose from 57 to 61 percent. Non-program schools showed an increase in sexual activity among teens, while condom use increased from 62 to 65 percent.” - Furstenberg FF, Geitz LM, Teitler JO, et al. (1997)