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Influence of Work-life balance in employee’s performance

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Work–life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation. This is related to the idea of lifestyles choice. The work–leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid-1801s. Paul Krassner remarked that anthropologists use a definition of happiness that is to have as little separation as possible "between your work and your play". The expression "work–life balance" was first used in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s to describe the balance between an individual's work and personal life. In the United States this phrase was first used in 1986 The business case for work-life balance practices, as espoused by many organizations, rests on attracting better applicants and reducing work-life conflict among existing employees in order to enhance organizational performance. This review of the literature provides some evidence for the claim regarding recruitment, but there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that work-life practices enhance performance by means of reduced work-life conflict. We suggest that the business case may therefore need to be modified to reflect the number of additional routes by which work-life balance practices can influence organizational performance, including enhanced social exchange processes, increased cost savings, improved productivity, and reduced turnover. The impact of these processes may, however, be moderated by a number of factors, including national context, job level, and managerial support.

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Influence of Work-life balance in employee’s performance

  1. 1. 1 Surma Tower, Sylhet An Assignment on ““““IIIInfluencenfluencenfluencenfluence oooof Workf Workf Workf Work––––life balancelife balancelife balancelife balance iiiinnnn employee’s perfemployee’s perfemployee’s perfemployee’s perfoooormance”rmance”rmance”rmance” Course title: PerformancePerformancePerformancePerformance ManageManageManageManagementmentmentment Course code: HRM-610 Submitted to: Md.Md.Md.Md. Shamimul IslamShamimul IslamShamimul IslamShamimul Islam Senior Lecturer Department of Business Administration Leading University, Sylhet Prepared by: Torch BearTorch BearTorch BearTorch Bearer’ser’ser’ser’s ID Name 1611017014 Mahmudul Hasan 1611017021 Masum Hussain Semester: 5th Batch: 38th Major: Human Resource Management MBA Program Department of Business Administration Leading University, Sylhet Date of Submission: 02 December, 2016
  2. 2. 2 Abstract Work–life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation. This is related to the idea of lifestyles choice. The work–leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid-1801s. Paul Krassner remarked that anthropologists use a definition of happiness that is to have as little separation as possible "between your work and your play". The expression "work–life balance" was first used in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s to describe the balance between an individual's work and personal life. In the United States this phrase was first used in 1986 The business case for work-life balance practices, as espoused by many organizations, rests on attracting better applicants and reducing work-life conflict among existing employees in order to enhance organizational performance. This review of the literature provides some evidence for the claim regarding recruitment, but there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that work-life practices enhance performance by means of reduced work-life conflict. We suggest that the business case may therefore need to be modified to reflect the number of additional routes by which work-life balance practices can influence organizational performance, including enhanced social exchange processes, increased cost savings, improved productivity, and reduced turnover. The impact of these processes may, however, be moderated by a number of factors, including national context, job level, and managerial support. Despite the popularity of work-life conflict as a topic of academic and practitioner debate, and the mounting prevalence of work-life balance practices in organizations around the world, research on the organizational effects of such practices is not well integrated. Competing demands between work and home have assumed increased relevance for employees in recent years, due in large part to demographic and workplace changes such as rising numbers of women in the labour force, an ageing population, longer working hours, and more sophisticated communications technology enabling near constant contact with the workplace. In response to these changes and the conflict they generate among the multiple roles that individuals occupy, organizations are increasingly pressured to implement work practices intended to facilitate employees’ efforts to fulfil both their employment- related and their personal responsibilities. While there is no one accepted definition of what constitutes a work-life balance practice, the term usually refers to one of the following: organizational support for dependent care, flexible work options, and family or personal leave.
  3. 3. 3 Contents Subjects pages 1. Introduction 5 2. Definitions for work life balance 5 3. Work-life balance and economic changes 6 4. Work-life balance and demographics 6 5. Work-family conflict 7 6. Consequences of work-life balance and work-life imbalance 8 7. Family satisfaction 8 8. Work satisfaction 8 9. Psychological health 9 10.Employee Performance 9 11.Leave Policy 10 a. Annual leave 10 b. Parental Leave 10 c. Paid Family and Medical leave 10 d. Sick leave 10 e. Study leave 10 12.Service Delivery 11 13.Work-life Balance and its Outcomes 11 14.Affective Commitment and In-role Performance 12 15.Findings 12 16.Recommendation 13 17.Conclusion 14 18.References 15
  4. 4. 4 Acknowledgement At first, we are grateful to Almighty Allah for creating us in such a beautiful country like Bangladesh and also for controlling our life. For the mercy of Him, we have got such courage to start this assignment on ““““IIIInfluencenfluencenfluencenfluence oooof Workf Workf Workf Work––––life balancelife balancelife balancelife balance inininin employee’semployee’semployee’semployee’s perfperfperfperfoooormance”rmance”rmance”rmance” After that we would like to give thanks to our honorable Dean and Head of the Department Prof.Prof.Prof.Prof. Md. Nazrul IslamMd. Nazrul IslamMd. Nazrul IslamMd. Nazrul Islam for giving us the opportunity to study in this subject. We would like to express our thanks to the librarian of Leading University for all his help that we have received. Our respected parents who gave us mental support and inspiration for our assignment, there is a special thanks for them. We also would like to give a lot of thanks to our honorable course teacher, Md.Md.Md.Md. Shamimul IslamShamimul IslamShamimul IslamShamimul Islam for giving us a wonderful opportunity to make such an interesting and valuable assignment and giving us a clear concept about the assignment. At last but not the least, without the help of our friends and classmates it was quite impossible to prepare such kind of assignment. They gave us some necessary information about this topic which was unknown to us. So, we would like to give thanks to all of them.
  5. 5. 5 Introduction Individuals experience more conflict between work and personal life as they continue to pursue the quality of life that they need. Thus, successfully balancing work and family life is one of the major challenges facing current individual workers. Historically, work-life balance issues have been considered personal issues (Emslie & Hunt, 2009), and employers have just responded to their employees’ needs by providing additional benefits such as on-site childcare service and paid maternity leave in the workplace. However, with environmental shifts and value changes of employees, employees’ desire for work-life balance has increased and employers have begun to offer more active support of their employees’ work-life balance (Thornthwaite, 2004). In its list of the 100 best companies to work for, Fortune magazine identifies organizations that make an effort to assist employees in managing the duties of work and family (Muse et al., 2008). Thus, organizational efforts for ensuring employees’ work-life balance are needed and valued more than ever. Many researchers have generally agreed on the important role of work-life balance as it is related with an individual’s psychological well-being and overall sense of harmony in life, which is an indicator of balance between the workplace role and the role in family (Clark, 2000; Marks and MacDermid,1996). Recent research shows that both employees and organizations benefit from successfully balanced work and family life (e.g., Greenhaus and Powell, 2006; Hammer et al., 2005). In family domains, when people experience a lack of work-life balance, this experience threatens key domains of their personal lives (Lachman and Boone-James, 1997); on the other hand, work-life balance enhances their well-being and family satisfaction (Grzywacz,2000). In work domains, the absence of work-life balance causes poor performance and more absenteeism of employees (Frone et al., 1997), but balanced work and family life is associated with increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Cegarra- Leiva et al., 2012; Wayne et al., 2004). In other words, employees’ work-life balance experiences deepen their role-related engagement, which is related to organizational performance improvement (Carlson et al., 2008). Work-life balance in the workplace has become a more important issue as it tends to exhibit positive results such as low turnover, work engagement, organizational citizenship behavior, in-role performance, increased firm productivity, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Konrad and Mangel, 2000; Lambert, 2000; Shepard et al., 1996; Wang and Walumbwa, 2007). As emphasized by several researchers, managing work-life balance has become one of the most critical managerial strategies for ensuring employees’ performance and organizational performance improvement. Literature Review and Theoretical Foundation Definitions for work life balance: Work-life balance is vital for individuals’ wellbeing, organizations performance and a functioning society. There are different beliefs on how work-life balance should be defined, measured and researched according to Grzywacz & Carlson. Different terms are also used by
  6. 6. 6 different researchers while referring to ‘work-life balance’. For example, according to Frone & Greenhaus the term ‘work-family balance refer to, ‘work-family fit’; Burke (2000) refers to ‘work-personal life balance’; and Grady,(2008) refers to ‘work-life balance’. As work- family balance is often associated with traditional families, i.e., individuals who are married with children (Barnett & Hyde, 2001), and this study refers to a family in both its traditional and non-traditional form; in order to therefore avoid any confusion, the term ‘work-life balance’ is used throughout this paper. Work life balance does not mean an equal balance. trying to schedule an equal number of hours for each of your various work and personal activities is usually unrewarding and unrealistic. Life is and should be more fluid than that. Your best individual work-life balance will vary over time, often on a daily basis. The right balance for you today will probably be different for you tomorrow. The right balances for you when you are single will be different when you marry, or if you have children; when you start a new career versus when you are nearing retirement. There is no perfect, one-size fits all, balance you should be striving for. The best work-life balance is different for each of us because we all have different priorities and different lives. However, at the core of an effective work-life balance definition are two key everyday concepts that are relevant to each of us. They are daily Achievement and Enjoyment, ideas almost deceptive in their simplicity. Work-life balance and economic changes: The recent economic downturn, increased competition and evolving technology have put pressure on companies to perform, and on employees to increase their productivity (O’Connell et al., 2010). Organization deal with these tough economic times by cutting expenditure, decreasing staff levels and increasing workloads for remaining employees (O’Connell et al., 2010). The wellbeing of workers who kept their employment can be negatively affected by job insecurity (Scherer, 2009). Many individuals feel under pressure to work longer hours to keep their jobs (Wayman, 2010), and to meet their family expenses. Higher demands on employees’ duties and longer working hours reduce the time workers have to spend with their families (Hill, 2005). Statistics show that in Ireland in 2011 men worked an average of 39.4 hours a week and women 30.6 hours (CSO, 2012). Heavier work demands faced by employees also result in higher levels of stress, which negatively impacts workers’ physical and psychological wellbeing (Malik, McKie, Beattie & Hogg, 2010). Grady and Burkwe argue that organizations and managers need to understand the importance of WLB, its impact on employees’ wellbeing, and the effects it has on organizations productivity and performance. Work-life balance and demographics: Over the last few decades, global demographic changes such as an increased participation of women in the workforce, two-income households, single-parent families and eldercare have resulted in increased challenges faced by workers who tried to balance demands of work and family life (Tennant &Sperry, 2003; Young, 1999). These challenges and higher demands from work and family life have been found to have negative effects on the wellbeing of workers and their families (Hochschild, 1997), and resulted in family-work conflicts and work- family conflicts (Aryee, Srinivas & Tan, 2005).
  7. 7. 7 If we observe the international arena The Irish labour force has experienced a significant increase in female workers and two-income households According to CSO (2012) in 2011, 46.7% of those in Irish employment were women. Hilliard (2007) also noticed that in the past three decades, World is experiencing a significant increase in female workers staying in the paid workforce after getting married or returning to work after having children. This could be caused by changing attitudes of traditional people view of men being breadwinners and women being housewives looking after children (Hilliard, 2007). Research shows that married women seem to work fewer hours than married men. Fine-Davis, Fagnani, Giovannini, Hojgaard and Clarke (2004) found that in Europe fathers worked weekly 45 hours and mothers worked 32 hours. Recent statistics show that in 2011, 14.7% of married women worked 40 hours or more a week, compared with 44.5% of married men (CSO, 2012). Fine-Davis, McCarthy, Edge and O'Dwyer (2005) argue that men do not contribute as much time to household activities and childcare as women, hence WLB initiatives seem to be used more often by women than by men. Apart from an increasing female workforce Grady (2008) also state that the labour force is aging, which means that in the future organizations would require greater flexibility in working arrangements. According to CSO (2013) projections the old population in (aged 65 years and over) is to rise significantly by 2026, and by 2046. The very old population (aged 80 years and over) is to increase even more drastically. These findings suggest that more employees may have to look after their elderly relatives, which will increase their duty of care for dependant elders, and lead to higher levels of work-family conflict. Work-family conflict: Work-family conflict occurs when work activities interfere with family activities, and in contrast, family-work conflict occurs when family activities interfere with work activities (Breaugh& Frye, 2007; Hill, 2005). The literature indicates various definitions of work- family conflict and family-work conflict. Netemeyer, Boles and McMurrian (1996, p. 401) describe family-work conflict as “a form of inter role conflict in which general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the family interfere with performing work-related responsibilities”, and work-family conflict as “a form of inter role conflict in which the general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the job interfere with performing family-related responsibilities”. Research has shown that work-family conflict and family-work conflict are a result of pressure created by incompatible work and family roles (Yang, 2005; Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) argue that participation in the work domain is more difficult due to participation in the family domain, and vice versa. Greenhaus and Beutell (1985, p.77) define work- family and family-work conflicts as “a form of friction in which role pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respects”. These conflicts occur bi-directionally, which means that a negative experience at work can affect employees’ family life, and vice versa (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson &Kacmar, 2007; Yang, 2005). This happens because work-family conflict is negatively related to family life satisfaction, whereas family-work conflict is connected to lower work satisfaction.
  8. 8. 8 Consequences of work-life balance and work-life imbalance Various studies conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom show that one of the most common consequences of work-life imbalance is depression, resulting in decreased productivity and higher absenteeism and organizations experiencing higher staff turnover, lower productivity and poorer work quality. Research conducted by Malik et al. (2010) shows that unbalanced work-family life caused by increased work demands leads to higher levels of stress. Stress caused by higher demands from work results in family-work conflicts and work- family conflicts (Aryee et al., 2005). This has negative impacts not only on the wellbeing of workers but also on their families (Hochschild, 1997), as it increases anxiety of individuals at work and at home (Doby& Caplan, 1995), and leads to lower quality relationships with family members (e.g. spouse or children) (Parasuraman&Greenhaus, 2002). Increased work demands such as overtime and shift work may lead to work-family conflict, which can result in decreased satisfaction with work and with the employer (Paton, Jackson & Johnson, 2003). Therefore, work-related stress has a negative impact on employees, organisations, families and society (Brought & O’Driscoll, 2005; Parasuraman&Greenhaus, 2002). WLB policies have been found to reduce absenteeism and positively impact employees’ job satisfaction, productivity and retention (Hill, 2005; Allen, 2001). Grady et al. (2008) emphasise the importance for organisations to implement WLB initiatives. These initiatives include flexible working hours, temporal. Family satisfaction In order to describe family satisfaction it is important to note that some researchers use the term ‘family satisfaction’ (e.g. Hill, 2005) ‘home-life satisfaction’ (e.g. Clark & Farmer, 1998) or ‘life satisfaction’ (e.g. Diener, 2005; Shin & Johnson, 1987). According to Shin and Johnson (1987) life satisfaction refers to a judgmental process where individuals evaluate their lives based on their own unique criteria. These criteria include health and successful relationships; however, they may be differently understood or weighted by individuals (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985). Clark and Farmer (1998) state that home-life satisfaction means achieving close relationship and personal happiness. This study refers to the term ‘family satisfaction’ where the word ‘family’ is not limited to children, spouses or partners only, but it also includes parents, siblings and other relatives. This terminology was used in order to distinguish participants’ work lives from their family lives, in particular whilst completing the questionnaire. Also, this terminology was used to avoid confusion by the reader and participants, where for example ‘life satisfaction’ could be understood as satisfaction with family life and work life together. Work satisfaction Many researchers indicate a strong positive correlation between work satisfaction and wellbeing (Hill, 2005; Greenhaus et al., 2003). Work satisfaction can be divided into affective work satisfaction based on individuals’ overall feeling about their job as a whole; and cognitive work satisfaction based on individuals’ logical evaluation of the job conditions (e.g. working hours, pay and pension plans), opportunities and outcomes (Spector, 1997;
  9. 9. 9 Moorman, 1993). According to Clark and Farmer (1998) work satisfaction refers to a sense of achievement and income stability. There are two sets of factors determining work satisfaction: (a) intrinsic factors such as education, job meaningfulness, job expectations and family demands; and (b) work-related factors such as job security, skill variety, role overload and conflict, and supervisor support (Paton et al., 2003). This study refers to affective work satisfaction to mean work satisfaction, and measures work satisfaction using subjective emotional evaluations made by individuals (Frone et al., 1992), in order to determine whether individuals experience satisfaction from their work as a whole Psychological health Psychological health is fundamental to people’s well-being and can be defined as “a state of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community” (World Health Organisation, 2005, p.18). Psychological health can be assessed by identifying symptoms of anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and feelings of incompetence and uncertainty (Goldberg, 1972). The literature indicates correlations between psychological health and ability to lead a fulfilling life (Whaley, Morrison, Wall, Payne &Fritschi, 2005) by highlighting the relationship between work-family conflict and psychological distress (Allen et al., 2000; Netemeyer et al., 1996; Frone et al., 1992), and between work-family conflict and depression and anxiety (Allen et al., 2000). However, Frone et al. (1992) argue that the correlation between depression and family-work conflict is stronger over time than the correlation between depression and work-family conflict. Employee Performance: Employee Performance in a firm is a very important area in the workplace. It can help the firm increase and utilize the capacity of the human resources it has. It translates into good service delivery and interaction in which affects every area of the organization. To achieve this organization need to make polices that will encourage employee performance. An employee’s job performance depends on or is a consequence of some combination of ability, effort, and opportunity. But, the measurements can be done in terms of outcomes or results produced (Ferris et al., 1998). Performance is defined as the record of outcomes produced on a specified job function or activity during a specified time period. (Bernadrdin and Russel, 1998). According to this definition performance is set of outcomes produced during a certain time period. Hence the researchers have developed the working definition of employee performance for study purpose is that, “achievement of targets of the tasks assigned to employees within particular period of time”. Performance is not only related to the action but also involves judgment and evaluation process (Ilgen and Schneider, 1991). According to Campbell (1993) performance is related to that which the individual that is hired do in fulfilling his / her duties and the activities that can be examined and measurable are reflected. An organization needs high performance of its employees, so as to meet its goal and be able to achieve competitive advantage (Frese, 2002). According to business dictionary
  10. 10. 10 employee performance is the job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed. The organization success depends on the employee performance. Therefore, it is important for a manager to create a well –rounded approach to managing and coaching its workforce. The commercial banks are service industry and their main aim is to satisfy their customer. The service employee renders to the customer and employee performance is interrelated. When employees provide excellent customer service, they are exceeding job expectations. The popularity of an organization’s service is based in part on the level of service received by the customer. For service industry the business is based almost solely on their employee’s performance. That is why management must look for various ways in improving employee performance. Leave Policy: Leave is the amount of hours/days employees of an organization are permitted to be away from their employment position within a period of time without consequences. This time off is paid by the company and employees are allowed to request the time for any reason they wish to be off work. It also gives the ability for employee to release themselves from work stress and create a balance between work and their family activities. This type of work life balances helps employees to perform other duties outside work, which creates a balancing effect between work activities and life activities. There are different types of leave policy which are: Annual leave: Annual leave can defined as paid leave for the purpose of recreation to which employees become entitled after a period of qualifying service or employment with a particular employer (Work Place Information, 2002). Parental Leave: Parental Leave is an official permission given to employees with child care giving responsibilities. Women are entitled to twelve weeks’ maternity leave with at least half pay but usually the customary benefits are more generous with maternity leave fully paid. The female employees often times are the greater beneficiaries of this leave. Carer’s leave: Carer’s leave is an official permission for an employee to take time off to take care for an immediate family or household member who is sick or injured or help during a family emergence. But it comes out of the employee personal leave balance. Paid Family and Medical leave: Paid Family and Medical leave relates with an officially granted leave of absence from work to attend to dependent care challenges or personal health concerns of the employee. Sick leave: Sick leave is time off from work that an employee can use to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Study leave: Study leave is given to any staff member who is undertaking an approved study course. Training leave is given to an employee for self development and organization development.
  11. 11. 11 Service Delivery: Service delivery indicates ‘where’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ the service product is delivered to the customer (Lovelock and Wirtz, 2004). The service delivery process can be broken down into service encounters that comprise the main part of the whole process (Danaher and Mattsson, 1994) and, as noted by Chowdhary and Prakash (2007), some generalization within service types is possible for different services and service providers, and managers may have to consider this in its design. Thus, the power to deliver optimal service quality will get the service firms competitive advantages among others in the same industry (Turel, Serenko&Bontis, 2007). According lash (1999) to work life balance helps to enhance service delivery among the employees. Service delivery is a component of business that defines the interaction between providers and clients where the provider offers a service, and it could be an information or task. In the banking sector different types of services are being offered. The heads of the banks are located at one place. However, their branches are scattered and located across the country. The jobs of offering the services are assigned to employees and the performance on the job matters a lot. This is because it affects the customers’ satisfaction, getting and retaining existing customers, complaints handling, targets achieved, sales turnover, profits, market shares and good will of the company. The performance of employees is important, not only in banking but other service sectors. Better performance gives satisfaction to the customers. Services are to be provided with minimum processing and waiting time, proper response, promptness and the desire to handle many customers as the demand arises Work-life Balance and its Outcomes Work-family balance is defined as “satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict” (Clark, 2000, p. 751). Moreover, Parkes and Langford (2008) defined this as “an individual’s ability to meet work and family commitments, as well as other non-work responsibilities and activities” (p. 267). That is, these two definitions for work-life balance imply establishing an acceptable combination of work and life (Thornthwaite, 2004). And the majority of work-life studies have defined work-life balance in terms of the level of work-life conflict (Carlson et al., 2009). This study assumes that work-life balance corresponds to the absence of work-life conflict. Several empirical studies have showed that the experience of work-life balance is positively related to employees’ performance and organizational performance as well. More specifically, work-life balance has been shown to have positive outcomes, such as low turnover intention, improvement of performance, and job satisfaction. Work-life balance contributes to increasing employees’ in-role performance (Magnini, 2009). The experience of psychological well-being and harmony in life helps employees concentrate on their work, resulting in better performance. For example work-family conflict can yield a negative impact on both in-role performance and extra-role performance. In addition, work-life balance has a positive effect on employees’ affective commitment to their organizations, that is, the experience of work-life balance generates feelings of loyalty to the organization and increases affective commitment. Affective commitment is an emotional attachment to the
  12. 12. 12 organizations or the employers which can cause employees to want to remain with the organizations (Allen and Meyer, 1996). Employees become strongly attached to their organizations when their needs and expectations are satisfied (Meyer et al., 1993). The experience of work-life balance satisfies employees’ psychological demands to maintain the balance between work and life. Several empirical studies have supported that employees’ experience of work-life balance contributes to favorable evaluation of their organizations and affective commitment (Muse et al., 2008). Similarly, work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW) are negatively related to affective commitment (Allen et al., 2000; Netemeyer et al., 1996; Streich et al., 2008). Based on this review of the literature, the following research hypotheses were developed: Affective Commitment and In-role Performance: In-role performance refers to officially required outcomes and behaviors achieved by serving organizational objectives and doing official work formally specified in the employment contract. Achieving a high level of in-role performance is critical to all organizations, as employees’ in-role performance is directly associated with the sustainable growth of the organization (Burney et al., 2009). The achievement of in-role performance could be affected by employees’ affective commitment to the organization (Swailes, 2004). Affective commitment is an employee’s desire to stay as a member of the organization, an intention to make an effort for the organization, a belief in the values and norms of the organization (Glazer and Kruse, 2008), and emotional attachment to the organization (Allen and Meyer, 1996). This affective commitment is a driving force that makes employees contribute to the improvement of the organization’s performance suggested that when emotion is evoked, this emotion leads to actions. It is possible that when employees are affectively committed to their organization, this emotion motivates employees’ behaviors. Many scholars have studied the structural relationship between affective commitment and in-role performance. The lack of employees’ affective commitment results in negative outcomes such as turnover intention and low productivity. On the other hand, the high level of employees’ affective commitment to their organization increases in-role performance. According to Meyer, Bobocel, and Allen (1991), employees’ affective commitment is an attitudinal response, which occurs with employment experiences and beliefs about the work environment. Experiences and beliefs related to work-life balance should positively affect the attitude of commitment, and employees’ affective commitment to their organization might keep them successfully performing their in-role behavior. Findings: 1) Work life balance is vital in protecting & securing both organizational performance & employee satisfaction. 2) Lack of work life balance can spark direct & indirect work resistance by the employees. 3) Improper work life balance creates anxiety among the employee results in actions like absenteeism & turnover. 4) Employee work life balance concern should be an important issue in forming employee nurturing strategy.
  13. 13. 13 5) Different leaves schemes, entertainment packages can add significant value to the employee. 6) Proper work life time maintenance ensures performance sustainability of workforce thus the company. Recommendation: On the basis of the findings and conclusion drawn from the study, the following recommendations were made. The management of the Commercial banks should make sure they strategies different work life incentive that will encourage the employees to be more productive on their job. Also, managers of these organizations should encourage their employee to fix their leave at their convenient period after performing all their work related duties. Managers of these organizations should create activities that improve employee leisure time. Sport activities Management should create forum for get together between employee and their family and award ceremonies in which their immediate family will be involved. Management of commercial banks should create child care assistance this will help the employee. Provision of family welfare policies to encourage care for dependent.
  14. 14. 14 Conclusion Various previous studies have addressed the important role of work-life balance in increasing employees’ psychological well-being and the influence of this psychological well-being on organizational performance improvement (Konrad and Mangel, 2000; Lambert, 2000; Shepard et al., 1996; Wang and Walumbwa, 2007). Although these studies insist that work- life balance plays a significant role in employees’ psychological well-being and behavioral performance, less attention has been focused on what effects work-life balance has on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Thus, the current study posited that work-life balance, along with employees’ affective commitment, could affect performance improvement in the Korean workplace. The data for this study were collected from the Korean business context where the interest in work-life balance has increased and the in-depth research on work-life balance is needed. In addition, through empirical tests, Ryu (2012) confirmed the importance of work- life balance by showing that work-family balance experiences increased employees’ life satisfaction and job satisfaction. The results of the current study showed that social situations and lack of organizational support may hinder employees’ work-life balance. Further discussion on ways to overcome this problem is provided below. This study concludes that work life balance philosophy is associated with real benefits for an organization. This is because the social and psychological life of every employee needs to be rightly put in check for them to be an asset and not just an employee that is used to carry out day to day operations of the organisation. In line with vans cotter (2000) high employee performance lead an organization to have greater opportunities for employees than those who have low performance. Therefore it is important for employer to look for better ways in improving employee performance. This can be done by helping them prioritize their work and life activities. When this is achieved, employee is motivated to render their service efficiently and effectively. Employees are happier when they are able to balance their work life demands. Management also experience improve relationship with employees. Management support for employees work life balance fosters a good relationship between the work force and management which improve effective communication in the organization.
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