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1
Modhuban, Sylhet
Assignment on
“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences &“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequ...
2
Content
Subject page no.
First Chapter: Introduction 5
1.1 Statement of the study 5
1.2 Objective of the study 6
1.2.1Pr...
3
ABSTRACT
Women’s purportedly disproportionate and rising share of poverty - as encapsulated
in the widely popularised te...
4
AcknowledgementAcknowledgementAcknowledgementAcknowledgement
At first, we are grateful to Almighty Allah for creating us...
5
First Chapter:
Introduction:
The feminization of poverty is a change at levels of poverty biased against women or female...
6
women, especially in developing countries". This concept is not only a consequence of lack
of income, but is also the re...
7
Wage Discrimination
This survey gives us a clearer picture of what is driving the large differences between men’s
and wo...
8
social inequality deprives women of capabilities, particularly employment, which leads to
women having a higher risk of ...
9
children are economically dependent. Women have no choice but to live in this dependent
condition, due to their relative...
10
Consequences of feminization of poverty
Homelessness
or extreme poverty, carries with it a particularly strong set of r...
11
households to join the ranks of the underclass. Further, because wives generally live longer
than their husbands, growi...
12
1.6 Conceptual model
↓
Feminization of poverty
Causes Consequences Recommendations
1. Lone mother households
2. Lack of...
13
related to the rising incidence of lone mother households. The term feminization of poverty
itself is controversial and...
14
population who can't be located and this might introduce a source of bias. For example, those
available for study throu...
15
2.12 Limitation of the data collection:
i. Time Limitation: as our submission date of assignment is 12th
August we
can’...
16
Third Chapter: Data analysis and Presentation
3.1 Finding
Feminization of poverty is not only national crisis; it is al...
17
Fourth Chapter: Conclusion & Discussion
4.1 Personal Evaluation
As a developing country we have to live with different ...
18
4.2 Bibliography/Reference
Findlay, J. and R. E. Wright. 1996. “Gender, poverty and the intra-household distributi on o...
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Women’s purportedly disproportionate and rising share of poverty - as encapsulated in the widely popularised term the ‘feminisation of poverty’ – has conferred unprecedented prominence upon gender in poverty analysis and policy. However, the ‘feminisation of poverty’ is often used in a cursory and unsubstantiated manner and, in its implicit privileging of income, does not necessarily highlight aspects of poverty which are most relevant to poor women at the grassroots. Although the UNDP’s gender indices go some way to reflecting broader aspects of gendered poverty, particularly in respect of capabilities and opportunities, there is scope for improvement. In the interests of working towards gender indices which are more responsive to crucial gender gaps in poverty (understood not only as income deficiency, but in a more multidimensional fashion, and which give weight to the onus of dealing with poverty), the main aims of this paper are three-fold. The first is to draw attention to existing conceptual and methodological weaknesses with the ‘feminisation of poverty’. The second is to offer some thoughts on how the ‘feminisation of poverty’ could be re-cast to more effectively capture trends in gendered privation among the poor. The third is to propose directions for the kinds of data and indicators which might be incorporated within the GDI or GEM, or used in the creation of a Gendered Poverty Index (GPI).

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Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences & Recommendations

  1. 1. 1 Modhuban, Sylhet Assignment on “Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences &“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences &“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences &“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences & RecommendationRecommendationRecommendationRecommendationssss (A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”(A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”(A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”(A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)” Course titleCourse titleCourse titleCourse title:::: SocioSocioSocioSocio----Economic Profile of BangladeshEconomic Profile of BangladeshEconomic Profile of BangladeshEconomic Profile of Bangladesh Course code: (GED 105) Submitted to: Musa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima Begum Senior Lecturer Department of Business Administration Leading University, Sylhet Submitted by: ““““ReReReRealisticalisticalisticalistic”””” Name ID Moupiya Sen 1201010213 Shahidul Islam 1201010242 Umma Kulsum Napchun 1201010203 Md. Mijanur Rahman 1201010229 Lovely Begum 1201010244 Rahul kanti Bhattacharjee 1201010229 Sabbir Ahmed 0801010003 Sonia Rahman 1201010250 Ehsan Ahmed Chowdhury 1201010230 Md. Kamrul Islam 1201010215 Masum Hussain 1201010202 Section: E Semester: 2nd Batch: 30th Department of Business Administration Leading University, Sylhet Submission Date: 02nd September 2012
  2. 2. 2 Content Subject page no. First Chapter: Introduction 5 1.1 Statement of the study 5 1.2 Objective of the study 6 1.2.1Primary Objective 6 1.2.2Specific Objective 6 1.3 Literature Review 6 1.4 Importance of the study 12 1.5 Conceptual Model 13 1.6 Working Definition 13 Second Chapter: Research Methodology 15 2.1 Research Method 15 2.2 Research Design 15 2.3 Research Area 15 2.4 Research Unit 15 2.5 Population 15 2.6 Sampling 15 2.7 Sample Size 16 2.8 Sources of the data 16 2.8.1 Primary Sources 16 2.8.2 Secondary Sources 16 2.9 Data collection Method 16 2.10 Types of Questionnaire 17 2.11 Data Analysis Method 17 2.12 Limitation of the data Method 17 2.13 Limitation of the Research 17 Third Chapter: Data Analysis & Presentation 18 3.1 Data Analysis 18 3.2 Findings 18 3.3 Recommendation 18 Fourth Chapter: Conclusion & Discussion 19 4.1 Personal Evaluation 19 4.2 Bibliography 20
  3. 3. 3 ABSTRACT Women’s purportedly disproportionate and rising share of poverty - as encapsulated in the widely popularised term the ‘feminisation of poverty’ – has conferred unprecedented prominence upon gender in poverty analysis and policy. However, the ‘feminisation of poverty’ is often used in a cursory and unsubstantiated manner and, in its implicit privileging of income, does not necessarily highlight aspects of poverty which are most relevant to poor women at the grassroots. Although the UNDP’s gender indices go some way to reflecting broader aspects of gendered poverty, particularly in respect of capabilities and opportunities, there is scope for improvement. In the interests of working towards gender indices which are more responsive to crucial gender gaps in poverty (understood not only as income deficiency, but in a more multidimensional fashion, and which give weight to the onus of dealing with poverty), the main aims of this paper are three-fold. The first is to draw attention to existing conceptual and methodological weaknesses with the ‘feminisation of poverty’. The second is to offer some thoughts on how the ‘feminisation of poverty’ could be re-cast to more effectively capture trends in gendered privation among the poor. The third is to propose directions for the kinds of data and indicators which might be incorporated within the GDI or GEM, or used in the creation of a Gendered Poverty Index (GPI).
  4. 4. 4 AcknowledgementAcknowledgementAcknowledgementAcknowledgement At first, we are grateful to Almighty Allah for creating us in such a beautiful country like Bangladesh and also for controlling our life. For the mercy of Him, we have got such courage to start this assignment on “Feminization o“Feminization o“Feminization o“Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences &f Poverty: Causes, Consequences &f Poverty: Causes, Consequences &f Poverty: Causes, Consequences & Recommendations (A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”Recommendations (A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”Recommendations (A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)”Recommendations (A Study at Sylhet City Corporation)” After that we would like to give thanks to our honorable Head of the Department Dr. Bashir AhmedDr. Bashir AhmedDr. Bashir AhmedDr. Bashir Ahmed Bhuiyan,Bhuiyan,Bhuiyan,Bhuiyan, for giving us the opportunity to study in this subject. We would like to express our thanks to the librarian of Leading University for all his help that we have received. Our respected parents who gave us mental support and inspiration for our assignment, there is a special thanks for them. We also would like to give a lot of thanks to our honorable course teacher, Musa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima BegumMusa. Halima Begum for giving us a wonderful opportunity to make such an interesting and valuable assignment and giving us a clear concept about the assignment. At last but not the least, without the help of our friends and classmates it was quite impossible to prepare such kind of assignment. They gave us some necessary information about this topic which was unknown to us. So, we would like to give thanks to all of them.
  5. 5. 5 First Chapter: Introduction: The feminization of poverty is a change at levels of poverty biased against women or female- headed households. More specifically, it is an increase in the difference in the levels of poverty among women and men or among female versus male and couple-headed households. It can also mean an increase of the role that gender inequalities have as a determinant of poverty, which would characterize a feminization of the causes of poverty. Economist Nancy Flore coined the phrase pauperization of motherhood to suggest the involvement of sexually discriminatory institutions in this process of sex-biased impoverishment. Its precise definition depends on two subsidiary definitions: of what is poverty and what is feminization. Poverty is a deprivation of resources, capabilities or freedoms which are commonly called the dimensions or spaces of poverty. The term feminization can be applied to indicate a gender biased change in any of this dimensions or spaces. Feminization is an action, a process of becoming more feminine. It necessarily involves changes over time or populations (comparing geographical areas, for example).Feminine, in this case, is used to mean 'more common or intense among women or female headed households'. Because it implies changes, the feminization of poverty should not be confused with the existence of higher levels of poverty among women or female headed households. Feminization is a process; 'higher poverty' is a state. It is also a relative concept basedon a women-men (or female-male/couple headed households) comparison, where what matters are the differences (or ratios, depending on the way it is measured) between women and men at each moment. Since the concept is relative, the feminization doesnot necessarily imply an absolute worsening in poverty among women or female headedhouseholds: if poverty in a society is sharply reduced among men and is only slightly reduced among women, there would still be a feminization of poverty. Addressing poverty and gender inequality The household is a key site of gender discrimination and subordination and is thus animportant focus for examining gender and poverty issues. However, aggregate nationalpoverty estimates based on household surveys (whether on income or food availabilitytype indicators) assume that household resources are equally shared. Littlesystematically gender-disaggregated data on income and other welfare measures isavailable and so an empirical assessment of poverty trends and incidences by gender isimpossible.Consideration of poverty often neglects differentials between men and women in termsof their access to income, resources and services. Such differentials may occur withinhouseholds between men and women, or between individuals (i.e. between single menand single women), or between households with women-headed households at adisadvantage to male-headed households. There are also gender-based differentials invulnerability to illness and violence.Any poverty-reducing programmes may not reach women directly, due to their lack of command over productive resources and control over output, as well as (particularly for poor women) lack of time. The costs of economic restructuring under structural adjustment are often disproportionately borne by women, through increased labour or reduced intake of food. 1.1 Statement of the study Feminization of poverty The “feminization of poverty” means that women have a higher incidence of poverty than men, that their poverty is more severe than that of men and that poverty among women is on the increase. Feminization of poverty describes a phenomenon in which women represent disproportionate percentages of the world’s poor. UNIFEM describes it as "the burden of poverty borne by
  6. 6. 6 women, especially in developing countries". This concept is not only a consequence of lack of income, but is also the result of the deprivation of capabilities and gender biases present in both societies and governments. This includes the poverty of choices and opportunities, such as the ability to lead a long, healthy, and creative life, and enjoy basic rights like freedom, respect, and dignity. Women’s increasing share of poverty is related to the rising incidence of lone mother households The term feminization of poverty itself is controversial and has been defined in many different ways. 1.2 Objective of the study: 1.2.1primary the first and most important objective of the assignment is to gather knowledge about feminization of poverty, its causes, effects and how we can solve this problem . 1.2.2secondary objective 1. Help students acquire knowledge and skills needed to carry out their responsibilities and rights. 2. Help students increase their thinking skills and decision making process. 3. Information and ideas. 4. Apply questions to decision-making situations. 5. Increasing student vocabulary. 6. To identify the causes responsible for feminization of poverty; 7. Help students use skills in finding, comprehending, organizing, communicating 1.3 Literature review Causes of feminization of poverty Several factors affect the feminization of poverty, and these factors place women at high risk of poverty. Though low income is the major cause, there are many interrelated facets of this problem. Lone mothers are usually at the highest risk for extreme poverty because their income is insufficient to rear children. It then lowers their children’s possibilities for good education and nourishment. Low income is a consequence of the social bias women face in trying to obtain formal employment, which in turn deepens the cycle of poverty. As the number of unmarried women increases, the diverse causes affecting their poverty must be examined Poverty is multidimensional, and therefore economic, demographic, and socio- cultural factors all overlap and contribute to the establishment of poverty. It is a phenomenon with multiple root causes and manifestations. Disparate Income Lack of income is a principal reason for women’s risk of poverty as it deprives women of their basic needs and capabilities. Income deprivation prevents women from attaining resources and converting their monetary resources into functioning’s. Not only does higher income allow greater access to capabilities, obtaining more capabilities raises income as well. As women disproportionately earn less income than men, they are deprived of basic education and health care which eventually becomes a cycle to debilitate women’s ability to earn higher income. Deprivation passes on from one generation of women to the next, leading to a perpetual feminization of poverty. The main reason behind this cycle of poverty is the lower earnings of women. Persistent gender discrimination in the labor force does not allow the majority of women quality work.
  7. 7. 7 Wage Discrimination This survey gives us a clearer picture of what is driving the large differences between men’s and women’s earnings in Bangladesh . One key finding is that the gender wage gap is not fully explained by differences in education, age and job location. Another is that segregation of the sexes into different industries and different types of occupations in the country is driving down women’s average wages’’ said Steven Kapsos, a labour economist at the ILO’s Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the study’s author. This has far-reaching consequences for individuals, society and policy makers Lone mother households Lone mother households are critical in addressing feminization of poverty and can be broadly defined as households in which there are female headships and no male headships. Lone mother households are at the highest risk of Poverty for women due to lack of Income and resources. There is a continuing increase of lone mother households in the world, which results in higher percentages of women in poverty. Lone mothers are the poorest women in society, and their children tend to be disadvantaged in comparison to their peers. Different factors can be taken into account for the rise in the number of female headship in households. When men become migrant workers, women are left to be the main caretaker of their homes. Other factors such as illnesses and deaths of husbands lead to an increase in lone mother households in developing countries. Female headed households are most susceptible to poverty because they have fewer income earners to provide financial support within the household. According to a case study in Zimbabwe, households headed by widows have an income of approximately half that of male-headed household, and de facto female headed households have about three quarters of the income of male headed households. Additionally, lone mother households lack critical resources in life, which worsens their state of poverty. They do not have access to the opportunities to attain a decent standard of living along with basic needs such as health and education. Lone mother households relate to gender inequality issues as women are more susceptible to poverty and lack essential life needs in comparison to men Lack of education In Bangladesh, out of the total population, 48.9 percent is women of whom nearly 86 percent live in rural areas and only about 16 percent women are literate compared to a 30 percent rate of literate men Education is considered to be one of the most powerful measures of bringing women out of the disempowered cycle. Beijing platform for action and the Beijing declaration stated, ‘education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace’. Non discriminative education benefits both girls and boys and thus ultimately contributes to more equal relationships between women and men. Equality of access to and attainment of educational qualification is necessary if more women are to become agents of change Social and Cultural Exclusions Poverty cannot be defined only by statistics and reports, such as the poverty line, to see whether or not people are impoverished in their respective countries. The concept of social and cultural exclusion helps to better convey poverty as a process that involves multiple agents. Many developing countries have social and cultural norms that prevent women from having access to formal employment. Especially in parts of Asia, North Africa, and Latin America, the cultural and social norms do not allow women to have much labor productivity outside the home as well as an economic bargaining position within the household. This
  8. 8. 8 social inequality deprives women of capabilities, particularly employment, which leads to women having a higher risk of poverty. This increase in occupational gender segregation and widening of the gender wage gap increases women’s susceptibility to poverty. Deprivation of decision-making power In Bangladesh’s patriarchal society women have low status, limiting their physical mobility and authority in decision-making, including on household expenditures.Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age. Women from rural area have less autonomy in decision making. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Divorce Marriage symbolizes a unity between two people. Some marriages last and some result in divorce. For instance, a newlywed couple could start off exceedingly romantic. As the marriage progresses, more problems and issues arise that are left unsolved. Feelings could build up over time and every little action he or she does could increasingly annoy the other spouse. Conflicts are not resolved properly and as time passes, the couple may start to have more and more disagreements about unimportant subjects. There are three main causes of divorce: lack of communication, early marriages with unexpected pregnancies and drastic career changes, which are listed below. First of all, lack of communication is the main cause of divorce. Communication is the revealing of thoughts or ideas and is an important aspect of all relationships. If effective communication is not present in a marriage, then the relationship will suffer and slowly weaken. To have an effective communication with one's spouse, one should try to be as open as possible by revealing all emotions and feelings. A result of a failed marriage could be divorce. Divorce is common because there is a lack of effective communication. On the other hand, one might believe that a lack of communication is not the reason why divorce is common. The lack of communication in a relationship cannot be the single reason why marriages fail. All couples are not the same. It could be possible that they have good communication, but they have different interests. Different interests between couples could make them grow apart. Additionally, divorce depends on the situation the couple is facing. For example, the marriage could fail because of one being unfaithful. With that being said, it would take more than one cause such as of lack of communication to lead to a couple to get a divorce. Secondly, early marriages and unexpected pregnancies could be the cause of divorce. Many Widow Women Widowhood leads to female headed household which is again prone to become amongst one of the poorest household. The concept of Feminization of Poverty was initiated by the observation on female header households. Though, widow remarriage is legally sanctioned, but social attitude towards widow has not changed totally. On the other hand, women also do not go for further marriage for the fear of losing their children. Lack of employment opportunities In Bangladesh, as elsewhere, men are considered to be the head of the family and its most important member, since it is most often men who earn the income that house, feeds, and clothes the family. Men also have a far easier time than women in seeking paid employment. Work is typically divided along gender lines, with men being responsible for "outside" work and women for housework and child care. In Bangladeshi families, income earning is usually the responsibility of males, while the remaining family members - usually women and
  9. 9. 9 children are economically dependent. Women have no choice but to live in this dependent condition, due to their relatively lower educational levels and fewer marketable skills, the resultant lack of available employment opportunities, and a lack of social acceptance of women earning a living. This problem is, perhaps surprisingly, particularly acute for middle- class women. The poorest often have no choice but to allow the women to find paid work, while in the upper classes, women are usually educated and can find other ways to spend their time. Middle class women, however, face the greatest social obstacles in engaging in work outside the home, leaving them few choices but to be full-time housewives. Meanwhile, even those women who have paid jobs must continue bearing responsibility for household work, with its many time- consuming tasks. As a result, many women spend most of their time on housework. Women also perform paid labor within their homes, such as taking in piece work or assisting in family productive activities, such as farm work, running a family business, etc. Typically, however, any work that receives little pay is considered unimportant and labeled as "women's work", despite the fact that such work actually bring tangible economic benefits to the family. Since housework and childcare are unpaid1 and are carried out almost exclusively by women, they are considered to be without monetary value. Further, there exists the perception that women innately 1 We are not suggesting that these activities should be paid; rather, that their value should be recognized and acknowledged Destitute Women This is another group of women who are must to see the real faceoff poverty. This is caused by loss of employment, breakdown of family and abovementioned reasons also. Employment Employment opportunities are limited for women worldwide. [29] The ability to materially control one’s environment by gaining equal access to work that is humanizing and allows for meaningful relationships with other workers is an essential capability. [30]Employment is not only about financial independence, but about higher security through an established legal position, real world experience, deeply important for sheltered or shy women, and higher regard within the family, which gives women a better bargaining position. Though there has been major growth in women’s employment, the quality of the jobs still remains deeply unequal. There are two kinds of employment: Formal and Informal. Formal employment is government regulated and workers are insured a wage and certain rights. Informal employment takes place in small, unregistered enterprises. It is generally a large source of employment for women. [32] The burden of informal care work falls predominantly on women, who work longer and harder in this role than men. This affects their ability to hold other jobs and change positions, the hours they can work, and their decision to give up work. However, women who have University degrees or other forms of higher learning tend to stay in their jobs even with caring responsibilities, which suggests that the human capital from this experience causes women to feel opportunity costs when they lose their employment. [33] Having children has also historically affected women’s choice to stay employed. While this “child-effect” has significantly decreased since the 1970s, women’s employment is currently decreasing. This has less to do with child-rearing and more with a poor job market for all women, mothers and non-mothers alike. Aged Women Due to the breakdown of the traditional joint family system a large number of aged women are left helplessly by their family members and the condition of these families are very poor.
  10. 10. 10 Consequences of feminization of poverty Homelessness or extreme poverty, carries with it a particularly strong set of risks for families, especially children. Compared to children living in poverty but having homes, homeless children are less likely to receive proper nutrition and immunization. Hence, they experience more health problems. Homeless women experience higher rates of low-birth-weight babies, miscarriages, and infant mortality, probably due to not having access to adequate prenatal care for their babies. Homeless families experience even greater life stress than other families, including increased disruption in work, school, family relationships, and friendships. Sociologists have been particularly concerned about the effects of poverty on the “black underclass,” the increasing numbers of jobless, welfare-dependent African Americans trapped in inner-city ghettos. Many of the industries (textiles, auto, steel) that previously offered employment to the black working class have shut down, while newer industries have relocated to the suburbs. Because most urban jobs either require advanced education or pay minimum wage, unemployment rates for inner-city blacks are high. Even though Hispanic Americans are almost as likely as African Americans to live in poverty, fewer inner-city Hispanic neighborhoods have undergone the same massive changes as many black neighborhoods have. Middle and working class Hispanic families have not left their barrio, or urban Spanish-speaking neighborhood, in large numbers, so most Hispanic cultural and social institutions there remain intact. In addition, local Hispanic-owned businesses and low-skill industries support the barrio with wage-based, not welfare-based, businesses. Climbing out of poverty is difficult for anyone, perhaps because, at its worst, poverty can become a self-perpetuating cycle. Children of poverty are at an extreme disadvantage in the job market; in turn, the lack of good jobs ensures continued poverty. The cycle ends up repeating itself until the pattern is somehow broken. Lack of child nutrition Lack of child nutrition female children by born get little nutrition. Because parents always take care male children and they always look after his/her little male child and also concern about his nutrition. That’s why female children do not get something on her childhood. Feminist perspective on poverty: Finally, recent decades have witnessed the feminization of poverty, or the significant increase in the numbers of single women in poverty alone, primarily as single mothers. In the last three decades the proportion of poor families headed by women has grown to more than 50 percent. This feminization of poverty has affected African-American women more than any other group. This feminization of poverty may be related to numerous changes in contemporary America. Increases in unwanted births, separations, and divorces have forced growing numbers of women to head poor households. Meanwhile, increases in divorced fathers avoiding child support coupled with reductions in welfare support have forced many of these women-headed
  11. 11. 11 households to join the ranks of the underclass. Further, because wives generally live longer than their husbands, growing numbers of elderly women must live in poverty. Feminists also attribute the feminization of poverty to women's vulnerability brought about by the patriarchal, sexist, and gender-biased nature of Western society, which does not value protecting women's rights and wealth. The effects of poverty are serious. Children who grow up in poverty suffer more persistent, frequent, and severe health problems than do children who grow up under better financial circumstances. • Many infants born into poverty have a low birth weight, which is associated with many preventable mental and physical disabilities. Not only are these poor infants more likely to be irritable or sickly, they are also more likely to die before their first birthday. • Children raised in poverty tend to miss school more often because of illness. These children also have a much higher rate of accidents than do other children, and they are twice as likely to have impaired vision and hearing, iron deficiency anemia, and higher than normal levels of lead in the blood, which can impair brain function. Levels of stress in the family have also been shown to correlate with economic circumstances. Studies during economic recessions indicate that job loss and subsequent poverty are associated with violence in families, including child and elder abuse. Poor families experience much more stress than middle-class families. Besides financial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to series of negative events and “bad luck,” including illness, depression, eviction, job loss, criminal victimization, and family death. Parents who experience hard economic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demands backed by insults, threats, and corporal punishment. Hinder the psychological growth of children: By born female children do not get proper nutrition, proper facility and also proper respect from her family. That’s why female children don’t grout up from her early childhood. Deprive from basic rights: Being poor & less educated There are not well treated in our society .most of the people of our society neglect them and they don’t want to give them proper respect. 1.4 Importance of the study Poverty is so far a major problem for Bangladesh. Moreover, this problem growing so faster. This study is so much important because through this study we come to know about feminization of poverty. We are now much more concern about feminization of poverty. We know what are the reasons behind this problem, and its consequences. Moreover we know the solution this problem because of this study. If we don’t do this study. We will not learn anything about feminization of poverty in addition with feminization, poverty and other things. So this study helps us to know these things. So the importance of this study cannot be ignoring at all.
  12. 12. 12 1.6 Conceptual model ↓ Feminization of poverty Causes Consequences Recommendations 1. Lone mother households 2. Lack of education 3. Deprivation of decision- making power 4. opportunities 5. Social and Cultural Exclusions 6. Widow Women 7. Destitute Women 8. Aged Women 9. Low income / disparate income 10. Wage Discrimination 11. Divorce 12. Lack of employment 1) Hinder the psychological growth of children 2) Deprive from basic rights 3) Decline in national income 4) Increase social crimes 5) Decline the importance of women’s opinion 6) Increase social crimes 7) Rise in women trafficking 8) Lack of child nutrition 9) Increase unemployment 10) Lack of women’s nutrition 11) Less participation in workforce 1. Increase women education 2. Increase social security 3. Create employment opportunity 4. Free from mental bondage 5. Create positive attitude & mentality towards women 6. Increase the participation on man in household works 7. Increase the roles of media 8. Being self-reliant 9. Ensure the right of property 10. Women empowerment 11. Stop the violence against women 1.7 Working definition Feminization: Feminization can refer to: Feminization (biology)—the hormonally induced development of female sexual characteristics Feminization (activity)—a sexual or lifestyle practice where a person assumes a female role Feminization (sociology)—a perceived societal shift of gender roles toward the characteristically "female" Feminization of language—the process of making a word or name female Poverty: Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom. Poverty is a call to action - for the poor and the wealthy alike - a call to change the world so that many more may have enough to eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from violence, and a voice in what happens in their communities. Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstances. Feminization of poverty Describes a phenomenon in which women represent disproportionate percentages of the world’s poor. UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women) describes it as "the burden of poverty borne by women, especially in developing countries". This concept is not only a consequence of lack of income, but is also the result of the deprivation of capabilities and gender biases present in both societies and governments. This includes the poverty of choices and opportunities, such as the ability to lead a long, healthy, and creative life, and enjoy basic rights like freedom, respect, and dignity. Women’s increasing share of poverty is
  13. 13. 13 related to the rising incidence of lone mother households. The term feminization of poverty itself is controversial and has been defined in many different ways. Second Chapter: Research Methodology 2.1 Research Method A wide range of literature will reviewed to gather necessary information about the subject matters of this study. These literatures include 200 people who is adult and the texts, profile, documentation, different Manuals etc .there are some research method as follows, Descriptive research Analytical research Applied research Fundamental research Quantitative research Qualitative research Conceptual research Empirical research For our assignment we used “descriptive research” method. 2.2 Research Design: A research design is the logical and systematic planning in directing the research. Research design are closely linked with the objectives of a research problem. Three kinds of research designs: 1. Exploratory research design 2. Descriptive research design 3. Experimental research design We have used purposive research design 2.3 Research Area: Sylhet City Corporation was the area we research for our field work. 2.4 Research Unit Each house in the Sylhet City Corporation is research unit. 2.5 Population The total population of Sylhet City Corporation 5,00,000 (App) but the number of voter 1,80,875. We chose the people who are adult in Sylhet City Corporation and avoid the minors for this study. 2.6 Sampling A process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations will be taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population will depend on the type of analysis being performed, but will include simple random sampling, systematic sampling and observational sampling. The sample should be a representation of the general population.In this study we work with purposive sampling. Purposive sampling targets a particular group of people. When the desired population for the study is rare or very difficult to locate and recruit for a study, purposive sampling may be the only option. For example, we are interested in studying “Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences & Recommendation” a case study at Sylhet city corporation. This would be a difficult population to find. Your city has a well-established rehabilitation hospital and you contact the director to ask permission to recruit from this population. The major problem with purposive sampling is that the type of people who are available for study may be different from those in the
  14. 14. 14 population who can't be located and this might introduce a source of bias. For example, those available for study through the rehabilitation hospital may have more serious injuries requiring longer rehabilitation, and their families may have greater education and financial resources (which resulted in their choosing this hospital for care). 2.7 Sample Size We are the Eleven members of group ‘Realistic’ glad to submit this report. Each member collects 20 surveys in Sylhet City Corporation. In total the sample size was 220. 2.8 Source of the data Both primary and secondary sources have been utilized for collecting data to make this report. 2.8.1 Primary SourcesIn this report we collected information from primary sources. We the student of 30th batch [Section E]create questioner and collect survey as field work. Our group ‘Realistic’ members work hard for this sport. Collect survey& data from Sylhet City Corporation.We use Statistical Package for the Social Science [SPSS] software to analysis the survey for this study. Finally we become success in this operation &create a report on Feminization of Poverty: Causes, Consequences & Recommendation (A study at Sylhet City Corporation) 2.8.2 Secondary Sources We collected information from secondary sources too. Collecting information from books, journal, newspaper & magazine. Also we use internet for data collecting. 2.9 Data Collection Method We collect the data thorough survey. 2.10 Types of Questionnaire The questionnaire method makes use of a list of selected questions which are intended to elicit the desired information. We use closed ended questions in our questionnaire. Closed ended questions - Respondents’ answers are limited to a fixed set of responses. Most scales are closed ended. Other types of closed ended questions include: Yes/no questions - The respondent answers with a "yes" or a "no". Multiple choices - The respondent has several options from which to choose. Scaled questions - Responses are graded on a continuum (example: rate the appearance of the product on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the most preferred appearance). This facilitates coding and helps in quantifying the answer to the questions. Respondents don’t have to think much and answer within the options given. 2.11 Data Analysing Method First of all we the member of group ‘Realistic’ createclosed ended questionnaire for survey. Then we collect the survey and put the data into SPSS software. Easily we analyses descriptive statistics_frequency_charts_pie or bar diagrams through SPSS software comprehensively. We collect data from primary and secondary sources too.
  15. 15. 15 2.12 Limitation of the data collection: i. Time Limitation: as our submission date of assignment is 12th August we can’t get enough time to collect necessary data for enriching the assignment. ii. Budgetary Limitation: we are living in developing country & we are also student that’s why we don’t have sufficient money to spend for betterment of the assignment. iii. Internet Limitation: In our country the internet service is too slow that’s why we can’t access to internet so easily and find the data. iv. Shortage of necessary books: There are no sufficient books in our campus library about this topic. 1. lack of help from respondent 2. When we collect data from surveyed people we feel some limitation: 3. Lack of knowledge and experience 4. Lack of sufficient privileges. 5. Lack of communication facilities 6. Getting the views and opinion of the interviewee on surveyed people was too difficult task. 2.13 Limitation of the researches 1. Lack of secondary data. 2. Shortage of necessary books. 3. Shortage of necessary books. 4. We do not have get enough time for prepare this assignment due to other assignment. 5. There is very short data. 6. Budgetary Limitation.
  16. 16. 16 Third Chapter: Data analysis and Presentation 3.1 Finding Feminization of poverty is not only national crisis; it is also one of the obstacles for the overall national development. In this study the causes and consequences of Feminization of poverty has been explored. For Feminization of poverty various factors play an important role. From this study, female persons don’t do everything because of society, religion, and some parents. Actually they provide some roles, like female persons don’t do or don’t go out outside the home for everything; even also for education. In this study we found some sectors are responsible. So, government and other organization should take some proper stapes to stop poverty specially for women. Poverty affects too many Bangladeshi individuals, families, and communities. It is a serious problem that challenges the efforts of government agencies, politicians, educators, faith communities. 3.2 Recommendation 1. Increase women education 2. Increase social security 3. Create employment opportunity 4. Free from mental bondage 5. Create positive attitude & mentality towards women 6. Increase the participation on man in household works 7. Increase the roles of media 8. Being self-reliant 9. Ensure the right of property 10. Women empowerment 11. Stop the violence against women
  17. 17. 17 Fourth Chapter: Conclusion & Discussion 4.1 Personal Evaluation As a developing country we have to live with different kind of problems. Feminization of poverty is one of the major problems of the county. Besides it is more severe in our Sylhet city. The causes of it are many. Low income, lone mother households, lack of education, deprivation of decision-making power, wage discrimination, lack of employment opportunities, divorce etc. are most highlightable. The effect of this problem is also very dangerous. It’s mainly hindering the psychological growth of children, deprive from basic rights, lack of women’s nutrition, decline in national income, increase social crimes, decline the importance of women’s opinion, increase unemployment, increase social crimes, rise in women trafficking, less participation in workforce. It’s also disturbing the society. However, this problem can be solved by adopting some pragmatic steps. Being self-reliant, increase women education, increase social security, create employment, opportunity, ensure the right of property, free from mental bondage, create positive attitude & mentality towards women, women empowerment, increase the participation on man in household works, increase the roles of media, stop the violence against women are some ways of solving this problem. Besides the government should come forward with effective steps to reduce this problem. Our city corporation mayor has also something to do in this regard.
  18. 18. 18 4.2 Bibliography/Reference Findlay, J. and R. E. Wright. 1996. “Gender, poverty and the intra-household distributi on of resources.” Review of Income and Wealth 42:335-351. Findlay, J. and R. E. Wright. 1996. “Gender, poverty and the intra-household distributi on of resources.” Review of Income and Wealth 42:335-351. 32 Fisher, G. M. 1992. “The development and history of the poverty thresholds.” in Social Security Bulleti n, vol. 55. McLanahan, S. S., A. Sorenson, and D. Watson. 1989. “Sex diff erences in poverty, 1950- 80.” Signs 15:102-22. 37 Ms. Foundati on for Women (2001). Press release: Census Bureau Poverty Thresholds Too Low. Retrieved April 20, 2007 from htt p://www.commondreams.org/news2001/0925- 10.htm Pahl, J. 1983. “The allocati on of money and the structuring of inequality within marriage.” Sociological Review 31:237-262. Schaff ner Goldberg, Gertrude and Eleanor Kremen (Eds.). 1990. “The Feminizati on of Poverty: Only in America?” New York: Praeger. 34 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Stati sti cs. 2007. “Consumer expenditures in 2005.” Retrieved April 18, 2007 from htt p://stats.bls.gov/cex/csxann05.pdf 35 USDA, Center for Nutriti on Policy and Promoti on. 2005. “Offi cial USDA food plans: Cost of food at home at four levels, U.S. average.” Retrieved 4/18/07 from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/FoodPlans/2005/CostofFoodJun05.
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Women’s purportedly disproportionate and rising share of poverty - as encapsulated in the widely popularised term the ‘feminisation of poverty’ – has conferred unprecedented prominence upon gender in poverty analysis and policy. However, the ‘feminisation of poverty’ is often used in a cursory and unsubstantiated manner and, in its implicit privileging of income, does not necessarily highlight aspects of poverty which are most relevant to poor women at the grassroots. Although the UNDP’s gender indices go some way to reflecting broader aspects of gendered poverty, particularly in respect of capabilities and opportunities, there is scope for improvement. In the interests of working towards gender indices which are more responsive to crucial gender gaps in poverty (understood not only as income deficiency, but in a more multidimensional fashion, and which give weight to the onus of dealing with poverty), the main aims of this paper are three-fold. The first is to draw attention to existing conceptual and methodological weaknesses with the ‘feminisation of poverty’. The second is to offer some thoughts on how the ‘feminisation of poverty’ could be re-cast to more effectively capture trends in gendered privation among the poor. The third is to propose directions for the kinds of data and indicators which might be incorporated within the GDI or GEM, or used in the creation of a Gendered Poverty Index (GPI).

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