mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
                       Information and Knowledge System for the Citizens
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mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
Information and Knowledge System for the Citizens

cÖ_g ce©
†Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
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2003 mvj †_‡K cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi hvÎv ïiæ K‡i 2008
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MÖvgv‡j Z‡_¨i cÖevn m„wó‡Z ïaygvÎ Kw¤úDUvi‡K e¨envi Kiv nqwb, e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q †gvevBj †dvb,
m„wó Kiv n‡q‡Q we‡kl‡Ái mv‡_...
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gva¨‡g cjøxevmx...
m~wPcÎ

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cvV 7: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ges e¨envi                                                              32
       cvV 7.1: mvgv...
cvV 13: †Uwj‡m›Uvi e¨e¯’vcbv                                               68
        cvV 13.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvq Kg©cw...
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cvV 1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi welqK aviYv
G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
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wfwËi mgš^‡q Z‡_¨i cÖevn ...
Ÿ wKš‘ †hLv‡b Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AwaKvsk gvbyl `vwi`ªmxgvi wb‡P evm K‡i, byb Avb‡Z cvbZv dzivq †mLv‡b
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cvV 2: Z_¨Kgx©
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cvV 2.2: Z_¨Kgx©i wK †hvM¨Zv I `¶Zv _vKv `iKvi?
Ÿ Lye mn‡R eyS‡Z cv‡i Ges `ªæZ †kLvi m¶gZv Av‡Q;
Ÿ me©‡kªYxi gvby‡li mv‡_ ...
cvV 3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v
     G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
     § †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii AeKvVv‡gv
     § †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v


cvV 3.1:...
Ÿ †Uwe‡j Kw¤úDUv‡ii gwbUiwU Aek¨B †mevMÖnxZv‡`i w`‡K ¯’vcb Kiæb;
Ÿ B›Uvi‡bU †gv‡WgwU ms‡hv‡Mi ci Ges †gvevBj †dvbwU wbivc`...
Ÿ Avbylw½K †mevi Ab¨vb¨ hš¿cvwZ Ges DcKiY G NiwU‡Z ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡ib; †hgb: d‡UvKwc †gwkb,
  gvwU cix¶v hš¿, i³Pvc gvcv hš¿...
cvV 4: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mevmg~n
   G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
   § Z_¨ I civgk© †mev
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wkÿv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i gv‡S wkÿvi wewfbœ cwimi Ges bvbvb my‡hvM msµvšÍ Z_¨| †`‡k I
†`‡ki evB‡i wewfbœ wkÿv cÖ...
wVKvbv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: ¯’vbxq I RvZxq ch©v‡q †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi bvg, we¯ÍvwiZ wVKvbv, Zv‡`i
cÖ`vbK…Z wewfbœ †mev ...
cvV 4.2: Avbylw½K †mev
Z_¨‡mevi cvkvcvwk cÖwZwU GjvKvi Pvwn`vwfwËK Avbylw½K †mev †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii gva¨‡g RbmvaviY †c‡Z
cv‡ib| ...
†mevmg~n                                                            cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY
Rb¥ wbeÜb Kiv                         ...
GQvov GjvKvi Pvwn`v I Z_¨Kgx©i mvg_©¨ Abyhvqx bZzb bZzb †mev mshy³ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †hgb ¯’vbxq cY¨
GjvKvi evB‡i mieiv‡ni gva¨‡...
cvV 5: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgqmxgv wba©viY
   G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
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¸iæZ¡ mywbwÏófv‡e Zz‡j aiæb Ges Av‡jvPbvq cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki
     AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiæb;
Ÿ `jxq Av‡jvPbvq wewfbœ gZvgZ Avm‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡Z...
cvV 5.3: mgq wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq
Ÿ we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g wba©vwiZ mgqmxgv †K‡›`ªi mvg‡b Ggbfv‡e Szwj‡q ivLyb hv‡Z mK‡ji †Pv‡L c‡...
cvV 6: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvq Kg©GjvKv wba©viY
     G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
     § Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv
     § ...
Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wbw`©ó ¯’vb †_‡K KZ¸‡jv MÖv‡g Ges BDwbq‡b mwµqfv‡e Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z Pvb
  Zv wPwýZ Kiæb;
Ÿ Kg©GjvKv wba...
cvV 7: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ges e¨envi
     G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
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avc 1: gvV cwiåg‡Yi Av‡M
Ÿ BDwbqb gvbwP‡Î wPwýZ wba©vwiZ Kg©GjvKvi ga¨ †_‡K g‡Wj wnmv‡e 1wU MÖvg wbe©vPb Kiæb;
Ÿ 2-3 R‡bi ...
Ÿ Z‡e bZzb e¨w³ G‡m GLv‡b wK n‡”Q Zv ïiæ †_‡K Rvbvi †Póv Ki‡Z cv‡ib Ges Kv‡R weNœ NU‡Z cv‡i|
  GRb¨ Av‡M †_‡KB A_©en Ges L...
cvV 8: Kg©GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZKiY
   G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
   § we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZ Kivi ...
Ÿ Mí Kivi cÖwµqvq GjvKvq †Kvb mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZv wKsev wewa wb‡la Av‡Q wK bv Rvbvi †Póv Kiæb;
Ÿ KvR †k‡l web‡qi mv‡_ mvgwqK...
cvV 9: Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g Ges Dcvq
   G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev
   § Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g
   § eûwea gva¨...
evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ cÖwZôvb wewfbœ wel‡qi Dci wewfbœ
ai‡bi AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i g‡a¨
Ab¨Zg GKwU n‡jv Rxqb Z_¨fv...
cÖwZwbqZ ms‡hvRb Ges ms‡kvab nq wKsev Lye ¯^í mg‡qi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Ggb ai‡bi Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨
mivmwi B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM cÖ‡qvRb| ...
†gvevBj †dvb wfwËK gva¨g: hviv kvixwiK cÖwZeÜx, mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZv Ges msmv‡i wewfbœ e¨¯ÍZvi
Kvi‡Y †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Avm‡Z Amg_©¨...
AwfÁ e¨w³ wKsev mK‡ji mgš^‡q K…wl wel‡q K¨v¤ú Av‡qvRb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| K¨v‡¤úi gva¨‡g K…wlRxexiv
we‡klÁ I AwfÁ‡`i mv‡_ gy‡Lvgyw...
Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i GKmv‡_ A‡b‡K Avm‡j AvMZ
  cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki mv‡_ Kzkj wewbgq Kiæb Ges eviv›`vq
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§ wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ R, †K›`ªwU PÆMÖvg wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ C, †K›`ªwU XvKv wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨
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Ÿ wZwb hw` eB-cy¯ÍK †_‡K wb‡R cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ wb‡R Luy‡R wb‡Z Pvb Zvn‡j wbw`©ó eB-cy¯ÍK Zvi nv‡Z
  w`b Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Luy...
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†e¸b NiwU‡Z GKevi wK¬K Kiæb|



...
avc 3.1 M) †mev cÖ`vb dig c~iY Ges †mevg~j¨ MÖnY
Ÿ †mev cÖ`vb digwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kiæb (†mev cÖ`vb
  di‡gi bgybv mshyw³ 2...
†h‡nZz cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨¸‡jv Bs‡iwR fvlvq †m‡nZy Z_¨Kg©x
wnmv‡e Avcwb welq¸‡jv fv‡jvfv‡e ey‡S wbb Ges
cÖkœKvix‡K evsjvq eywS‡q...
AwWI-wfwWI wPÎwU †`Lv †kl n‡j wZwb Zvi KiYxq
wVKg‡Zv eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qb wK bv †R‡b wbb| wZwb hw` wPÎwUi
†Kvb Ask Av‡iKevi †`L‡Z...
avc L) RbmvaviY‡K AeMZ Kiv
Ÿ Z_¨Kgx© hLb cÖwZw`‡bi Kv‡R †ei n‡eb ZLb MÖvgevmx Ges ev”Pv‡`i wfwWI cÖ`k©bxi mgq Ges welq
  m...
avc 3.4: Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b hw` eB-cy¯ÍK I cÎ-cwÎKv e¨envi Ki‡Z nq
avc 3.4 K)
Ÿ cÖkœ Abyhvqx ZvwjKv †_‡K wbw`©ó eB-cy¯ÍK ...
avc 3.5 L) mgm¨v †evSv
Ÿ †Kvb e¨w³‡K †níjvB‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cÖ_‡g Zvi mgm¨vwU fv‡jvfv‡e ïbyb
  Ges ...
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
Telecentre Operational Manual Pan
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Telecentre Operational Manual Pan

  1. 1. mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v Information and Knowledge System for the Citizens cÖ_g ce© †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  2. 2. mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v Information and Knowledge System for the Citizens cÖ_g ce© †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv cÖ_g cÖKvk: RvZxq Ávb m‡¤§jb [07-08 b‡f¤^i 2008] m¤úv`bv: Abb¨ ivqnvb K…ZÁZv: ARq Kzgvi †evm, AvwKe Aviv †Rmwgb, AvwZKzi ingvb, AvivdvZ ingvb, BLwZqvi nvmvb meyR, Ewg© †jvnvbx, Rvwn`-Avj-†g‡n`x, Zvcmx miKvi, cÖZvc P›`ª miKvi, †di‡`Šmx Av³vi, dvinv kvigxb, dv‡Zgv †eMg jvebx, †gvt Lvqiæ¾vgvb, †gvt gvQyg wejøvn, †gvt †gvkvid †nv‡mb, mycY©v ivq| cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevq‡b wewfbœ mg‡q Avw_©K Ges Ab¨vb¨ mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ hv‡`i Kv‡Q K…ZÁ: G‡mvwm‡qkb di cÖ‡MÖwmf KwgDwb‡Kkb I‡gÝ †bUIqvK© mv‡c©vwUs †cÖvMÖvg, mvD_ Avwd«Kv; eªvK wek¦we`¨vjq, evsjv‡`k; B›Uvib¨vkbvj †W‡fjc‡g›U wimvP© †m›Uvi (AvBwWAviwm), KvbvWv; †Møvevj b‡jR cvU©bviwkc (wR‡Kwc), gvj‡qwkqv; gvB‡µvmdU (Avbwjwg‡UW c‡Ubwkqvj Kg©m~wP); gvby‡li Rb¨ dvD‡Ûkb, evsjv‡`k; wimvP© Bwbwk‡qwUf&m evsjv‡`k (wie), evsjv‡`k Ges ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª cwiPvjbvKvix cÖwZôvbmg~n| Av‡jvKwPÎ: gybxiv †gv‡k©` gybœx, gvBbyj Bmjvg cÖ”Q` I mvRm¾v: Lvqiæj nvmvb mygb AvBGmweGb: 984-300-002605-9 gy`ªY: cv_I‡q cÖKvkK: †gvnv¤§` Lvqiæj nvmvb wW.†bU (†W‡fjc‡g›U wimvP© †bUIqvK©) 6/8 ûgvqyb †ivW, eøK-we, †gvnv¤§`cyi, XvKv 1207, evsjv‡`k †dvb: (+88-02) 81566772, 9131424, 8124976 d¨v·: (+88-02) 8142021 B‡gBj: publication@dnet.org.bd; I‡qemvBU: www.dnet.org.bd g~j¨: 200.00 UvKv bKj msiÿY Ges mZwK©KiY: G cÖKvkbvwU cÖ‡qvR‡b †h‡Kvb e¨w³ wKsev cÖwZôvb m¤ú~Y© A-gybvdvwfwËK D‡Ï‡k¨ ûeû c~Ytgy`ªY K‡i weZiY Ki‡Z cvi‡e wKsev m¤ú~Y© evwYwR¨K D‡Ï‡k¨ wKsev Ab¨ †h‡Kvb D‡Ï‡k¨ ûeû c~Y:gy`ªY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| c~Y:gy`ª‡Y †Kvbµ‡gB †Kvb As‡ki †Kvbiƒc cwieZ©b NUv‡bv hv‡e bv| e¨env‡ii me †ÿ‡Î h_vh_fv‡e †Kv‡Ukb Ges †idv‡iÝ D‡jøL eva¨Zvg~jK| Information and Knowledge System for the Citizens: Part - 1: Telecentre Operation Handbook. Published by D.Net. First Published November 2008. Price: BDT 200.00 only
  3. 3. 2003 mvj †_‡K cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi hvÎv ïiæ K‡i 2008 mvj ch©šÍ me©‡gvU 13wU ÔZ_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿYÕ I 4wU ÔZ_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿK‡`i cÖwkÿYÕ cwiPvjbv Ges we`¨gvb cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª cwiPvjbvq gvV ch©v‡q AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K G mnvwqKvwU iwPZ|
  4. 4. wW.†bU m¤ú‡K© aviYv wW.†bU (†W‡fjc‡g›U wimvP© †bUIqvK©) 1860 mv‡ji †mvmvBwUR G¨v± XXI Gi AvIZvq R‡q›U ÷K †Kv¤úvbx‡Z wbewÜK…Z GKwU †emiKvwi M‡elYv cÖwZôvb| GQvov cÖwZôvbwU GbwRI ey¨‡iv‡ZI wbewÜK…Z| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœqb I `vwi`ª we‡gvP‡b f~wgKv ivL‡Z 2001 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix gv‡m KvR ïiæ K‡i mvd‡j¨i mv‡_ GwM‡q P‡j‡Q wW.†bU| wW.†bU Gi wfkb Ggb GKwU mgvR e¨e¯’v M‡o †Zvjv, †hLv‡b Z_¨ I Ávb, m¤ú` ˆZwi Ges m¤ú‡`i mylge›U‡bi gva¨‡g mK‡ji AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiv Ges Gi gva¨‡g `vwi`ª we‡gvP‡b mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Kiv| wW.†bU Gi wgkb ZvwË¡K M‡elYv Ges wewfbœ Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevq‡bi gva¨‡g cÖvß Z_¨ Ges Ávb w`‡q `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvPb, A_©‰bwZK Dbœqb Ges kvwšÍ cÖwZôvq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivLvi gva¨‡g wW.†bU evsjv‡`k Ges evsjv‡`‡ki evB‡i GKwU M‡elYv cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e cÖwZwôZ n‡Z Pvq| wW.†bU Gi jÿ¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’vi Dbœqb Ges Zv e„nËi cwim‡i wewbgq Kiv| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ Ges Dbœqb msµvšÍ bxwZ cÖYq‡b mwµq f~wgKv ivLv| `wÿY Gwkqv Ges Zvi evB‡i wewfbœ †`‡ki mv‡_ Z_¨cªhyw³ I Dbœqb msµvšÍ AwfÁZv wewbgq Kiv| wW.†bU Gi D‡Ïk¨ RvZxq Dbœqb I `vwi`ª we‡gvP‡bi j‡ÿ¨ wewfbœ ai‡Yi M‡elYv cwiPvjbv Kiv Ges M‡elYvj× Z_¨ I Ávb, Z_¨cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g cÖPvi Kiv| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³‡K K…wl, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, AvBwb AwaKvi, m‡PZbZv ˆZwi Ges Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ `ÿZv e„w×i Kv‡R m¤ú„³ Kivi j‡ÿ¨ KvR Kiv| MÖvg I kn‡ii RbM‡Yi Rxeb RxweKvi gvb Dbœq‡b Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ wbf©i †mevmg~‡ni Rb¨ wewfbœ e¨emvwqK g‡Wj ˆZwi Kiv| evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖwÿ‡Z Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ Z_¨cÖhyw³ m¤ú„³KiY welqK msµvšÍ M‡elYv cwiPvjbv Kiv I bxwZ cÖYq‡b f~wgKv ivLv| Rbmvavi‡Yi AskMÖn‡Yi ÿgZve„w×i j‡ÿ¨ †`‡k I we‡`‡k wewfbœ bxwZ‡Z cÖfve †dj‡Z mÿg Ggb cÖPviYv‡K DrmvwnZ Kiv| MÖvgxY Rxeb-RxweKvq Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i Kvh©KvwiZv †evaMg¨ Kivi Rb¨ Z„Yg~j ch©v‡q `ÿZv e„w×i Rb¨ KvR Kiv| wW.†bU m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ Rvb‡Z eªvDR Kiæb: <www.dnet.org.bd> mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  5. 5. cjøxZ_¨ m¤ú‡K© aviYv we‡k¦ Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i DˇivËi weKvk `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvPb I Dbœqbg~jK Kg©Kv‡Ð bvbvfv‡e BwZevPK f~wgKv ivL‡Q| evsjv‡`k G my‡hvM †_‡K A‡bK wcwQ‡q Av‡Q, Av‡iv wcwQ‡q Av‡Q G †`‡ki MÖvgvÂj| kniv‡ji PvB‡Z MÖvgv‡j GLbI Z_¨cÖhyw³i welqwU AwaKvs‡kiB ARvbv| d‡j MÖvg I kn‡ii g‡a¨ bvbv w`K †_‡K µgkt e¨eavb †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| ev¯ÍeZv Ges gvV ch©v‡qi AwfÁZv †_‡K †`Lv hvq, cjøxevmxi Rxeb-RxweKvi gvb Dbœq‡bi GKwU eo evav n‡”Q Zv‡`i Kv‡Q mwVK mg‡q mwVK I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ bv †cŠuQv‡bv| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g cjøxevmxi ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq mwVK Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKvi mwVK mg‡q wbwðZ K‡i Dbœqb Z_v `vwi`ª we‡gvP‡b f~wgKv ivLvi D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L wW.†bU (†W‡fjc‡g›U wimvP© †bUIqvK©) 2003 mv‡j ïiæ K‡i cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wP| evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvbyl MÖv‡g evm K‡i| ZvB MÖvgv‡j Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKv‡ii my‡hvM m„wó‡Z †Rvi w`‡q‡Q cjøxZ_¨| cjøxZ_¨ g‡Wj 5wU g~j wfwËi Dc‡i cÖwZwôZ: Z_¨ I Ávb fvÐvi, Z_¨ I Ávb wewbg‡q eûwea gva¨g, Z_¨Kgx© (ÁvbfvÐvi Ges Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ †mZzeÜb), gvwjKvbv Ges cÖPviYv I e¨wß| cjøxZ_¨ g‡W‡j, `wi`ª I cÖvwšÍK RbM‡Yi Z_¨ Pvwn`v Ges †UKmBKiY‡KI cÖavb¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q| cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi ïiæ‡ZB MÖvgv‡ji Rbmvavi‡Yi ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Pvwn`v wbiƒc‡Y M‡elYv cwiPvjbv Kiv nq| G M‡elYvq MÖvg ch©v‡q ZiæY M‡elK `j, g~j M‡elK `‡ji mv‡_ mivmwi AskMÖnY K‡i| M‡elYvq cÖvß djvd‡ji Dci wfwË K‡i wW.†bU, evsjv fvlvq `kwU cÖavb wel‡q Z_¨fvÐvi ˆZwii KvR ïiæ K‡i| `kwU cÖavb wel‡qi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q K…wl, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, wkÿv, ¯^v¯’¨, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv, Kg©ms¯’vb Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq wVKvbv| evsjv fvlvq ˆZwi G Z_¨fvÐvi mK‡ji Kv‡Q GLb ÔRxqbÕ bv‡g cwiwPZ| Z‡_¨i ÔRxqbÕ KvwVi †Quvqvq gvbyl Zvi AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡e I mwVK wm×všÍ wb‡Z cvi‡e, GB cÖZ¨vkvq Z_¨fvÐv‡ii bvg ivLv n‡q‡Q Rxqb| Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi Ggbfv‡e M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q †hLv‡b i‡q‡Q mnR c×wZ‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Lyu‡R cvIqvi e¨e¯’v| cvIqv hv‡e cÖvmw½K wPÎI| wPÎ †`‡L mgm¨v wPwýZ Ki‡Z mnR nq Ges wbw`©ó Z_¨wU mn‡RB †evaMg¨ nq| Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi cjøx Rb‡Mvôxi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e Dc‡hvMx, GgbwK Aÿi Ávbnxb gvbylI Z_¨Kg©xi mnvqZvq Z_¨cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i RxebhvÎvi e¨q Kgv‡Z A_ev Avq e„w× Ki‡Z mÿg nb| ÔRxqbÕ Gi cvkvcvwk GLb wfwWI Ges Gwb‡gkb wfwËK Z_¨fvÐviI M‡o †Zvjv n‡”Q| ÔgwbÕ eZ©gv‡b Gwb‡gkb Z_¨fvÐv‡ii GgbB GKwU Ab¨Zg avivevwnK cÖKvkbv| Gwb‡gkb Z_¨fvÐv‡i ÔgwbÕ n‡jv g~j PwiÎ, †h MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z evwo‡Z Z_¨cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Z_¨‡mev †cŠu‡Q †`q| 2005 mv‡j wW.†bU Zvi cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi AvIZvq ev‡MinvU, bxjdvgvix, †b·Kvbv I †bvqvLvjx †Rjvq gvV ch©v‡qi ev¯Íe AwfÁZv AR©‡bi Rb¨ PviwU cjx¬Z_¨ †K›`ª cixÿvg~jKfv‡e ¯’vcb K‡i| g~jZt Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Z‡_¨ cÖ‡ekvwaKv‡ii my‡hvM m„wó‡Z cjx¬Z_¨ †K‡›`ªi Kvh©KvwiZv, `wi`ª I cÖvwšÍK RbM‡Yi RxebhvÎvi gvb Dbœq‡b Z‡_¨i cÖfve, cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª wfwËK Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’vi †UKmB wel‡q cÖK…Z DËi Luy‡R †c‡Z G M‡elYvwU cwiPvwjZ nq| eZ©gv‡b mviv evsjv‡`‡k wewfbœ ai‡bi †gvU 106wU cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª i‡q‡Q, †h¸wj †hŠ_ gvwjKvbvq ev mvgvwRK gvwjKvbvq cwiPvwjZ| cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª †_‡K K…wl Z_¨ cÖ`v‡b _v‡K bv †Kvb K…wlwe`, ¯^v¯’¨ Z_¨ cÖ`v‡b _v‡K bv †Kvb Wv³vi, AvBwb Z_¨ cÖ`v‡b _v‡K bv †Kvb AvBbRxex, wkÿv Z_¨ cÖ`v‡b _v‡K bv †Kvb wkÿvwe` GgbwK Ab¨vb¨ Av‡iv †hmg¯Í †mev Av‡Q Zvi Rb¨ _v‡K bv †Kvb we‡klÁ| †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKvi wbwðZ Ki‡Z g~j f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Z_¨Kgx©| Z_¨Kgx© g~jZ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v Ges Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ †mZzeÜb K‡i †`q| Z_¨Kgx©iv hv‡Z mvejxjfv‡e G KvRwU Ki‡Z cv‡i †mRb¨ cÖwkÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i‡K cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq| Z‡e Z_¨Kgx©iv mve©ÿwYK we‡kl‡Ái ms¯ú‡k© _v‡K GKwU †gvevBj †dvb K‡ji `~i‡Z¡| †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  6. 6. MÖvgv‡j Z‡_¨i cÖevn m„wó‡Z ïaygvÎ Kw¤úDUvi‡K e¨envi Kiv nqwb, e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q †gvevBj †dvb, m„wó Kiv n‡q‡Q we‡kl‡Ái mv‡_ gy‡LvgywL Av‡jvPbvi my‡hvM| †gvevBj †dv‡bi gva¨‡g Z‡_¨i cÖevn m„wó aviYvwU cÖ_g cixÿv Kiv nq 2004 mv‡j hv c‡i cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi mv‡_ ms‡hvM Kiv nq| †gvevBj †dvbwfwËK Z_¨Kgx© Ô†gvevBj †jwWÕ bv‡g cwiwPZ| †gvevBj †jwW, †gvevBj †dvb mv‡_ wb‡q MÖv‡gi evwo evwo hvq Ges RbmvaviY‡K Zv‡`i ˆ`bw›`b mgm¨v wb‡q civg‡k©i Rb¨ wW.†bU †ní‡W‡¯‹ Ae¯’vbiZ we‡kl‡Ái (K…wlwe`, Wv³vi, AvBbRxex BZ¨vw`) mv‡_ mivmwi ms‡hvM Kwi‡q †`q| cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi mv‡_ †níjvB‡bi mgš^‡qi d‡j †Kvb e¨w³ Z_¨ cÖvwß †_‡K ewÂZ nb bv Ges †Kvb e¨w³ Z_¨ cÖvwß †_‡K ev` c‡ob bv| †Kvb Z_¨ hw` †K‡›`ª Z_¨fvÐvi Rxq‡b bv _v‡K ZLb Z_¨Kgx© B›Uvi‡bU wfwËK Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi wKsev †níjvB‡bi gva¨‡g DËi Luy‡R w`‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ª hviv e¨¯ÍZv wKsev mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZvi Kvi‡Y Avm‡Z cv‡ib bv (we‡klZ bvix) Ges ¯^kix‡i †K‡›`ª Avm‡Z Aÿg (kvwiixK cÖwZeÜx) Zviv Ô†gvevBj †jwWÕi Kj¨v‡Y Z_¨ I civgk© cÖvwß myweav MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GQvov gyw`ªZ Z_¨ gva¨g wn‡m‡e weMZ cvuP eQi a‡i ÔcjøxZ_¨ ey‡jwUbÕ cÖKvk n‡q Avm‡Q| Z_¨‡mev QvovI cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª †_‡K RbmvaviY wWwRUvj K¨v‡givq Qwe †Zvjv, dmwj Rwgi gvwU cixÿv, gvQ Pv‡l cyKz‡ii cvwbi wcGBP cixÿv, PvKix ev Ab¨vb¨ cÖ‡qvR‡b Rxebe„ËvšÍ ˆZix I Av‡e`bcÎ †jLv, ¯‹zj K‡j‡Ri cÖkœcÎ gy`ªYmn me ai‡bi gy`ªY KvR, †`‡k-we‡`‡k B-†gBj, B›Uvi‡bU eªvDwRs, e¨w³MZ cÖ‡qvR‡b †gvevBj †dvb e¨envi, wWwf dig c~iY, IRb gvcv, eøvW †cÖmvi gvcv, †beyjvBRvi e¨envi, Kw¤úDUvi cÖwkÿY BZ¨vw` Avbylw½K †mev MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| G †mevmg~n †hvM Kiv n‡q‡Q g~jZ m¤ú‡`i m‡ev©”P e¨envi Ges Avq ea©‡bi Rb¨| cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª¸wj‡K ch©vqµ‡g MY‡K‡›`ª iæcvšÍ‡ii Rb¨ Z_¨ I Avbylw½K †mevi cvkvcvwk bvbviKg Kg©KvÐ m¤ú„³ Kiv n‡”Q| †hgb mKv‡j `wi`ª wkï‡`i Rb¨ cÖvK-¯‹zj wkÿv, we‡K‡j Kg©Rxex bvix‡`i Rb¨ mvÿiZv Kg©m~wP, wkï‡`i Rb¨ KvU©yb I PjwPÎ cÖ`k©‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv n‡”Q| cjøxZ_¨ M‡elYvi gva¨‡g Ôwewb‡qv‡Mi wecix‡Z DcKvi (†ewbwdU Ab Bb‡f÷‡g›U)Õ kxl©K bZzb GKwU aviYvi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q| G aviYvwU g~jZ cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª ¯’vcb I cwiPvjbvq hZ A_© e¨q n‡q‡Q Zvi wecix‡Z RbmvaviY KZUzKz DcKvi (A_© g~‡j¨) †c‡q‡Q Zvi GKwU we‡kølY| cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi †UKmBKiY fvebv ïay wewb‡qv‡Mi wecix‡Z DcvR©b (wiUvb© Ab Bb‡f÷‡g›U) Gi g‡a¨ mxgve× bv †i‡L, Z_¨ cÖvwßi d‡j RbmvaviY A_© g~‡j¨ KZUzKz DcKvi cv‡”Q Zv wnmv‡ei AšÍfy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| M‡elYv ch©v‡q cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª ¯’vcb I cwiPvjbvq †gvU †h wewb‡qvM Kiv n‡q‡Q Zvi wecix‡Z †mevMÖnxZviv A_© g~‡j¨ M‡o 18.33 ¸Y †ewk DcKvi †c‡q‡Q| Z‡e DcKv‡ii cwigvY wbf©i K‡i Z_¨Kg©xi `ÿZv I ¸YMZ gv‡bi Dci †hgb: gsjv, ev‡Minv‡U cwiPvwjZ cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ª Z_¨Kgx© Zzjbvg~jK ¸YMZ gvb m¤úbœ I `ÿ nIqvq †mLv‡b cÖwZ 1 UvKv wewb‡qv‡Mi wecix‡Z DcKv‡ii cwigvY cvIqv †M‡Q M‡o 52.92 UvKv, hv bxjdvgvix‡Z cwiPvwjZ cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi †ÿ‡Î M‡o 11.82 UvKv, †bvqvLvjx‡Z M‡o 5.66 UvKv Ges me‡P‡q Kg wQj †b·Kvbvq M‡o 2.66 UvKv| cixÿvg~jK cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi AwfÁZv Ges mdjZvi wfwˇZ †`‡ki A‡bK cÖwZôvb GLb G Kv‡Ri mv‡_ m¤ú„³ n‡”Q| mviv evsjv‡`‡k Z_¨cÖhyw³ wfwËK Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v m¤cÖmvi‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ GKm‡½ KvR Kivi Rb¨ Ôevsjv‡`k †Uwj‡m›Uvi †bUIqvK© (wewUGb)Õ wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU mw¤§wjZ cø¨vUdg©| wW.†bU, evsjv‡`k †Uwj‡m›Uvi †bUIqvK© Gi wbe©vnx cwil‡`i m`m¨| wewUGb 2007 mv‡j Zvi Ôwgkb 2011Õ †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| 2011 Gi mv‡ji g‡a¨ †`ke¨vcx mve©Rbxb GKwU Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v cÖwZôvq eªZx wewUGb I Zvi m`m¨e„›`| cjøxZ_¨ m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ Rvb‡Z eªvDR Kiæb: <www.pallitathya.org.bd> mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  7. 7. gyLeÜ Z_¨ †cŠuQzK mevi N‡i, wW.†bU cwiPvwjZ cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi g~j †køvMvb| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g cjøxevmxi ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq mwVK Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKvi mwVK mg‡q wbwðZ K‡i Dbœqb Z_v `vwi`ª we‡gvP‡b f~wgKv ivLvi D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L 2003 mv‡j cjøxZ_¨ Kg©m~wPi hvÎv ïiæ nq| 2005 mv‡ji 17 †m‡Þ¤^i M‡elYvg~jKfv‡e cÖ_g cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª (wek¦e¨vcx mvaviY bvg †Uwj‡m›Uvi) ¯’vwcZ nq †kjveywbqv MÖvg, gsjv, ev‡Minv‡U| ÔawiÎx mgvR Kj¨vY msNÕ ¯’vbxqfv‡e G cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ªwU cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY K‡i| 2005 mv‡j †gvU 4wU cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª ¯’vcb K‡i 18 gvme¨vcx M‡elYv Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ nq| 2005 mv‡j 28 AvM÷ †_‡K 10 †m‡Þ¤^i, 14 w`b e¨vcx cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq GjvKv †_‡K wbe©vwPZ cÖ_g Z_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿY cwiPvjbv Kiv nq| wW.†bU eZ©gv‡b cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª ¯’vcb I cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q wewfbœ cªwZôvb‡K KvwiMwi mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb Ki‡Q| 2008 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i ch©šÍ wW.†bU wewfbœ †gqv‡` me©‡gvU 13wU ÔZ_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿYÕ Ges 4wU ÔZ_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿK‡`i cÖwkÿYÕ mdjfv‡e m¤úbœ K‡i‡Q| G mnvwqKvwU we`¨gvb cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª cwiPvjbv Ges Z_¨Kgx© cÖwkÿ‡Y wW.†b‡Ui `xN©w`‡bi AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K iwPZ| Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v wk‡ivbv‡g A‡bK¸wj mnvwqKv µgvš^‡q cÖKvwkZ n‡e| cÖ_g LÐwU Ô†Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKvÕ| Z_¨cÖhyw³i weeZ©b bvbviKg D™¢vebx gva¨g m„wó K‡i Z_¨ I Ávb Avni‡Y bZzb bZzb c×wZ Dcnvi w`‡”Q| GB cwieZ©b AZ¨šÍ `ªæZMwZ‡Z NU‡Q| Kw¤úDUv‡ii myweav GLb wewfbœ gy‡Vv cÖhyw³‡Z P‡j Avm‡Q| cÖhyw³ mnRjf¨ nIqvq e¨w³ ch©v‡q cÖhyw³i gvwjKvbv mnRjf¨ n‡q Avm‡Q| Zv m‡Ë¡I Avgv‡`i g‡Zv `wi`ª †`‡k cÖhyw³wfwËK Z_¨ I Ávb Avni‡Yi mvgvwRK Pvwn`v Av‡iv K‡qK `kK _vK‡e| Z‡e †m¸wji iƒc I e¨envi Av‡iv ˆewPΨc~Y© n‡e| G mnvwqKvwU cÖhyw³wfwËK Z_¨ I Ávb Avni‡Yi mvgvwRK †K›`ª, hv wek¦e¨vcx †Uwj‡m›Uvi bv‡g cwiwPZ, cwiPvjbvi c×wZ m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wfwË, mvRm¾v, Z_¨ Pvwn`v wbiƒcY, †mevmg~n Ges †mev cÖ`v‡bi wewfbœ gva¨g I †KŠkj m¤ú‡K© ¯úó aviYv †`qvi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cjøx Rbmvavi‡Yi RxebhvÎv mnvqK Z‡_¨i Drm Ges Z_¨fvÛvi m¤ú‡K© my¯úó e¨vL¨v i‡q‡Q| †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq, Kg©GjvKv wba©viY c×wZ, cÖPviYv †KŠkj, cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘wZ I msiÿY Ges Kg©cwiKíbv ˆZwi I ev¯Íevq‡b c×wZmg~n cwic~Y©fv‡e Zz‡j aivi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q G mnvwqKvwU‡Z| GKwU †Uwj‡m›Uvi mdjfv‡e Ges Kvh©Kixfv‡e cwiPvjbvq cÖavb f~wgKv Z_¨Kgx©i| Z_¨Kgx©i Kvh©µ‡g G cÖKvkbvwU h‡_ó mnvqK n‡e e‡j Avgv‡`i wek¦vm| Z_¨Kgx© Ges †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvKvix e¨w³, cÖwZôvb, D‡`¨v³vMY G mnvwqKvwU e¨envi K‡i †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv, cwiKíbv MÖnY Ges ev¯Íevq‡b mvgvb¨Zg DcK„Z n‡j Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Póv mv_©K n‡e| mnvwqKvwU Av‡iv mg„× K‡i †Zvjvi A‡bK my‡hvM i‡q‡Q e‡j Avgv‡`i g‡b n‡q‡Q| mnvwqKvwUi Dbœq‡b Avcbv‡`i civgk© Ges gZvgZ LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© hv Avgiv AvšÍwiKfv‡e MÖnY Ki‡Z m‡Pó _vK‡ev| †gvt dinv` DÏxb (forhad@dnet.org.bd) †kL gvmy`yi ingvb (masudur@dnet.org.bd) gvngy` nvmvb (mahmud@dnet.org.bd) †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  8. 8. m~wPcÎ c„ôv cvV 1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi welqK aviYv 13 cvV 1.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi wK? 13 cvV 1.2: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wfwË 13 cvV 1.3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kv‡`i Rb¨? 14 cvV 1.4: †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Kb `iKvi? 14 cvV 2: Z_¨Kgx© 16 cvV 2.1: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Z_¨Kgx©i cÖ‡qvRb †Kb? 16 cvV 2.2: Z_¨Kgx©i wK †hvM¨Zv I `ÿZv _vKv `iKvi? 17 cvV 2.3: Z_¨Kgx©i KvR wK? 17 cvV 3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v 18 cvV 3.1: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii AeKvVv‡gv 18 cvV 3.2: †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v 18 cvV 4: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mevmg~n 21 cvV 4.1: Z_¨ I civgk© †mev 21 cvV 4.2: Avbylw½K †mev 24 cvV 4.3: †mevg~jK Kg©KvÐ 26 cvV 5: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgqmxgv wba©viY 27 cvV 5.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 27 cvV 5.2: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©viY c×wZ 27 cvV 5.3: mgq wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq 29 cvV 6: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvq Kg©GjvKv wba©viY 30 cvV 6.1: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 30 cvV 6.2: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi c×wZ 30 cvV 6.3: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq 31 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  9. 9. cvV 7: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ges e¨envi 32 cvV 7.1: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 32 cvV 7.2: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii c×wZ 32 cvV 7.3: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii ci KiYxq 34 cvV 8: Kg©GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZKiY 35 cvV 8.1: Kg©GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨v I Pvwn`v Rvbvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 35 cvV 8.2: we`¨gvb mgm¨v wPwýZ Kivi c×wZ 35 cvV 8.3: we`¨gvb mgm¨v wPwýZ Kivi ci KiYxq 36 cvV 9: Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g Ges Dcvq 37 cvV 9.1: Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g 37 cvV 9.2: eûwea gva¨‡gi e¨envi †KŠkj Ges Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Dcvq 41 cvV 10: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii ˆ`bw›`b Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv 53 cvV 10.1: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Z_¨Kgx© 53 cvV 10.2: w`‡bi wba©vwiZ mg‡q †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Lvjv 53 cvV 10.3: Kg©cwiKíbv Abymv‡i Kvh©µg ïiæ 54 cvV 10.4: w`‡bi Kvh©µg ¸wQ‡q †bqv 55 cvV 11: Rbm¤ú„³KiY, cÖPvi I cÖmvi 56 cvV 11.1: Rbm¤ú„³KiY, cÖPvi I cÖmv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 56 cvV 11.2: Rbm¤ú„³KiY, cÖPvi I cÖmv‡ii †KŠkj Ges cÖ‡qvM c×wZ 56 cvV 12: †jvKR Ávb I L¨vwZgvb e¨w³ wPwýZKiY Ges Z_¨ msMÖn 66 cvV 12.1: †jvKR Ávb I L¨vwZgvb e¨w³ wPwýZKiY Ges Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 66 cvV 12.2: wPwýZ Kivi c×wZ 66 cvV 12.3: wPwýZ Kivi ci KiYxq 67 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  10. 10. cvV 13: †Uwj‡m›Uvi e¨e¯’vcbv 68 cvV 13.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvq Kg©cwiKíbv ˆZwi 68 cvV 13.2: †mevMÖnxZv I †mev msµvšÍ Z_¨ msiÿY Ges cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘wZ 69 cvV 13.3: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wnmve e¨e¯’vcbv Ges wnmve cÖKvk 69 cvV 14: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg cwiexÿY I g~j¨vqb 70 cvV 14.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg cwiexÿY I g~j¨vq‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv 70 cvV 14.2: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg cwiexÿY 70 cvV 14.3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg g~j¨vq‡bi Rb¨ hv‡`i‡K AšÍf©z³ Ki‡eb 71 cvV 14.4: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg g~j¨vqb 71 mshyw³ 74 mshyw³ 1: †mev MÖnYKvix wbeÜb KvVv‡gv 74 mshyw³ 2: †mev cÖ`vb I A_© MÖnY iwm` KvVv‡gv 75 mshyw³ 3: w`b Ges gvm †k‡l †mev m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ GKwÎKiY KvVv‡gv 75 mshyw³ 4: ˆ`wbK I gvwmK †mev cÖ`vb cÖwZ‡e`b KvVv‡gv 76 mshyw³ 5: cÖwZeÜKZv I Avb‡›`i NUbv cÖwZ‡e`b KvVv‡gv 77 mshyw³ 6: wewfbœ mfvi cÖwZ‡e`b KvVv‡gv 77 mshyw³ 7: B-†gBj I B›Uvi‡bU eªvDwRs †iwR÷vi KvVv‡gv 78 mshyw³ 8: †gvevBj †dvb e¨envi †iwR÷vi KvVv‡gv 78 mshyw³ 9: wfwWI cÖ`kb©x †iwR÷vi KvVv‡gv 79 mshyw³ 10: K¨v¤ú Dcj‡ÿ¨ gvBwKs Z_¨ bgybv 79 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  11. 11. cÖ_g ce© †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  12. 12. cvV 1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi welqK aviYv G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § †Uwj‡m›Uvi wK? § †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wfwË § †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kv‡`i Rb¨? § †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Kb `iKvi? cvV 1.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi wK? †Uwj‡m›Uvi n‡jv cÖhyw³wfwËK Z_¨ I Ávb Avni‡Yi mvgvwRK †K›`ª| GLv‡b mvaviY gvbyl Rxeb-RxweKv m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ wel‡q mwVK Z_¨ I civgk© Ges wewfbœ †mev †c‡Z cv‡ib| GB Z_¨ I civgk© †mev Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i wewfbœ gva¨g †hgb Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb, B›Uvi‡bU BZ¨vw` wb‡R wKsev Z_¨Kgx©i mn‡hvwMZvq e¨envi K‡i msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GKwU Kvh©Ki †Uwj‡m›Uvi mwVK mg‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq mwVK Z‡_¨i cÖevn wbwðZ K‡i Rxeb-RxweKvi gvb Dbœq‡bi j‡¶¨ mnvqK cwi‡ek m„wó‡Z Kvh©Kix f~wgKv iv‡L| wewfbœ †`‡k †Uwj‡m›Uvi wfbœ wfbœ bv‡g cwiwPZ, GgbwK cÖwZôvb‡f‡` Gi bvg wfbœ nq| evsjv‡`‡k wW.†b‡Ui D‡`¨v‡M ¯’vbxq cÖwZôvb KZ©…K cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uvi¸‡jv ÒcjøxZ_¨ †K›`ªÓ bv‡g cwiPvwjZ| cvV 1.2: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wfwË 1 †Uwj‡m›Uvi‡K N‡ii m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i mn‡RB †evSv hvq (cjøxZ_¨ g‡Wj †_‡K msM„nxZ) | cjøxZ_¨ g‡Wj 5wU g~j wfwËi Dci cÖwZwôZ: Rxeb-RxweKv m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ I ÁvbfvÐvi, Z_¨ I Ávb wewbg‡qi eûwea 1 Raihan, A. (Ed.). (2007). Pallitathya - An Information and Knowledge System for the Poor and Marginalized: Experience from Grassroots in Bangladesh (abridged version). Dhaka, Bangladesh: D.Net. 13 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  13. 13. gva¨g, Z_¨Kgx© (Ávb fvÐvi Ges Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ †mZzeÜb), gvwjKvbv Ges cÖPviYv I cÖmvi e¨e¯’v| 5wU wfwËi mgš^‡q Z‡_¨i cÖevn m„wó‡Z cjøxZ_¨ †K›`ª GjvKvi mKj Rbmvavi‡Yi Rb¨ Db¥y³ GKwU ¯’vb, hv mvgvwRK MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv Ges Avw_©K mg„w× AR©b K‡i Pjgvb _vK‡e| GiKg cÖwZôvb cÖwZwbqZ `wi`ª I cÖvwšÍK Rbmvavi‡Yi Z_¨ I †mevi Pvwn`v wbiƒcY Ki‡e Ges Zv Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g cÖevn wbwðZ Ki‡e| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g Z‡_¨i cÖevn Access to Information and Knowledge through ICTs Z_¨ I Ávb wewbg‡q eûwea gva¨g Multiple Delivery Channels Askx`vwiZ¡/ gvwjKvbv cÖPvi I cÖmvi e¨e¯’v Z_¨ I Ávb fvÐvi Infomediary Ownership Z_¨Kgx© Marketing Content Z_¨ I Avbylw½K †mev Pvwn`v wbiƒc‡Y avivevwnK Kvh©µg Need-based Information, Knowledge and Other Services mvgvwRK I Avw_©K †UKmBKiY Social & Economic Sustainability GjvKvi mKj Rbmvavi‡Yi Rb¨ Db¥y³ ¯’vb Common Access Point †Uwj‡m›Uvi g‡Wj (wW.†bU cjøxZ_¨ g‡Wj †_‡K msM„nxZ) cvV 1.3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kv‡`i Rb¨? mgv‡R myweavewÂZ bvixmn mKj †kªYx I †ckvi gvbyl‡K g~jZt Z_¨ I civgk© †mev I Ab¨vb¨ cÖhyw³wfwËK †mev cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ †Uwj‡m›Uvi KvR K‡i| cvV 1.4: †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Kb `iKvi? Ÿ eZ©gvb we‡k¦ Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i DˇivËi weKvk `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvPb I Dbœqbg~jK Kg©Kv‡Ð bvbvfv‡e BwZevPK f~wgKv ivL‡Q| wKš‘ Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv G my‡hvM †_‡K A‡bK wcwQ‡q Av‡Q hv evsjv‡`‡ki †¶‡ÎI mZ¨, Av‡iv †ewk mZ¨ G‡`‡ki MÖvgvÂj¸‡jvi †¶‡Î; Ÿ MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z GLbI Z_¨cÖhyw³i welqwU AwaKvs‡kiB ARvbv, hvi d‡j MÖvg I kn‡ii g‡a¨ bvbv w`K †_‡K e¨eavb µgkt †e‡oB P‡j‡Q; Ÿ Gmg¯Í ev¯ÍeZv Ges gvV ch©v‡qi AwfÁZv †_‡K †`Lv hvq cjøxevmxi Rxeb-RxweKvi gvb Dbœq‡bi GKwU eo evav n‡”Q mwVK mg‡q mwVK I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ bv cvIqv; Ÿ mwVK mg‡q mwVK I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKvi wbwðZ Ki‡Z eZ©gv‡b Kvh©Kix f~wgKv ivL‡Q Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb, B›Uvi‡bU BZ¨vw` QvovI †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i wewfbœ gva¨g; 14 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  14. 14. Ÿ wKš‘ †hLv‡b Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AwaKvsk gvbyl `vwi`ªmxgvi wb‡P evm K‡i, byb Avb‡Z cvbZv dzivq †mLv‡b Zv‡`i Kv‡Q Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb, B›Uvi‡bU G¸‡jv AKíbxq; Ÿ cÖ‡Z¨‡K Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb BZ¨vw` wK‡b evwo‡Z e‡m wb‡R e¨envi Ki‡e GUv AviI AKíbxq; Ÿ GmKj cÖwZK~jZv KvwU‡q mvg‡b GwM‡q hvIqvi Rb¨ †Uwj‡m›UviB n‡Z cv‡i GKgvÎ ¯’vb †hLvb †_‡K me©mvaviY msMÖn Ki‡e Zv‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq bvbv Z_¨| cÖ‡qvRb n‡e bv cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki N‡i N‡i Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb, B›Uvi‡bU _vKvi; G¸‡jvi e¨envi wewa bv Rvb‡jI mgm¨v †bB, †Kbbv G Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ memgq _vK‡e GK`j `¶ Z_¨Kgx©; Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uvi cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civg‡k©i gva¨‡g K…wl‡¶‡Î K…l‡Ki Drcv`b LiP Kgv‡Z Ges Avq evov‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z cv‡i; Ÿ myweavewÂZ gvby‡li miKv‡ii wewfbœ Kj¨vYg~jK myweavi eivÏ KZ I Kv‡`i Rb¨ Zv Rvbv I Av`vq Ki‡Z †Uwj‡m›Uvi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i; Ÿ ¯’vbxq †jvKR Ávb, wkí I ms¯‹…wZ msi¶‡Y †Uwj‡m›Uvi B›Uvi‡bU wfwËK Z_¨fvÐvi mg„×Ki‡Y f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i; Ÿ mwVK mg‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civg‡k©i gva¨‡g RxebhvÎvi SuzwK I ¶q¶wZ Kgv‡Z cv‡i| 15 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  15. 15. cvV 2: Z_¨Kgx© G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Z_¨Kgx©i cÖ‡qvRb †Kb? § Z_¨Kgx©i KvR wK? § Z_¨Kgx©i wK †hvM¨Zv I `¶Zv _vKv `iKvi? cvV 2.1: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Z_¨Kgx©i cÖ‡qvRb †Kb? Ÿ MÖvgv‡j wk¶vi nvi LyeB Kg; Ÿ AwaKvsk gvbyl Kw¤úDUvi Ges B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi Rv‡bb bv; Ÿ Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i mv‡_ hviv cwiwPZ bb, Zviv †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K wb‡R wb‡R Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU BZ¨vw` e¨envi K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Luy‡R wb‡Z cvi‡eb GgbwU Avkv Kiv hvq bv; Ÿ GgbwK eq¯‹, cÖwZeÜx‡`i c‡¶ GwU Av‡iv Am¤¢e; Ÿ GQvovI Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i mv‡_ cwiwPwZ bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y mevi g‡a¨ GKUv fxwZ KvR K‡i hv ¯^í mg‡q KvwU‡q IVv m¤¢e bv; Ÿ G Kvi‡YB GjvKvi wkw¶Z I cÖwZfvevb GK`j †Q‡j‡g‡q hviv Z_¨Kgx© n‡q KvR Ki‡eb GKwbôfv‡e, wb‡R‡`i‡K wb‡qvwRZ Ki‡eb mgv‡Ri Kj¨vYgyLx Kv‡R, Dbœqb NUv‡eb Zv‡`i Ávb I `¶Zvi, e¨envi Ki‡eb Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, wbwðZ Ki‡eb Z‡_¨i mnR cÖ‡ek, †cŠu‡Q w`‡eb Z_¨ mevi N‡i| Z_¨Kgx© GKwU bZzb cÖhyw³ wbf©i †ckv| 16 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  16. 16. cvV 2.2: Z_¨Kgx©i wK †hvM¨Zv I `¶Zv _vKv `iKvi? Ÿ Lye mn‡R eyS‡Z cv‡i Ges `ªæZ †kLvi m¶gZv Av‡Q; Ÿ me©‡kªYxi gvby‡li mv‡_ †gkvi gvbwmKZv Ges m¶gZv Av‡Q; Ÿ mevi wek¦vm‡hvM¨Zv AR©‡b AvMÖnx Ges m¶gZv Av‡Q; Ÿ ˆah©¨kxj; Ÿ fv‡jv †kªvZv; Ÿ ¸wQ‡q K_v ej‡Z cvi`kx©; Ÿ gvby‡li Kj¨vYKi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ n‡Z AvMÖnx; Ÿ mgv‡Ri cÖwZ `vwqZ¡‡eva Av‡Q; Ÿ fv‡jv AvPvi-e¨env‡ii AwaKvix; Ÿ AvÂwjK fvlvÁvb m¤úbœ; Ÿ GjvKv m¤ú‡K© ¯^”Q aviYv Av‡Q; Ÿ gvbyl‡K AvK…ó Kivi m¶gZv Av‡Q; Ÿ bZzb wKQz Rvbv, †kLv Ges covi AvMÖn Av‡Q; Ÿ ¯§„wZkw³ cÖLi; Ÿ m‡ev©cwi wb‡Ri `vwqZ¡‡eva m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb; Ÿ b~¨bZg GBPGmwm cvk; Ÿ eq‡mi e¨vcv‡i †Kvb mxgv †bB; Ÿ bvix Kgx© n‡j fv‡jv, Zvn‡j bvixiv †K‡›`ª Avm‡Z AvMÖnx n‡e| cvV 2.3: Z_¨Kgx©i KvR wK? Ÿ gvby‡li mgm¨v ˆah©¨ a‡i †kvbv, †evSv Ges †m Abyhvqx †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i wewfbœ gva¨g e¨envi K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Lyu‡R †ei K‡i Zv‡`i‡K Z_¨ I civgk© w`‡q mn‡hvwMZv Kiv; Ÿ Z‡_¨i ¸iæZ¡ Ges AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© gvbyl‡K m‡PZb Kiv; Ÿ Rbmvavi‡Yi Rb¨ mwVK Z‡_¨i cÖevn ˆZwi Ges Kv‡R jvMv‡Z Zv‡`i‡K AvMÖnx K‡i †Zvjv; Ÿ Z‡_¨i wewfbœ Drm m¤ú‡K© me©`v †LvuR Lei ivLv Ges Zv RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q †`qv| 17 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  17. 17. cvV 3: †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii AeKvVv‡gv § †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v cvV 3.1: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii AeKvVv‡gv Ÿ b~¨bZg `yBwU cÖk¯Í Ni _vKv cÖ‡qvRb; Ÿ Ni msjMœ GKwU eviv›`v _vKv cÖ‡qvRb; Ÿ GKwU Uq‡jU _vKv cÖ‡qvRb; Ÿ RbmvaviY mn‡R Avm‡Z cv‡i GRb¨ fv‡jv iv¯Ív cÖ‡qvRb; Ÿ wbivcËv we‡ePbvq fv‡jv `iRv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb; Ÿ we`y¨‡Zi e¨e¯’v _vKv cÖ‡qvRb; Nb Nb we`y¨r _v‡Kbv e‡j weKí †hgb †Rbv‡iUi, AvBwcGm _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| we`y¨‡Zi Afv‡e cy‡iv D‡`¨vMwU †f‡¯Í †h‡Z cv‡i| cvV 3.2: †Uwj‡m›Uvi mvRm¾v cÖ_g N‡ii mvRm¾v Ÿ cÖk¯Í GKwU N‡i (†h NiwU cÖ_‡gB mK‡ji `„wó‡Z c‡o) b~¨bZg GKwU Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, †gvevBj †dvb, wcÖ›Uvimn GKwU †Uwej †`qvj msjMœ K‡i mvwR‡q wbb; Ÿ Kw¤úDUv‡ii mvg‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq I‡qemvB‡Ui ZvwjKv jvwM‡q wbb; 18 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  18. 18. Ÿ †Uwe‡j Kw¤úDUv‡ii gwbUiwU Aek¨B †mevMÖnxZv‡`i w`‡K ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ B›Uvi‡bU †gv‡WgwU ms‡hv‡Mi ci Ges †gvevBj †dvbwU wbivc` ¯’v‡b †Uwe‡ji Wªqv‡i ivLyb; Ÿ wcÖ›UviwU Ggbfv‡e ¯’vcb Kiæb hv‡Z wcÖ›U †`qvi ci KvMRwU Avcwb nvZ evwo‡q wb‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ †Uwe‡ji cv‡k nv‡Zi bvMv‡j GKwU ZvK ¯’vcb Kiæb †hLv‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq LvZv Ges bw_cÎ mvwR‡q ivL‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ †Uwe‡ji mv‡_ K‡qKwU †Pqvi ¯’vcb Kiæb hv‡Z G‡Ki AwaK †mevMÖnxZv †mLv‡b em‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ N‡ii Ab¨ cÖv‡šÍ GKwU †e Ggbfv‡e ¯’vcb Kiæb hv‡Z A‡c¶gvb †mevMÖnxZv †Uwe‡ji gwbUiwU‡K †`L‡Z cvb; Ÿ G NiwU‡Z GKwU Avjgvix ivL‡Z cv‡ib †hLv‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© bw_cÎ, hš¿cvwZ Ges DcKiY msi¶Y Ki‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ N‡ii †g‡S KL‡bvB Kv‡c©U wKsev Ggb RvZxq †Kvb e¯‘ w`‡q XvK‡eb bv| G‡Z K‡i N‡i Rbmvavi‡Yi ¯^vfvweK cÖ‡ek weNœ m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i; Ÿ G NiwU g~jZt Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiæb| Z‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡iv wKQz DcKiY †hgb IRb I D”PZv gvcvi e¨e¯’v G N‡i ivL‡Z cv‡ib| wØZxq N‡ii mvRm¾v Ÿ cÖk¯Í wØZxq N‡i b~¨bZg GKwU Kw¤úUvi †`qvj msjMœ †Uwe‡j ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ cÖ_g Ni †_‡K †bUIqvK© e¨e¯’vcbvq G Kw¤úDUv‡i B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM wbwðZ Kiæb| Z‡e mvg_©¨ _vK‡j Avjv`v B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hv‡Mi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z cvi‡j Av‡iv fv‡jv; Ÿ cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨fvÐvi G Kw¤úDUv‡i wbwðZ Kiæb; Ÿ G NiwU g~jZ wewfbœ Avbylw½K †mev cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiæb; Ÿ G N‡i Kw¤úDUv‡ii mv‡_ d‡Uv wcÖ›Uvi ¯’vcb Kiæb, GKBmv‡_ wWwRUvj K¨v‡giv GLv‡b ¯’vcb Kiæb; 19 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  19. 19. Ÿ Avbylw½K †mevi Ab¨vb¨ hš¿cvwZ Ges DcKiY G NiwU‡Z ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡ib; †hgb: d‡UvKwc †gwkb, gvwU cix¶v hš¿, i³Pvc gvcv hš¿ BZ¨vw`; Ÿ Aek¨B hš¿cvwZ Ges DcKi‡Yi wbivcËv we‡ePbvq ivLyb; Ÿ cvVP‡µi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq †Uwej, †e Ges †Pqvi ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ eB-cy¯ÍK, cÎ-cwÎKv mvwR‡q ivLvi Rb¨ ZvK ¯’vcb Kiæb| eviv›`vi mvRm¾v Ÿ eviv›`vq GKwU cÎ-cwÎKv covi †Uwej ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ eviv›`vq GKwU Z_¨ †evW© (†bvwUk †evW©) ¯’vcb Kiæb| †h‡Kvb weÁwß, PvKwii Lei, ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Lei Z_¨ †ev‡W© Szwj‡q w`b; Ÿ GLv‡b †mevMÖnxZv‡`i emvi Rb¨ †e ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ eviv›`v msjMœ g~j dUK memgq †Lvjv ivL‡eb hv‡Z †Kvbµ‡gB Kv‡iv cÖ‡e‡k weNœ bv N‡U; Ÿ cvwb LvIqvi e¨e¯’v ivLyb| mvgwMÖK mvRm¾v Ÿ Ni Ges eviv›`vi †`qv‡j Z_¨ wbf©i †cv÷vi, w÷Kvi BZ¨vw` w`‡q mymw¾Z K‡i ivLyb hv‡Z †`‡L mn‡RB g‡b nq GwU GKwU Z_¨ †K›`ª| BDwbqb cwil‡`i gvbwPÎ Ges mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ cÖ_g Ni wKsev eviv›`vi †`qv‡j mvuwU‡q ivLyb hv‡Z mK‡ji `„wó‡Z Av‡m; Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii g~j mvBb‡evW© Ggb ¯’v‡b ¯’vcb Kiæb hv‡Z iv¯Ívi †h‡Kvb w`K †_‡K mK‡ji `„wó‡Z Av‡m; Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uvi cÖv½Y, eviv›`v, Ni, Uq‡jU memgq cwi¯‹vi cwi”Qbœ ivLyb| 20 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  20. 20. cvV 4: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mevmg~n G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § Z_¨ I civgk© †mev § Avbylw½K †mev § †mevg~jK Kg©KvÐ cvV 4.1: Z_¨ I civgk© †mev gvby‡li ˆ`bw›`b Rxeb-RxweKvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z K…wl, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbewaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, `y‡hv©M e¨e¯’vcbv, Kg©ms¯’vb, bvMwiK †mev, wVKvbv BZ¨vw` welqK Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`vb †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii cÖavb KvR| Z_¨ I civgk© †mevi g‡a¨ wbgœwjwLZ welq¸‡jv AšÍf©y³: K…wl Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: wewfbœ dmj, kvK-mewR, dj-g~j, gmjv Pvl, dzj I Jlwa MvQ, grm¨m¤ú`, cïm¤ú` BZ¨vw`i RvZ cwiwPwZ, Pvlvev` c×wZ, ÿwZKi †cvKv-gvKo I †ivMevjvB `gb, AšÍe©Z©xKvjxb cwiPh©v, mvi e¨e¯’vcbv, Drcv`‡bi Avq e¨q, msMÖn, msiÿY I evRviRvZKi‡Yi c×wZ welqK Z_¨| GQvovI gvwU e¨e¯’vcbv, mgwš^Z Pvlvev`, AvšÍtdmj, km¨ ch©vq, K…wl hš¿cvwZ cwiwPwZ, K…wl‡Z mdjZvi Kvwnbx welqK Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i GKw`‡K †hgb GKRb K…wlRxex fv‡jv Drcv`b †c‡Z cv‡ib wVK †Zgwb K…wl †mev cÖ`vbKvix e¨w³ wKsev cÖwZôvb G Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i Zv‡`i †mevi gvb AviI DbœZ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| ¯^v¯’¨ Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: wewfbœ †ivMevjvB‡qi KviY, cÖwZKvi, cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’v, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ, cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v welqK Z_¨ Ges ¯^v¯’¨ civgk© MÖnY K‡i RbmvaviY DcK…Z n‡eb GgbwK ¯^v¯’¨‡mev cÖ`vbKvix wewfbœ cÖwZôvb wKsev ¯^v¯’¨Kg©x G Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i Zv‡`i †mevi gvb AviI DbœZ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 21 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  21. 21. wkÿv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i gv‡S wkÿvi wewfbœ cwimi Ges bvbvb my‡hvM msµvšÍ Z_¨| †`‡k I †`‡ki evB‡i wewfbœ wkÿv cÖwZôv‡b cov‡kvbvi my‡hvM, wkÿv e„wË I wkÿv FY msµvšÍ Z_¨, ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cvVvMvi msµvšÍ Z_¨, cÖwZeÜx‡`i AwaKvi I my‡hvM msµvšÍ bvbv ai‡bi Z_¨| G welqK Z_¨ msMÖn Ges e¨envi K‡i QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i cvkvcvwk wkÿK, AwffveK Ges wkÿv wb‡q Kg©iZ e¨w³eM© DcK…Z n‡eb| AvBb I gvbevwaKvi Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: Rwg-Rgv, DËivwaKvi, bvix AwaKvi, wkï AwaKvi, wewfbœ AvBb I AvšÍR©vwZK Kb‡fbkb BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ msMÖn Ges e¨envi K‡i AwaKvi ewÂZ gvby‡liv Zv‡`i AwaKvi m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ Ges cÖwZKvi cvevi cÖ‡qvRbxq w`Kwb‡`©kbv †c‡Z cv‡ib| cvkvcvwk AvBbRxexmn gvbevwaKvi cÖwZôvq Kg©iZ Kg©x cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I AvB‡bi mnR e¨vL¨v †c‡Z cv‡ib| GUv Zv‡`i Kvh©µg‡K Av‡iv mvejxjfv‡e Ki‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡e| AK…wl D‡`¨vM Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: Avq e„wׇZ mn‡hvMx bvbvb c‡Y¨i (evuk, †eZ, PU, bvi‡K‡ji †Qveov, KvMR BZ¨vw` w`‡q wewfbœ DcKiY ˆZwii c×wZ; Kvc‡o eøK, evwUK, w¯Œb wcÖ›U Kiv) Drcv`b cÖwµqv, cÖ‡qvRbxq Dcv`vb, KuvPvgvj I Ab¨vb¨ Dcv`v‡bi AvbygvwbK evRvig~j¨, cÖvw߯’vb, evRviRvZKiY cÖwµqv welqK Z_¨ †R‡b Ges e¨envi K‡i MÖv‡gi ÿz`ª I gvSvix D‡`¨v³viv DcK…Z n‡eb| jvMmB cÖhyw³ Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: DbœZ Pzjv, ¯^í e¨‡q evwo ˆZwi, m¨vwb‡Ukb cÖhyw³, cvwb‡K Av‡m©wbK gy³ Kivi Dcvq, Lvevi cvwb msMÖ‡ni Dcvq, †Mvei I eR¨ c`v_© †_‡K ev‡qvM¨vm, K‡¤úv÷ I Ab¨vb¨ mvi ˆZwii Dcvq, K…wl Kv‡R e¨eüZ wewfbœ ai‡bi hš¿cvwZi e¨env‡ii c×wZ Ges ¯’vbxqfv‡e D™¢vweZ wewfbœ jvMmB I †UKmB cÖhyw³i Z_¨| G welqK Z_¨ ˆ`bw›`b KvR‡K Av‡iv mnR K‡i Zzj‡Z, M„‡n e¨eüZ cÖwZwU wRwb‡mi m‡ev©”P e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z, msmv‡ii e¨q Kgv‡Z Ges bZzb Av‡qi c_ Ly‡j w`‡Z mnvqK f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i| `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: wewfbœ `y‡h©vM †gvKvwejvq wK wK c`‡ÿc I cÖ¯‘wZ MÖnY Ki‡j Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ÿqÿwZ Kwg‡q Avbv hvq| `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbvq ¯’vbxq wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡bi `vwqZ¡ welqK Z_¨ Rvbv| cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM cÖwZnZ Kiv m¤¢e bv n‡jI GmKj m‡PZbZvg~jK Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ÿqÿwZ Kwg‡q Avbv A‡bKvs‡kB m¤¢e| m‡PZbZv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: bvix I wkï cvPvi, Av‡m©wbK, gv`Kvmw³, aygcvb, Kzô‡ivM, Lv`¨ I cywó, Mf©Kvjxb I cÖme cieZx© welbœZv, †fRvj Lvevi, wbivc` cvwb, cÖwZeÜx‡`i AwaKvi, mvgvwRK ebvqb, †fvUvwaKvi, bvMwiK AwaKvi, cwjw_b e¨envi, ¯‹z‡j wkïi kvixwiK kvw¯Í BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZvg~jK Z_¨ Rb‡Mvôx‡K Av‡iv m‡PZb Ki‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡e| MÖvg ch©v‡q Kg©iZ Dbœqb msMV‡bi Kg©xe„‡›`i Rb¨ mnvqK f‚wgKv ivL‡e| Kg©ms¯’vb Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: †h‡Kvb e¨w³ Zvi †hvM¨Zv Abyhvqx Luy‡R wb‡Z cvi‡eb cQ›`bxq wel‡q wKsev cÖwZôv‡b PvKwii Lei msµvšÍ we¯ÍvwiZ Z_¨| 22 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  22. 22. wVKvbv Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: ¯’vbxq I RvZxq ch©v‡q †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi bvg, we¯ÍvwiZ wVKvbv, Zv‡`i cÖ`vbK…Z wewfbœ †mev Ges †mevi m¤¢ve¨ LiP mn‡RB Rvbv hv‡e| G Z_¨fvÐvi GKw`‡K †hgb mK‡ji g~j¨evb mgq euvPv‡e Ab¨w`‡K †mev MÖn‡Yi LiP Kg‡e, cvkvcvwk †mev`vbKvix cÖwZôvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK evRv‡i wU‡K _vK‡Z n‡j Zv‡`i †mevi gvb Av‡iv DbœZ Ki‡e| bvMwiK †mev Z_¨ I civgk© †mev: cvm‡cvU©, wfmv, WªvBwfs jvB‡mÝ, wRwW Kiv BZ¨vw` welqK c×wZ Rvbvi gva¨‡g ˆ`bw›`b Kvh©µg A‡bK mnR n‡e| miKvi KZ©©„K cÖ`Ë wewfbœ Kvh©µg †hgb: eq¯‹fvZv, wfwRGd KvW©, c½yfvZv BZ¨vw` cvIqvi c×wZ m¤ú‡K© Z_¨ †R‡b RbmvaviY h‡_ó DcK…Z n‡eb| Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`v‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY †mevmg~n cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY B›Uvi‡bU Qvov wmwW †_‡K Z_¨ Kwc K‡i Z_¨fvÐvi M‡o Zzjyb Ges Zv Kw¤úDUvi, evsjv Z_¨fvÐvi, wcÖ›Uvi e¨envi K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© w`b [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, wVKvbv, bvMwiK †mev BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM †gv‡Wg I wmg, [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ, wkÿv, AvBb I I‡qe wW‡i±wi, wcÖ›Uvi gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, wVKvbv, bvMwiK †mev, PvKwi, wewfbœ cixÿvi djvdj BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] AwWI-wfwWI Ges Gwb‡gkb Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b Kw¤úDUvi, wewfbœ wel‡q AwWI-wfwWI cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© Z_¨fvÐvi, Gwb‡gkb [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ, wkÿv, AvBb I Z_¨fvÐvi gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv bvMwiK †mev BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] eB-cy¯ÍK, cÎ-cwÎKv e¨envi K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I mswkøó eB-cy¯ÍK, cÎ- cwÎKv, eB-cy¯ÍK ivLvi civgk© ZvK [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, bvMwiK †mev BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] †gvevBj †dvb, we‡klÁ †gvevBj †dvb e¨envi K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© Ges †níjvB‡bi †dvb [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m Ges evwo‡Z evwo‡Z K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ b¤^i, wcÖ›Uvi I wPwKrmv, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, wVKvbv, bvMwiK †mev BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] gy‡LvgywL Avjv‡ci gva¨‡g ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© ¯’vbxq Ges †Rjv ch©v‡q [†Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m K…wl, nuvm-gyiwM, cïcvjb, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ I wPwKrmv, wkÿv, mswkøó wel‡q Kg©iZ AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, AK…wl D‡`¨vM, jvMmB cÖhyw³, m‡PZbZv, wVKvbv, bvMwiK miKvwi I †emiKvwi †mev BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb] we‡klÁ 23 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  23. 23. cvV 4.2: Avbylw½K †mev Z_¨‡mevi cvkvcvwk cÖwZwU GjvKvi Pvwn`vwfwËK Avbylw½K †mev †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii gva¨‡g RbmvaviY †c‡Z cv‡ib| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i we`¨gvb hš¿cvwZ Ges Ab¨vb¨ DcKi‡Yi m‡e©v”P e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z Ges †Uwj‡m›Uvi Avw_©Kfv‡e †UKmBKi‡Y Avbylw½K †mevmg~n †hvM Kiv hvq| Avbylw½K †mev cÖ`v‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY †mevmg~n cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY Qwe †Zvjv Kw¤úDUvi, wWwRUvj K¨v‡giv, [QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i ¯‹zj-K‡j‡R wbe܇bi Rb¨ Qwe †Zvjv, PvKix Ges wewfbœ d‡UvwcÖ›Uvi/wbKUeZx© GjvKvq Av‡e`b c‡Îi Rb¨ Qwe †Zvjv, k‡Li e‡m Qwe †Zvjv] wWwRUvj wcÖ›U K‡i Ggb ÷zwWI myweav cvwb cixÿv wKU, cvwb cixÿv gvQ Pv‡l cyKz‡ii cvwb cixÿv MvBW eB, gvQ Pvl msµvšÍ [gvQ Pv‡li cyKz‡ii cvwbi wcGBP, Aw·‡Rb, ZvcgvÎv, G‡gvwbqv BZ¨vw` Z_¨fvÐvi, wcÖ›Uvi cixÿv] i³Pvc gvcv hš¿, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ i³Pvc gvcv msµvšÍ Z_¨fvÐvi, wcÖ›Uvi [i³Pvc gvcv Ges wbqš¿‡Yi wewfbœ Dcvq Rvbv] gvwU cixÿv hš¿, K…wl Pvlvev` gvwU cixÿv msµvšÍ Z_¨fvÐvi, wcÖ›Uvi [Pv‡li Rwgi gvwU cixÿv K‡i gvwUi De©iZv e„w× I dmj wbe©vP‡bi Dcvq Rvbv] IRb gvcv hš¿, †`qv‡j `vMvw¼Z IRb I D”PZv gvcv D”PZv gvcvi ¯’vb, IRb-D”PZv [IRb I D”PZv gvcv Ges PvU© †`‡L IRb I D”PZvi mv‡_ m¤úK© †R‡b msµvšÍ Z_¨PvU©, ¯^v¯’¨hZœ cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc †bqv] msµvšÍ Z_¨fvÐvi wewfbœ cÎ-cwÎKv, Kw¤úDUvi, cÎ-cwÎKv cov B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, wcÖ›Uvi [Qvcv cÎ-cwÎKv wKsev B›Uvi‡b‡U wewfbœ cÎ-cwÎKv cov Ges mv¤cÖwZK Z_¨ Rvbv] Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úvR I wcÖ›U Kw¤úDUvi, wcÖ›Uvi [PvKwi Ges wewfbœ Av‡e`b cÎ, `wjj, ¯‹zj-K‡j‡Ri cÖkœ cÎ, `vIqvZ cÎ, wewfbœ cÖPviYv cÎ, Rxeb e„ËvšÍ K‡¤úvR I wcÖ›U] cvwbi Av‡m©wbK cixÿv Av‡m©wbK cixÿv wKU, Av‡m©wbK [wUDe‡q‡ji cvwb cixÿv Kv‡R e¨envi] cixÿv MvBW eB wek¦we`¨vjq fwZ© dig wcÖ›U Ges c~i‡Y mn‡hvwMZv Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [†`‡k we‡`‡ki wewfbœ K‡jR I wek¦we`¨vj‡qi fwZ© dig B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi wcÖ›Uvi, I‡qe wW‡i±wi K‡i bvgv‡bv, wcÖw›Us Ges c~i‡Y mn‡hvwMZv Kiv] miKvwi wewfbœ dig Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [cvm‡cvU©, WªvBwfs jvB‡mÝ, †cbkb dig BZ¨vw` dig msMÖn, wcÖ›U Ges wcÖ›Uvi, I‡qe wW‡i±wi c~i‡Y mn‡hvwMZv] 24 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  24. 24. †mevmg~n cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY Rb¥ wbeÜb Kiv Rb¥ wbeÜb dig, [cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³i Rb¥ wbe܇b BDwbqb/†cŠimfv cwil`‡K mn‡hvwMZv Kiv BDwbqb/†cŠimfv cwil‡`i Ges mK‡ji Rb¥ wbeÜb wbwðZ Kiv] mv‡_ cÖvwZôvwbK m¤úK© g‡Wj †U÷ †`qv Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [wewmGmmn wewfbœ cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK cixÿvi cÖ¯‘wZg~jK g‡Wj †U÷ wcÖ›Uvi, I‡qe wW‡i±wi †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i †`qvi my‡hvM] d‡UvKwc hš¿, d‡UvKwc Kivi d‡UvKwc wewfbœ AvKv‡ii KvMR [cÖ‡qvRbxq wewfbœ bw_cÎ, Av‡e`b cÎ d‡UvKwc] †gvevBj †dvb, mswkøó †gvevBj †d¬w·‡jvW/BwR‡jvW/†gvevBj KvW© weµq †dvb wmg, †gvevBj †dvb KvW© †gvevBj †dv‡b K_v ejv †gvevBj †dvb [e¨w³MZ wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡b †`‡k we‡`‡k eÜz, AvZ¥xq-¯^R‡bi mv‡_ K_v ejv] ev‡qvWvUv ev Rxeb e„ËvšÍ ˆZwi Kw¤úDUvi, wcÖ›Uvi, ev‡qvWvUv [PvKwi‡Z Av‡e`b wKsev weevn msµvšÍ Rxeb e„ËvšÍ ˆZwi] KvVv‡gv wis †Uvb WvDb‡jvW Kiv Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [†gvevBj †dv‡bi Rb¨ cQ›`gZ wis‡Uvb B›Uvi‡bU †_‡K bvgv‡bv Ges I‡qe wW‡i±wi †gvevB‡j mshy³ Kiv] Kzwiqvi Kiv mswkøó jvB‡mÝ, Kzwiqvi MvBW [Kg©GjvKvi Rbmvavi‡Yi wPwVcÎ †`‡ki g‡a¨ wewfbœ ¯’v‡b †cŠu‡Q †`qvi evB e¨e¯’v] wWwf dig c~iY Kiv Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [Av‡gwiKv hvIqvi Rb¨ wWwf jUvwii dig c~i‡Y mn‡hvwMZv] wcÖ›Uvi, wWwRUvj K¨‡giv, I‡qe wW‡i±wi †beyjvBRvi e¨envi/fvov †beyjvBRvi wKU, †beyjvBRvi [Kg©GjvKvq GRgv †ivMx‡`i Rb¨ †beyjvBRvi e¨envi wKsev fvov †`qv] Jla, †beyjvBRvi e¨envi MvBW eB B-†gBj Kiv Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [e¨w³MZ wKsev wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡b †`‡k-we‡`‡k eÜz, AvZ¥xq-¯^R‡bi mv‡_ wcÖ›Uvi †hvMv‡hvM] †jwg‡bwUs Kiv †jwg‡bwUs hš¿, †jwg‡bwUs [cwiPqcÎ, m`bcÎ, Qwe BZ¨vw` †jwg‡bwUs Kiv] DcKiY †bU Uz †dvb Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, [e¨w³MZ wKsev wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡b †`‡k-we‡`‡k eÜz, AvZ¥xq-¯^R‡bi mv‡_ mnvqK DcKiY †hvMv‡hvM] Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM, Kw¤úDUvi cÖwkÿY cÖwkÿY gwWDj [GjvKvq †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Pvwn`v ey‡S Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi, B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi BZ¨vw` wel‡q cÖwkÿY] 25 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  25. 25. GQvov GjvKvi Pvwn`v I Z_¨Kgx©i mvg_©¨ Abyhvqx bZzb bZzb †mev mshy³ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †hgb ¯’vbxq cY¨ GjvKvi evB‡i mieiv‡ni gva¨‡g †K‡›`ªi Avq e„w× Ges GjvKvi Kg©Rxex gvbyl‡K mn‡hvwMZv Kiv| cvV 4.3: †mevg~jK Kg©KvÐ Z_¨ I civgk© Ges Avbylw½K †mev QvovI wewfbœ †mevg~jK Kg©KvÐ cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †hgb - ev”Pv‡`i‡K wkÿv I m‡PZbZvg~jK KvU©yb Qwe †`Lv‡bv, ev”Pv‡`i Rb¨ cÖvK-¯‹zj wkÿv, eq¯‹ wKsev Kg©Rxex bvix‡`i Rb¨ mvÿiZv Kg©m~wP, BwZnvm I HwZn¨ Rvbv, ¸YxRb m¤ú‡K© Rvbv, `wi`ª †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Rb¨ cvVPµ MVb K‡i †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i e‡m cov‡jLv I Ávb PP©v Kivi my‡hvM K‡i †`qv, mvaviY gvby‡li Rb¨ we‡bv`‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 26 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  26. 26. cvV 5: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgqmxgv wba©viY G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv § †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©viY c×wZ § mgq wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq cvV 5.1: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Avcwb †h GjvKvq †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv Ki‡Qb †m GjvKvq wewfbœ †ckvi gvbyl emevm K‡ib| cÖ‡Z¨‡K wbR wbR Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ _v‡Kb| cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki ˆ`wbK Kg©e¨¯ÍZvi mgqmxgvI wfbœ| cÖ‡Z¨‡K hv‡Z Zv‡`i myweavRbK mg‡q †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K Zv‡`i Pvwn`vgZ Z_¨ I †mev MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ib GRb¨ †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgqmxgv mK‡ji mv‡_ Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wba©viY Kiv fv‡jv| Gi d‡j mK‡ji AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiv m¤¢e n‡e Ges Rbmvavi‡Yi Kv‡Q †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv evo‡e| cvV 5.2: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©viY c×wZ Ÿ Avcbvi Kg© GjvKvq †Kvb †Kvb †ckvRxexi emevm Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Kiæb| jÿ¨ ivL‡eb †Kvb †ckvRxex †hb ZvwjKv †_‡K ev` bv c‡ob| jÿ¨ ivL‡eb bvix, wkï, cÖwZeÜx †KD †hb ZvwjKv †_‡K ev` bv c‡ob; Ÿ mgq wba©vi‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ‡Z¨K †ckvRxex †kªYxi mv‡_ Zv‡`i myweavRbK mg‡q Avjv`vfv‡e `jwfwËK Av‡jvPbv Kiæb; Ÿ `jwfwËK Av‡jvPbvi mgq †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii D‡Ïk¨, Kvh©µg Ges †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgq wba©vi‡Yi 27 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  27. 27. ¸iæZ¡ mywbwÏófv‡e Zz‡j aiæb Ges Av‡jvPbvq cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiæb; Ÿ `jxq Av‡jvPbvq wewfbœ gZvgZ Avm‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki gZvg‡Zi ¸iæZ¡ w`‡q mK‡ji Dc‡hvMx mgqmxgv wjwce× Kiæb| GKBmv‡_ †Uwj‡m›UviwU mßv‡n Kqw`b †Lvjv ivLv `iKvi Zv Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wba©viY Kiæb; Ÿ wbw`©ó †ckvRxex †Kb D³ mgqmxgv cQ›` Ki‡Qb Zvi KviYmg~n wjwce× Ki‡Z fyj‡eb bv| KviYmg~n cieZx© mg‡q Avcbv‡`i Kv‡R Avm‡e; Ÿ GKBfv‡e Avcbvi ZvwjKvi mKj †ckvRxexi mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv †kl Kiæb; Ÿ cÖ‡Z¨K `‡ji cÖ¯ÍvweZ mgqmxgv‡K ¸iæZ¡ mnKv‡i Zzjbvg~jK we‡kølY Kiæb Zvn‡j †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Lvjv ivLvi mgqmxgv †c‡q hv‡eb; Ÿ mgqmxgv wba©viY wjwce× Ges Zv we‡køl‡Yi Rb¨ wb‡Pi bgybv QKwU e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ Zzjbvg~jK we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g cÖvß mgqmxgv wb‡q GjvKvi Rbmvavi‡Yi mv‡_ GKwU mvaviY Av‡jvPbv Kiæb Ges mevB‡K AewnZ Kiæb| mvaviY Av‡jvPbvwU BDwbqb cwil` fe‡bi mfvK‡ÿ n‡Z cv‡i| c~‡e© †hmKj `‡ji mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb, mvaviY Av‡jvPbvq cÖwZ `‡ji AšÍZ GKRb‡K ivLvi †Póv Kiyb| Zvn‡j mvaviY Av‡jvPbv djcÖm~ n‡e Ges Avcbvi Rb¨ KvRwU †ek mnR n‡e| bgybv QK: `jxq Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Lvjv ivLvi cÖ¯ÍvweZ mgqmxgv (NÈv Abyhvqx)| mKvj `ycyi weKvj mܨv ivZ †ckvRxex 2 9 10 11 12 1 3 7 7 5 8 8 6 6 10 4 9 K…wlRxex w`bgRyi QvÎ-QvÎx †eKvi M„nKg©x e¨emvqx * cÖ¯ÍvweZ mgqmxgv we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g †`Lv hvq †Uwj‡m›UviwU mßv‡n cÖwZw`b mKvj 7Uv-ivZ 10Uv ch©šÍ †Lvjv ivL‡Z n‡e| 28 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  28. 28. cvV 5.3: mgq wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq Ÿ we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g wba©vwiZ mgqmxgv †K‡›`ªi mvg‡b Ggbfv‡e Szwj‡q ivLyb hv‡Z mK‡ji †Pv‡L c‡o; Ÿ bgybv QKwU †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Z_¨ †evW© A_ev †bvwUk †ev‡W© mvuwU‡q ivLyb; Ÿ hLbB Kv‡iv mv‡_ Avjvc Ki‡eb ZLbB †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Lvjv _vKvi wba©vwiZ mgqmxgv Zv‡K AewnZ Kiæb; Ÿ cÖwZwU e¨vbvi, mvBb‡evW©mn wewfbœ cÖPvic‡Î †Uwj‡m›Uvi †Lvjv _vKvi wba©vwiZ mgqmxgv D‡jøL Kiæb; Ÿ Avcbv‡`i cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›UviwU hw` mßv‡n cÖwZw`b †Lvjv _v‡K wKsev †Kvb w`b A_ev we‡kl w`‡b eÜ iv‡Lb Zv Aek¨B cÖwZw`‡bi mgqmxgvi mv‡_ ¯úófv‡e D‡jøL Kiæb; Ÿ †Póv Kiv DwPZ †hb `yB wkd‡U m‡e©v”P cwigvY mgq †K›`ª †Lvjv _v‡K| 29 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  29. 29. cvV 6: †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvq Kg©GjvKv wba©viY G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv § Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi c×wZ § Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq cvV 6.1: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †Uwj‡m›Uvi Kvh©µg mdjfv‡e cwiPvjbvq ïiæ‡ZB cÖ‡qvRb Kg©GjvKv wba©viY Kiv| A_©vr Kv‡Ri D‡Ïk¨ Ges mvg_© Abymv‡i G Kvh©µg KZwU MÖvg wKsev BDwbq‡b cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡e Zv Av‡MB wba©viY Kiv Riæix| Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi gva¨‡g mywbw`©ófv‡e Kg©cwiKíbv ˆZwi Ges Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Kiv LyeB mnR n‡e| Kg©GjvKvi Dc‡i wbf©i Ki‡e KZRb cÖwZw`b †K‡›`ª Avm‡Z cv‡ib Ges Gi d‡j †K›`ª gvbyl‡K †mev †`qvi †ÿ‡Î m¤ú‡`i m‡e©v”P e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e wK bv| GQvov Kg©GjvKvi cwiwai Dci wbf©i K‡i m¤¢ve¨ Av‡qi cwigvY| cvV 6.2: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi c×wZ Kg©GjvKv Ggbfv‡e wba©viY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb, †hb Z_¨Kgx©iv GjvKvq cÖPvi Kvh© Pvjv‡Z cv‡ib Ges †mev MÖnxZv‡`i Rb¨ `~iZ¡ †hb evav n‡q bv `vuovq| Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î wbgœwjwLZ c×wZ AbymiY Kiæb: Ÿ cÖ_‡g wba©vwiZ BDwbqb wKsev Dc‡Rjv gvbwPÎ msMÖn Kiæb; Ÿ gvbwP‡Îi wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b Avcbv‡`i †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ae¯’vb (MÖvg Ges ¯’vb) wPwýZ Kiæb; 30 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  30. 30. Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii wbw`©ó ¯’vb †_‡K KZ¸‡jv MÖv‡g Ges BDwbq‡b mwµqfv‡e Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z Pvb Zv wPwýZ Kiæb; Ÿ Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î Aek¨B Avcbv‡`i mvg_© Ges †jvKej we‡ePbvq ivLyb; Ÿ cÖ_g Qq gv‡m 8-10wU MÖvg‡K Kg© GjvKvi AvIZvq Avb‡Z cv‡ib| cieZx© 3 gv‡m Av‡iv 3-5 wU bZzb MÖvg Kg©GjvKvi AvIZvq Avb‡Z cv‡ib| Gfv‡e Avcbv‡`i Kg©GjvKvi cwiwa evo‡Z cv‡i| Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi †¶‡Î K‡qKwU avc AbymiY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| aiv hvK †Uwj‡m›UviwUi gva¨‡g Avcbviv †gvU 20wU MÖvg‡K Kg©GjvKvi AšÍf©y³ K‡i mwµqfv‡e KvR Ki‡Z Pv‡”Qb| G‡¶‡Î Kg©GjvKv wnmv‡e cÖ_g Qq gv‡m †Uwj‡m›Uvi msjMœ 8-10wU MÖvg‡K wPwýZ Kiæb| †h MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z wbiwew”Qbœ KvR Ki‡Z Pvb| Avkv Ki‡Z cv‡ib †h, cÖ_g Qq gv‡m 8-10wU MÖv‡gi mKj Rbmvavi‡Yi Kv‡Q Avcbv‡`i cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii evZ©v †cŠu‡Q hv‡e| Zviv †Uwj‡m›Uvi m¤ú‡K© fv‡jvfv‡e Rvb‡e| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii mKj †mev m¤ú‡K© AewnZ _vK‡e| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Dci Av¯’v ˆZwi n‡e| †Uwj‡m›Uvi‡K Z_¨ I Avbylw½K †mev MÖn‡Yi cÖ_g Drm wnmv‡e we‡ePbv Ki‡e BZ¨vw`| G AR©‡bi ci Avcbviv Kg©GjvKv m¤cÖmviY K‡i cieZ©x MÖvg wba©viY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e we`¨gvb MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z †mevmg~n Pjgvb ivLv Ges †eMevb Kivi c×wZ wVK K‡i wb‡Z n‡e| Ÿ Avcbv‡`i cwiKwíZ Kg©GjvKv gvbwP‡Î mwVKfv‡e wPwýZ Kiæb| gvbwP‡Î wPwýZKi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î cÖ_g av‡ci (cÖ_g 6 gvm) Rb¨ GK ai‡Yi is, wØZxq av‡ci Rb¨ wfbœ ai‡Yi is‡qi †kW e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GKB mv‡_ gvbwP‡Îi GK cv‡k¦© †Kvb is w`‡q wK †evSv‡bv n‡”Q Zv wjwce× Kiæb hv‡Z mn‡R eyS‡Z cv‡ib| cvV 6.3: Kg©GjvKv wba©vi‡Yi ci KiYxq Ÿ Kg©GjvKv cÖv_wgKfv‡e wba©viY nIqvi ci cÖwZwU MÖv‡gi iv¯Ív-NvU, hvZvqvZ, m¤ú` BZ¨vw`mn mvgwMÖK wPÎ Avcbv‡`i Kv‡Q _vKv Avek¨K| mvgwMÖK wPÎwU Avcbv‡`i Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi cÖwµqv mnR Ki‡Z LyeB Kvh©Ki n‡e| Ÿ AZGe Kg©GjvKv wba©viY nIqvi ci GKwU mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii cÖwµqv ïiæ Kiæb| 31 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  31. 31. cvV 7: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ges e¨envi G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv § mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii c×wZ § mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii ci KiYxq cvV 7.1: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii cÖavb KvR MÖvgv‡j Rbmvavi‡Yi Rxeb-RxweKv m¤úwK©Z Z‡_¨i cÖevn ˆZwi Ges Zv wbwðZ Kiv| Kvh©µg mdjfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ Kg©GjvKvi †fŠMwjK I AeKvVv‡gvMZ Ae¯’vb, m¤ú` m¤ú‡K© ¯^”Q aviYv _vKv Avek¨K| GjvKv m¤ú‡K© cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i msiÿY cÖ‡qvRb| G Kv‡Ri Rb¨ mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ab¨Zg f~wgKv ivL‡e| cvV 7.2: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii c×wZ mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwi‡Z Kg©GjvKvi mKj †ckvRxexi AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiæb| mvgvwRK gvbwP‡Î †evaMg¨ wewfbœ mvs‡KwZK wPý e¨envi K‡i wewfbœ †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi Ae¯’vb †hgb: ¯‹zj-K‡jR, gv`ªvmv, gmwR`-gw›`i mn wewfbœ agx©q cÖwZôvb, BDwbqb cwil`, GbwRI Awdm, K¬ve, nvmcvZvj, Lvgvi, Avevw` I Abvevw` Rwgi Ae¯’vb, b`x-Rjvkq I cyKz‡ii Ae¯’vb, KvuPv I cvKv iv¯Ívi Ae¯’vb, wewfbœ cÖKvi evRvi I nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb, wewfbœ †ckvRxex m¤cÖ`vq I gvby‡li Avevm¯’j wPwýZ Kiæb| gvbwPÎwU‡Z MÖv‡gi mxgvbv †gvUvgywUfv‡e AvuKv Riæwi (w`‡Ki wb‡`©kbvmn; cwigvc mwVK nIqv Riæwi bq)| cÖwZwU cÖwZôv‡bi KvR wK Zv wjwce× Kiæb| †hgb- nvmcvZvj _vK‡j †Kvb †Kvb †iv‡Mi wPwKrmv †`qv nq, GbwRI n‡j wK wel‡q †mev †`qv nq BZ¨vw`| 32 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  32. 32. avc 1: gvV cwiåg‡Yi Av‡M Ÿ BDwbqb gvbwP‡Î wPwýZ wba©vwiZ Kg©GjvKvi ga¨ †_‡K g‡Wj wnmv‡e 1wU MÖvg wbe©vPb Kiæb; Ÿ 2-3 R‡bi GKwU `j ˆZwi Kiæb Ges wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡jvPbv K‡i `vwqZ¡ wVK K‡i wbb; Ÿ MÖvg cwiågY Kiæb| avc 2: †`vKv‡b AvÇv Ÿ wbe©vwPZ MÖvgwU‡Z cÖ‡e‡ki gy‡L cQ›`g‡Zv Ggb GKwU †`vKvb †e‡Q wbb †hLv‡b 5-10 R‡bi Rgv‡qZ Av‡Q Ges †hgbB †nvK bv †Kb wd¬cPvU© †ccvi Qwe AvuKvi Rb¨ ivLv hvq Ggb myweav Av‡Q| n‡Z cv‡i GwU GKwU Pv‡qi †`vKvb| Z‡e ïiæ‡Z †Kvb evRvi GjvKv wbe©vPb bv KivB fv‡jv; Ÿ Pv‡qi †`vKv‡b e‡m Ab¨‡`i mv‡_ Pv cv‡b †hvM w`‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ Pv we‡µZvi mv‡_ m¤úK© ¯’vc‡bi †Póv Kiæb; Ÿ ch©vqµ‡g Dcw¯’Z Ab¨ e¨w³‡`i mv‡_ AvjvcPvwiZvi gva¨‡g m¤úK© ¯’vcb Kiæb; Ÿ K_v cÖm‡½ Avcbv‡`i cwiP‡qi welq Aek¨B D‡V Avm‡e| Gmg‡q Avcbv‡`i wbR wbR cwiPq ¸wQ‡q ejyb; Ÿ Avcwb GjvKvq c~e© cwiwPZ n‡j Avcbvi bZzb cwiPq ¸wQ‡q ejyb; Ÿ Avcbv‡`i AvMg‡bi D‡Ïk¨ `„pfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiæb| avc 3: AvÇvi gva¨‡g mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ AvuKv Ÿ Dcw¯’Z e¨w³‡`i gva¨‡g MÖvgwU m¤ú‡K© fv‡jvfv‡e Rvbvi †Póv Kiæb| MÖvgwU Avcbv‡`i c~e©cwiwPZ n‡jI KvRwU h_vh_fv‡e Kiæb| KviY Avcbvi ARvbv A‡bK Z_¨ GLvb †_‡K Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb; Ÿ wd¬cPvU© †ccvi gvbwPÎ AvuKv‡bvi cÖwµqv ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Pv we‡µZv Av‡jvPbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡Qb G welqwU Aek¨B wbwðZ Kiæb; Ÿ Av‡jvPbvi g‡a¨B A‡bK e¨w³ P‡j †h‡Z cv‡ib Ges bZzb A‡b‡K Dcw¯’Z n‡Z cv‡ib| Avmv-hvIqv welqwU‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡e Pj‡Z w`‡j †Zgb ÿwZ †bB; 33 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  33. 33. Ÿ Z‡e bZzb e¨w³ G‡m GLv‡b wK n‡”Q Zv ïiæ †_‡K Rvbvi †Póv Ki‡Z cv‡ib Ges Kv‡R weNœ NU‡Z cv‡i| GRb¨ Av‡M †_‡KB A_©en Ges Lye mswÿß DËi cÖ¯‘Z K‡i ivLyb Ges cwiw¯’wZ wbqš¿‡Y ivL‡Z Pv we‡µZvi mn‡hvwMZv wb‡j fv‡jv djvdj cv‡eb; Ÿ gvbwPÎ AsK‡bi KvRwU AskMÖnYKvix‡`i nv‡Z †Q‡o w`b| Z‡e Zviv mnvqZv PvB‡j †m‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡`i mnvqZv Kiæb; Ÿ AsK‡bi mgq †hme Av‡jvPbv I ZK©-weZK© nq †m¸wj gb‡hvM mnKv‡i †Lqvj Kiæb; Ÿ ZvrÿwYKfv‡e ev cieZx© KvR¸‡jvi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© g‡b n‡j LvZvq wj‡L ivLyb; Ÿ Gfv‡eB GKwU MÖv‡gi gvbwPÎ ˆZwi cÖwµqv m¤úbœ Kiæb; Ÿ KvR †k‡l web‡qi mv‡_ mvgwqK we`vq wb‡q ¯’vb Qvoyb; Ÿ GKwU `‡ji gva¨‡g AvuKv gvbwPÎwU Ab¨ K‡qKwU `‡ji g‡a¨ cÖ`k©b K‡i wgwj‡q wb‡Z cv‡ib| Gi d‡j Avcbv‡`i gvbwPÎwU wbLuyZ n‡e| avc 4: Kg©GjvKvi c~Y© gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Ÿ cÖ_g gvbwPÎ ˆZwii ci GKB c×wZ‡Z µgvš^‡q Ab¨ MÖvg¸‡jvi gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Kiæb; Ÿ cÖwZwU MÖv‡gi Avjv`v gvbwPÎ LvZvi KvM‡Ri mgvb KvM‡R Avjv`v K‡i cybivq my›`ifv‡e AvuK‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ Gici me¸‡jv gvbwPÎ †`‡L GKwU eo KvM‡R (euvkcvZv/wd¬cPvU©) Avcbv‡`i Kg©GjvKvi mgwš^Z gvbwPÎ ˆZwi Kiæb; cvV 7.3: mvgvwRK gvbwPÎ ˆZwii ci KiYxq Ÿ cÖwZwU Avjv`v gvbwPÎ Ges mgwš^Z gvbwP‡Îi Qwe Zz‡j DËi ivLyb; Ÿ m¤¢e n‡j cÖwZwU MÖv‡gi Ges mgwš^Z gvbwPθ‡jv Kw¤úDUv‡i AvuK‡Z cv‡ib; Ÿ Avjv`v gvbwPÎ Ges mgwš^Z gvbwPÎ my›`ifv‡e evwa‡q wb‡Z cv‡ib hv A‡bKw`b wU‡K _vK‡e; Ÿ gvbwPθ‡jv Aek¨B Avcbv‡`i cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †`qv‡j mK‡j †`L‡Z cv‡i Ggb ¯’v‡b mvuwU‡q ivLyb; Ÿ gvbwPÎ AsK‡b MÖvgevmx‡`i mn‡hvwMZvi K…ZÁZv Rvwb‡q GKwU evK¨ wjwce× K‡i ivL‡Z cv‡ib| gvbwPÎwU †`Lvi Rb¨ hviv mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Qb Zv‡`i mevB‡K †K‡›`ª Avgš¿Y Rvbvb| G‡Z Askx`vwiZ¡ ˆZwi n‡e| 34 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  34. 34. cvV 8: Kg©GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZKiY G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZ Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv § we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZ Kivi c×wZ § we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZ Kivi ci KiYxq cvV 8.1: Kg©GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨v I Pvwn`v Rvbvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Rbmvavi‡Yi ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ cÖ‡qvRbxq mwVK Z‡_¨i cÖ‡ekvwaKvi mwVK mg‡q wbwðZ K‡i Zv‡`i Dbœq‡b f~wgKv ivLv| Kg©GjvKvq Rbmvavi‡Yi Rb¨ mwVK mg‡q mwVK Z_¨cÖevn wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡j, GjvKvq we`¨gvb mgm¨vmg~n wK Ges wK welqK Z_¨ Pvwn`v i‡q‡Q Zv Aek¨B Rvb‡Z n‡e| we`¨gvb mgm¨vmg~n Ges Z_¨Pvwn`v wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡j †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnR n‡e| cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ msMÖn Ges msiÿY Kiv mnR n‡e Ges mvejxjfv‡e ¯^í mg‡q Pvwn`vwfwËK Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| cvV 8.2: we`¨gvb mgm¨v wPwýZ Kivi c×wZ Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbvi mgqmxgv wba©vi‡Y (cvV 5 G e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q) wewfbœ `‡ji mv‡_ Av‡jvPbvi mg‡q GjvKvi Ges Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ ch©v‡q mgm¨vmg~n wPwýZ Kiæb; Ÿ wK ai‡Yi Z_¨ Ges †mev Avcbv‡`i cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K RbmvaviY †c‡Z Pvq Avjv‡ci gva¨‡g Zvi ZvwjKv ˆZwi Kiæb; 35 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  35. 35. Ÿ Mí Kivi cÖwµqvq GjvKvq †Kvb mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZv wKsev wewa wb‡la Av‡Q wK bv Rvbvi †Póv Kiæb; Ÿ KvR †k‡l web‡qi mv‡_ mvgwqK we`vq wb‡q ¯’vb Qvoyb| Gfv‡e G‡K G‡K mKj †ckvRxex `‡ji mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv †kl Kiæb| cvV 8.3: we`¨gvb mgm¨v wPwýZ Kivi ci KiYxq Ÿ we`¨gvb mgm¨v Ges Pvwn`v wPwýZ Kivi ci Zv welqwfwËK Lv‡Z (K…wl, ¯^v¯’¨, m‡PZbZv BZ¨vw`) fvM Kiæb; Ÿ †hmKj wel‡q Z_¨ Pvwn`v i‡q‡Q Zv Avcbv‡`i cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i msiwÿZ Av‡Q wK bv wgwj‡q wbb; Ÿ msiwÿZ bv _vK‡j wewfbœ Drm †_‡K msMÖn Kiæb Ges Gmg¯Í Z‡_¨i Dcw¯’wZ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i wbwðZ Kiæb; Ÿ A‡bK mgm¨vi mgvavb ¯’vbxqfv‡eB PgrKvifv‡e mgvavb n‡”Q| †m¸wj msMÖn I cÖPv‡i GjvKvi gvbyl‡K m¤ú„³ Kivi †Póv Kiæb; Ÿ Gmg¯Í Z‡_¨i Dcw¯’wZ m¤ú‡K© RbmvaviY‡K AewnZ Kiæb| 36 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  36. 36. cvV 9: Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g Ges Dcvq G cvV †_‡K Avgiv hv Rvb‡ev § Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g § eûwea gva¨g e¨envi †KŠkj Ges Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Dcvq cvV 9.1: Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi eûwea gva¨g Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi A‡bK¸‡jv gva¨g i‡q‡Q| gva¨g¸‡jv‡K Avgiv 6wU eo fv‡M fvM Ki‡Z cvwi| Ÿ wWwRUvj AdjvBb gva¨g Ÿ AbjvBb gva¨g Ÿ AwWI-wfwWI gva¨g Ÿ †gvevBj †dvb wfwËK gva¨g Ÿ gy‡LvgywL e‡m Avjv‡ci gva¨‡g we‡klÁ civgk© Ÿ eB-cy¯ÍK I cÎ-cwÎKv wWwRUvj AdjvBb gva¨g: Kw¤úDUv‡i wKsev wmwW AvKv‡i msiwÿZ Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡bi Dcvq AdjvBb gva¨g wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ nq| evsjv‡`‡k B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hv‡Mi we¯Í…wZ AcÖZzj Ges †hLv‡b B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM Av‡Q Zvi MwZ Avkve¨ÄK bv nIqvq Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi GKwU Ab¨Zg gva¨g n‡jv AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi| Z‡e B›Uvi‡bU _vK‡jI me Z_¨ B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g msMÖ‡ni cÖ‡qvRb c‡o bv| 37 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  37. 37. evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ cÖwZôvb wewfbœ wel‡qi Dci wewfbœ ai‡bi AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg GKwU n‡jv Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi (evsjv fvlvq cÖ¯‘Z Z_¨fvÐvi)| Rxqb Z_¨fvÐviwU Ggbfv‡e M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q †hLv‡b i‡q‡Q mnR c×wZ‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Lyu‡R cvIqvi e¨e¯’v, bZzb D‡`¨vMx‡K AbycÖvwYZ Ki‡Z wewfbœ †ÿ‡Îi mvd‡j¨i Kvwnbx, bZzb †Kv‡bv wel‡q Z‡_¨i Pvwn`v ˆZwi n‡j cieZ©x ms¯‹i‡Y mshyw³i e¨e¯’v| GLv‡b cÖvmw½K wPÎ ms‡hvwRZ i‡q‡Q hv‡Z wPθ‡jv †`‡L wbw`©ó Z_¨wU mn‡RB †evaMg¨ nq| Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi e¨env‡ii Rb¨ B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hv‡Mi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv Ges GwU cjøx Rb‡Mvôxi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e Dc‡hvMx, GgbwK Aÿi Ávbnxb gvbylI Z_¨Kg©xi mnvqZvq Z_¨cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i RxebhvÎvi e¨q Kgv‡Z A_ev Avq e„w× Ki‡Z mÿg nb| Z‡e †h GjvKvq B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM †cŠu‡Q †M‡Q †mLv‡b B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi Kiv hv‡e| †gvU `kwU (10) cÖavb wel‡q †hgb Rxqb-K…wl, Rxqb-¯^v¯’¨, Rxqb-wkÿv, Rxqb-AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, Rxqb-AK…wl D‡`¨vM, Rxqb-jvMmB cÖhyw³, Rxqb-m‡PZbZv, Rxqb-`y‡hv©M e¨e¯’vcbv, Rxqb-bvMwiK †mev Ges Rxqb-wVKvbv wb‡q M‡o D‡V‡Q Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi| ¯’vbxqfv‡e Avcbv‡`i Kw¤úDUv‡i msiwÿZ wewfbœ wel‡q Z_¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i hv AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i| D`vniY wnmv‡e ejv hvq †h, †Kvb e¨w³ †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K cÖwZeÜx‡`i wkÿv welqK Z_¨ Rvb‡Z Pvq| Avcwb hw` Kw¤úDUv‡i msiwÿZ Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi K‡i D³ e¨w³‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡ib Zvn‡j Zv AdjvBb gva¨g wnmv‡e MY¨ Kiv hvq| †Kv_vq, KLb G ai‡Yi wWwRUvj AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q †LuvR ivLyb Ges msMÖn Kiæb| AbjvBb gva¨g: cª‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ hLb B›Uvi‡bU e¨env‡ii cÖ‡qvRb nq ZLb Zv AbjvBb gva¨g wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ nq| Ggb A‡bK wel‡qi Z_¨ i‡q‡Q hv wmwW wKsev Kw¤úDUv‡i msiÿY Dc‡hvMx bq| 38 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  38. 38. cÖwZwbqZ ms‡hvRb Ges ms‡kvab nq wKsev Lye ¯^í mg‡qi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Ggb ai‡bi Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ mivmwi B›Uvi‡bU ms‡hvM cÖ‡qvRb| †hgb cixÿvi djvdj Rvbv, wewfbœ wek¦we`¨vj‡qi fwZ© Z_¨ Rvbv, PvKwii Lei Rvbv, AvenvIqv evZ©v Rvbv BZ¨vw`i Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ mivmwi B›Uvi‡bU e¨env‡ii cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| Ggb A‡bK Z_¨ i‡q‡Q hv Avcbviv Ab¨ †Kvb e¨w³ ev ¯’vb †_‡K B‡gB‡ji gva¨‡g msMÖn K‡i †mevMÖnxZv‡K cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wKsev Bqvû †g‡mÄvi ev ¯‹vBwc e¨envi K‡i ZvrÿwYK †hvMv‡hvM NwU‡q Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GmKj †ÿ‡Î e¨eüZ gva¨g AbjvBb e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡e| I‡qe wW‡i±wi msMÖ‡n ivLyb| ˆ`wbK cwÎKvq †PvL ivLyb| Avcbvi cÖ‡qvRbxq I‡qemvB‡Ui wVKvbv cÖKvwkZ n‡Z cv‡i| AwWI-wfwWIÕi gva¨g: wfwWI wPÎ, Z_¨‡mev cÖ`v‡bi Ab¨Zg GKwU gva¨g †hgb, †gvgevwZ ˆZwi wKsev Kvc‡o eøK Kivi c×wZ c‡o Rvbvi PvB‡Z Zv wPÎ †`‡L I ï‡b Rvbv (wfwWI wPÎ) A‡bK †ewk Kvh©Kix| we‡kl K‡i eq¯‹, †jLvcov Rv‡bb bv; Zv‡`i Rb¨ G gva¨gwU h‡_ó Dc‡hvMx| Gi gva¨‡g Zviv welqwU‡K mn‡RB g‡b ivL‡Z cv‡ib| we‡bv`‡bi cvkvcvwk wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq wewfbœ wel‡q Z_¨ GLb wfwWI wPÎ wKsev Gwb‡gkb AvKv‡i cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q| †iwWI Ges †Uwjwfk‡b Rxeb-RxweKv m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ wel‡q Abyôvb cÖPvwiZ nq| hv †_‡K gvbyl Zvi cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ †c‡q A‡bKfv‡e DcK…Z n‡Z cv‡ib| wewfbœ KvU©yb Qwei gva¨‡g wkÿYxq Ges m‡PZbZvg~jK A‡bK welq cÖKvwkZ nq, hv Z_¨ cÖevn m„wói Ab¨Zg gva¨g| N‡i e‡m wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `ªe¨vw` ˆZwi welqK wfwWI wPÎ cvIqv hvq| †h wfwWI wPÎ †`‡L cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i gvbyl bZzb e¨emvwqK Kvh©µg ïiæ K‡i Rxeb wbe©vn Ges cwiev‡ii DcvR©b evov‡Z cv‡ib| †Kv_vq, KLb G ai‡Yi AwWI-wfwWI, Gwb‡gkb Z_¨fvÐvi cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q †LuvR ivLyb Ges msMÖn Kiæb| †iwWI Ges wUwf‡Z mvaviY gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxq Abyôvb KLb cÖPvi nq Zvi ZvwjKv ivLyb| Abyôvb wb‡Riv †`Lyb, GjvKvevmx‡K Zv AewnZ Kiæb Ges †`L‡Z DrmvwnZ Kiæb| 39 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  39. 39. †gvevBj †dvb wfwËK gva¨g: hviv kvixwiK cÖwZeÜx, mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZv Ges msmv‡i wewfbœ e¨¯ÍZvi Kvi‡Y †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Avm‡Z Amg_©¨ wKsev mvg_©¨ _vK‡jI †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Zvi Pvwn`vg‡Zv Z_¨ bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y †hb Z_¨‡mev cvIqv †_‡K ewÂZ bv nb †mRb¨ †gvevBj †dvb wfwËK gva¨g (†níjvBb) Kvh©Kix f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avevi wKQz wel‡qi ch©vß Z_¨ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i _vKv m‡Ë¡I we‡klÁ civg‡k©i cÖ‡qvRb nq †m‡ÿ‡ÎI †níjvBb Kvh©Kix f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i wb‡qvwRZ Z_¨Kgx© cÖwZw`b †gvevBj wb‡q wewfbœ MÖv‡g hv‡eb| ˆah©¨mnKv‡i MÖvgevmx‡K †Uwj‡m›Uvi I Z_¨‡mevi ¸iæZ¡ m¤ú‡K© †evSv‡eb Ges Zv‡`i‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ †c‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb| Z_¨Kgx© MÖvgevmx‡K †níjvB‡b †dvb K‡i we‡kl‡Ái mv‡_ Zvi mgm¨v wb‡q civgk© Ki‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb| MÖvgevmx PvB‡j wb‡R †_‡KB mivmwi †níjvB‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© †c‡Z cv‡ib| †`‡k cwiPvwjZ †níjvB‡bi g‡a¨ 2004 mv‡j wW.†bU K…wl, grm¨, nvum-gyiwM I Mevw`cï, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi BZ¨vw` wel‡q †níjvB‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`v‡b †gvevBj †dv‡bi Kvh©KvwiZv wb‡q M‡elYv K‡i| M‡elYvi mdjZvi wfwˇZ eZ©gv‡b wW.†bU AvUwU wel‡q (K…wl, grm¨, nvum-gyiwM I Mevw`cï, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi, bvMwiK †mev, AK…wl A_©‰bwZK Kg©KvÐ) †níjvBb cwiPvjbv Ki‡Q| wW.†b‡Ui KvwiMwi mn‡hvwMZvq cwiPvwjZ †Uwj‡m›Uvi mg~n G †níjvBb e¨envi Ki‡Q| wW.†b‡Ui M‡elYvi djvdj‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q 2005 mv‡j MÖvgxY †dvb †nj&_ †níjvBb Pvjy K‡i| m¤cÖwZ 2008 mv‡j Rvcvb-evsjv‡`k nvmcvZvj †nj&_ †níjvBb Pvjy K‡i‡Q| †níjvBb †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU †_‡K †mev cÖvwßi c×wZ †R‡b wbb| bZzb †Kvb †níjvBb Pvjy n‡”Q wK bv †LuvR ivLyb| gy‡LvgywL Avjv‡ci gva¨‡g we‡klÁ civgk©: wKQz wel‡q Z_¨ Ges civg‡k©i Rb¨ we‡kl‡Ái mv‡_ gy‡LvgywL e‡m Avjv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq| †hgb K…wlRxexiv †Kvb GKwU dm‡ji Pvlvev` wb‡q `xN©w`b †_‡K mgm¨vq Av‡Qb| G wel‡q ¯’vbxq Ges †Rjv ch©v‡q K…wl wel‡q Kg©iZ I AwfÁ wKsev wbKU¯’ †Rjvq wba©vwiZ wel‡q Kg©iZ I 40 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  40. 40. AwfÁ e¨w³ wKsev mK‡ji mgš^‡q K…wl wel‡q K¨v¤ú Av‡qvRb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| K¨v‡¤úi gva¨‡g K…wlRxexiv we‡klÁ I AwfÁ‡`i mv‡_ gy‡LvgywL e‡m Avjv‡ci gva¨‡g cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I civgk© cv‡eb| GKBfv‡e ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, AvBb I gvbevwaKvi wKsev AK…wl D‡`¨vM wel‡q K¨v¤ú Av‡qvR‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`v‡bi GwU Ab¨Zg gva¨g| AwfÁ I we‡kl‡Ái mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ivLyb Ges †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i wbqwgZ Zv‡`i Dcw¯’wZ wbwðZ Kiæb| eB-cy¯ÍK I cÎ-cwÎKv: eB-cy¯Í‡K ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ Z_¨ cvIqv hvq| GgbwK msev`cÎ wKsev cwÎKv‡Z wbqwgZ K…wl, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, Kg©ms¯’vb BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨ cÖKvwkZ nq| A‡bK cÖwZôvb cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ wjd‡jU AvKv‡i cÖKvk K‡i| Gmg¯Í gva¨g †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Ges Kvh©Kix Z_¨ msiÿY K‡i Zv mn‡RB Rbmvavi‡Yi Kv‡Q †cŠuQv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| welqwfwËK wewfbœ cwÎKv cÖKv‡ki †LuvR ivLyb Ges msMÖn Kiæb| ict_of_bangladesh@yahoogroups.com bytesforall_readers@yahoogroups.com bangladesh_telecentre_network@yahoogroups.com ugabytes-bounces@lists.ugabytes.org DwjøwLZ B‡gj MÖæ‡ci m`m¨ †nvb nvjbvMv` Z_¨ Rvbyb nvjbvMv` Z_¨ Rvb‡Z B‡gBj Kiæb Avcbv‡`i †Uwj‡m›Uvi m¤ú‡K© Aci‡K Rvbvb Ab¨ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ivLyb| cvV 9.2: eûwea gva¨‡gi e¨envi †KŠkj Ges Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi Dcvq cÖ‡Z¨K Z_¨Kgx©i wKsev †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvj‡Ki `vwqZ¡ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i AvMZ e¨w³eM©‡K Z_¨ I civgk© Ges Ab¨vb¨ †mev cÖ`vb K‡i Zv‡`i‡K DcK…Z Kiv| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i AvMZ e¨w³‡`i mv‡_ my›`i I AgvwqK e¨envi Kiv Ges †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mev m¤ú‡K© Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ m‡PZbZv, wek¦vm Ges Av¯’v m„wó Kiv| wbw`©ó wel‡q Z_¨ I civgk© Ges Avbylw½K †mev cÖ`v‡bi Av‡M wbgœwjwLZ avc¸wj AbymiY Kiæb| avc 1: Rbmvavi‡Yi AvMgb I Kzkj wewbgq Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i †Kvb e¨w³ Avmvi mv‡_ mv‡_ Kzkj wewbgq Kiæb; Ÿ wZwb Kx cÖ‡qvR‡b †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i G‡m‡Qb Zv web‡qi mv‡_ wRÁvmv Kiæb; Ÿ g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i Zvi K_v ïbyb; 41 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  41. 41. Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i GKmv‡_ A‡b‡K Avm‡j AvMZ cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki mv‡_ Kzkj wewbgq Kiæb Ges eviv›`vq wKsev N‡i myk„•Ljfv‡e em‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Kiæb; Ÿ cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î Zuv‡`i‡K †bvwUk‡evW©/Z_¨‡evW©, ey‡jwUb, Le‡ii KvMR BZ¨vw` co‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| avc 2: †mevMÖn‡Y AvMÖnx e¨w³i bvg wbeÜb Ÿ A‡cÿviZ e¨w³eM© Av‡M †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K †Kvb ai‡bi †mev MÖnY K‡i‡Q wK bv Zv †R‡b wbb; Ÿ c~‡e© †mev bv wb‡q _vK‡j †mev MÖnYKvixi bvg I we¯ÍvwiZ Z_¨mn wba©vwiZ LvZvq Aek¨B wbeÜb Kiæb| AvBwW b¤^i mn bZzb †mevKvW© cÖ`vb Kiæb; (wbeÜb LvZvi bgybv mshyw³ 1 G †`Lyb) Ÿ c~‡e© †mev MÖnY K‡i _vK‡j mv‡_ †mevKvW© G‡b‡Q wK bv †R‡b wbb; Ÿ †mevKvW© Avb‡Z fy‡j †M‡j Zvi KvQ †_‡K AvBwW b¤^i Rvb‡Z †Póv Kiæb; Ÿ Zv m¤¢e bv n‡j †iwR÷vi LvZv †_‡K Zvi AvBwW b¤^i †ei K‡i `ªæZZvi mv‡_ cÖ‡qvRbxq KvR †m‡i wbb; Ÿ †mevMÖnxZv †mevKvW©wU †hb hZœ mnKv‡i iv‡Lb Ges cieZx©‡Z †mev wb‡Z Avmvi mgq mv‡_ wb‡q Av‡mb Zv ¸iæZ¡ mnKv‡i AewnZ Kiæb| wbeÜb Ges AvBwW b¤^i cÖ`vb †Kb Ki‡eb Ÿ †Kvb ai‡bi e¨w³eM© (†ckv, eqm, wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv, wj½, Avqmxgv Abymv‡i) †Uwj‡m›Uvi †_‡K †mev MÖnY Ki‡Qb Zv we‡kølY K‡i bZzb †KŠkj wba©vi‡Y mnvqK n‡e; Ÿ †mevMÖnxZv‡`i evwo Lyu‡R †ei Kiv Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ †cŠu‡Q w`‡Z mnvqK n‡e; Ÿ †mevMÖnxZv‡`i mn‡RB wPwýZ Kiv mnR n‡e; Ÿ evievi e¨enviKvix‡`i wPwýZ Ki‡Z myweav n‡e, hv g~j¨vqb M‡elYvq mnvqK n‡e| AvBwW b¤^i cÖ`vb c×wZ Ÿ GKRb‡K GKwUi AwaK AvBwW b¤^i †`qv hv‡e bv; Ÿ AvBwW b¤^i cÖ`v‡b †h‡Kvb µgc×wZ AbymiY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| D`vniY wnmv‡e cjøxZ_¨ †K‡›`ªi AvBwW b¤^i cÖ`vb c×wZ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv Ÿ cÖ_g R‡bi AvBwW b¤^i n‡e SU-K-1-1, GLv‡b § SU = Service User (†mev MÖnYKvix) § K= wefv‡Mi Bs‡iwR bv‡gi cÖ_g eY© †hgb: †K›`ªwU Lyjbv wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ K, †K›`ªwU ivRkvnx 42 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  42. 42. § wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ R, †K›`ªwU PÆMÖvg wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ C, †K›`ªwU XvKv wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ D, †K›`ªwU ewikvj wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ B Ges †K›`ªwU wm‡jU wefv‡M n‡j Zvi Rb¨ S n‡e| § cieZx© 1 = †K›`ªwUi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ b¤^i, wba©vwiZ b¤^iwU mivmwi wW.†bU †_‡K cÖ`vb Kiv nq| § Gi cieZx© msL¨v n‡”Q †mevMÖnxZvi µwgK bš^i| Ÿ AvBwW b¤^‡i - wPýwU e¨envi Avek¨K avc 3: Kvw•ÿZ †mevMÖnxZvi Pvwn`v Rvbv Ÿ AvMZ e¨w³i cÖkœ g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i ïbyb Ges aib Abyhvqx e¨e¯’v wbb; wZwb hw` Z_¨ I civgk© Pvb Zvn‡j § cÖkœ Abymv‡i †evSvi †Póv Kiæb Kw¤úDUv‡ii AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐv‡i G Z_¨ Av‡Q wK bv? § A_ev †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i msiwÿZ eB-cy¯Í‡K Z_¨ Av‡Q wK bv? § A_ev B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i G cÖ‡kœi DËi †`qv hv‡e wK bv? § A_ev wfwWI wPÎ †`wL‡q DËi Kiv hv‡e wK bv? § A_ev ¯’vbxqfv‡e msM„nxZ I msiwÿZ Z_¨fvÐvi †_‡K G Z_¨ cÖ`vb Kiv hv‡e wK bv? § Dc‡ii †Kvb gva¨g Dc‡hvMx bv n‡j †níjvB‡bi mn‡hvwMZv wbb; § †mevi g~j¨gvb m¤ú‡K© Av‡M †_‡KB cwi®‹vi aviYv w`b| Ÿ †mev MÖnYKvix‡K †`‡L †evSvi †Póv Kiæb A_ev AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ †R‡b wbb wZwb Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡ib wK bv? Ÿ †mev MÖnYKvix PvB‡j Z_¨ †LuvRvi Rb¨ Zv‡K Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi Ki‡Z w`b; Ÿ hw` wZwb Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi Ki‡Z Pvb Zvn‡j Zv‡K gwbU‡ii mvg‡b em‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Luy‡R †c‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Kiæb; Ÿ Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi bv Rvb‡j Avcwb Kw¤úDUv‡i e‡m Zv‡K cv‡k emvb, hv‡Z Avcwb wKfv‡e Z_¨ LuyR‡Qb wZwb Zv †`L‡Z cv‡ib; 43 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  43. 43. Ÿ wZwb hw` eB-cy¯ÍK †_‡K wb‡R cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ wb‡R Luy‡R wb‡Z Pvb Zvn‡j wbw`©ó eB-cy¯ÍK Zvi nv‡Z w`b Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Luy‡R †c‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Kiæb| wZwb hw` Avbylw½K †mev Pvb Zvn‡j § †mevi aib Abymv‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiæb| avc 3.1: Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b hw` AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi Ki‡Z nq AdjvBb Z_¨fvÐvi e¨envi K‡i Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡bi avcmg~n wb‡P Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| GLv‡b D`vniY wnmv‡e Rxqb Z_¨fvÐvi‡K e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q| avc 3.1 K) Ÿ cÖkœ Abyhvqx Z_¨fvÐv‡ii wbw`©ó welq (K…wl, ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv BZ¨vw`) †_‡K mwVKfv‡e DËi Luy‡R †ei Kiæb; Ÿ aiæb †KD GKRb mgm¨v wb‡q G‡m ej‡jb, ÔAvgvi Rwg‡Z †e¸‡b †cvKv AvµgY K‡i‡Q| d‡j †e¸b bó n‡q hv‡”Q| GLb Avwg wK Kie?Õ Avcwb hv Ki‡eb: cÖkœKvixi Kv‡Q Zvi mgm¨v wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡iv wKQz Z_¨ Rvbvi _vK‡j AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ †R‡b wbb| Ah_v Zvovû‡ov bv K‡i cÖkœwU K…wli †Kvb Lv‡Z c‡o Zv g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †evSvi †Póv Kiæb| Gici Rxqb K…wl (†h‡nZz †e¸b K…wl wel‡q AšÍfy©³) Z_¨fvÐvi †_‡K wbgœwjwLZ Dcv‡q wbw`©ó cÖ‡kœi DËi Lyu‡R cÖkœKZ©v‡K civgk© w`b| Rxqb †nvg‡c‡R K…wl NiwU‡Z wK¬K Kiæb| GLv‡b gvV dmj, kvK-mewR, dj-g~j, grm¨m¤ú`, nvmu-gyiwM I Mevw`cï, gmjv, dzj Jlwa MvQ, gvwU e¨e¯’vcbv, mgwš^Z Pvlvev` bv‡g wewfbœ welq †`L‡Z cv‡eb| Gici DwjøwLZ cÖkœwU †Kvb wel‡qi AšÍfy©³ Zv ey‡S wK¬K Kiæb| †e¸b †h‡nZz kvK-mewR wel‡q AšÍfy©³ †m‡nZz Z_¨ Lyu‡R cvevi Rb¨ kvK-mewR N‡i GKevi wK¬K Kiæb| 44 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  44. 44. kvK-mewR NiwU‡Z wK¬K Kivi ci GLv‡b †e¸b, U‡g‡Uv, Kijv BZ¨vw` †jLv GKwU †Uwej cv‡eb| GLv‡b †e¸b NiwU‡Z GKevi wK¬K Kiæb| GLv‡b RvZ, Pvlvev` c×wZ, ÿwZKi †cvKv-gvKo I Zv‡`i `gb e¨e¯’v, †ivM I Zvi cÖwZKvi BZ¨vw`i Avi GKwU †Uwej Av‡Q| cÖkœKvixi mgm¨v †h‡nZz Ô†e¸‡bi †cvKvÕ wb‡q †m‡nZz ÿwZKi †cvKv-gvKo I Zv‡`i `gb e¨e¯’v N‡i wK¬K Ki‡j we¯ÍvwiZ Z_¨ cv‡eb| GLv‡b †e¸‡b †cvKv AvµgY Ki‡j wK jÿY †`Lv hvq Zv Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb| GLb cÖkœKvixi mgm¨v¸‡jvi mv‡_ wgwj‡q †`Lyb| GKBmv‡_ cÖkœKvix‡K †cvKvi Qwe †`wL‡q, †Kvb †cvKvi AvµgY K‡i‡Q Zv wbwðZ †nvb| Ab¨ †h‡Kvb mgm¨vi DËi LuyR‡Z GKB c×wZ AbymiY Kiæb| avc 3.1 L) Ÿ †cvKvi AvµgY †_‡K iÿv †c‡Z wK Ki‡Z n‡e cÖkœKvix‡K c‡o ïbvb, Zv‡K fv‡jvfv‡e eywS‡q w`b; Ÿ cÖkœKvix wVKg‡Zv eyS‡Z cvi‡jv wK bv Zv wbwðZ †nvb; Ÿ cÖkœKvix Zvi DËiwU wcÖ›U wb‡Z PvB‡j wcÖ›U cÖ`vb Kiæb A_ev DËiwU Lye †QvU n‡j Zv wj‡L w`b| 45 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  45. 45. avc 3.1 M) †mev cÖ`vb dig c~iY Ges †mevg~j¨ MÖnY Ÿ †mev cÖ`vb digwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kiæb (†mev cÖ`vb di‡gi bgybv mshyw³ 2 G †`Lyb) Ÿ g~j¨ZvwjKv Abyhvqx †mev MÖnYKvixi KvQ †_‡K wbw`©ó †mevi Rb¨ g~j¨ msMÖn Kiæb Ges iwm` cÖ`vb Kiæb| avc 3.1 N) ab¨ev` Rvbv‡bv †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mev MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ ab¨ev` w`b, †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨vb¨ †mev m¤ú‡K© AewnZ Kiæb Ges AveviI Avm‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| Ab¨‡`i Avm‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| avc 3.2: Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b hw` AbjvBb gva¨g e¨envi Ki‡Z nq avc 3.2 K) Ÿ cÖkœ Abyhvqx B›Uvi‡b‡U wbw`©ó wVKvbv †_‡K mwVKfv‡e DËi Luy‡R †ei Kiæb| Ÿ aiæb †KD GKRb G‡m ej‡jb, ÔAvwg wWwf jUvixi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡Z PvB| GRb¨ Avgv‡K wK Ki‡Z n‡e?Õ Avcwb hv Ki‡eb: cÖkœKvixi Kv‡Q cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡iv wKQz Z_¨ Rvbvi _vK‡j AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ †R‡b wbb| Gici cÖkœ Abyhvqx B›Uvi‡b‡U wbw`©ó wVKvbv †_‡K mwVK DËi Luy‡R †ei Kiæb| wbw`©ó wVKvbv bv Rvbv _vK‡j ¸M‡j GWfvÝ mv‡P©i N‡i g~jkãwU (DV Lottery) wj‡L Search evU‡b wK¬K Kiæb| GLv‡b wWwf jUvixi wel‡q wVKvbv cv‡eb| GLvb †_‡K KvswLZ wVKvbv Abyhvqx wK¬K Kiæb| 46 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  46. 46. †h‡nZz cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨¸‡jv Bs‡iwR fvlvq †m‡nZy Z_¨Kg©x wnmv‡e Avcwb welq¸‡jv fv‡jvfv‡e ey‡S wbb Ges cÖkœKvix‡K evsjvq eywS‡q w`b| Ab¨ †h‡Kvb mgm¨vi DËi LuyR‡Z GKB c×wZ AbymiY Kiæb| avc 3.2 L) Ÿ cÖkœKvix wVKg‡Zv eyS‡Z cvi‡jv wK bv Zv wbwðZ †nvb; Ÿ cÖkœKvix Zvi DËiwU wcÖ›U wb‡Z PvB‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq AskUzKz wcÖ›U K‡i w`b wKsev g~j welq¸‡jv evsjvq wj‡L w`b| avc 3.2 M) †mevcÖ`vb dig c~iY Ges †mevg~j¨ MÖnY Ÿ †mevcÖ`vb digwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kiæb; Ÿ g~j¨ZvwjKv Abyhvqx †mev MÖnYKvixi KvQ †_‡K wbw`©ó †mevi Rb¨ g~j¨ msMÖn Kiæb Ges iwm` cÖ`vb Kiæb| avc 3.2 N) ab¨ev` Rvbv‡bv Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mev MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ ab¨ev` w`b| †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨vb¨ †mev m¤ú‡K© AewnZ Kiæb Ges AveviI Avm‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| Ab¨‡`i Avm‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| 3.3 Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b hw` AwWI-wfwWIÕi gva¨g e¨envi Ki‡Z nq avc 3.3 K) Ÿ cÖkœ Abyhvqx ZvwjKv †_‡K wbw`©ó AwWI-wfwWIwU Luy‡R †ei Kiæb; Ÿ aiæb †KD GKRb G‡m ej‡jb, ÔAvgvi evwo‡Z 2wU bvi‡Kj MvQ Av‡Q| bvi‡Kj †QvU Ae¯’vq S‡i hv‡”Q| wKfv‡e mgvavb Kiv hvq?Õ Avcwb hv Ki‡eb: Ÿ cÖkœKvixi Kv‡Q cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡iv wKQz Z_¨ Rvbvi _vK‡j AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ †R‡b wbb| Gici wbw`©ó AwWI- wfwWI wKsev Gwb‡gkb wPÎwU Pvjy Kiæb| Ÿ AwWI-wfwWI wPÎwU †ewk `xN© n‡j †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i wPÎwU Pvjy K‡i w`‡Z cv‡ib| hv‡Z cÖkœKvix wPÎwU †`L‡Z †Kvb weNœ bv N‡U| 47 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  47. 47. AwWI-wfwWI wPÎwU †`Lv †kl n‡j wZwb Zvi KiYxq wVKg‡Zv eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qb wK bv †R‡b wbb| wZwb hw` wPÎwUi †Kvb Ask Av‡iKevi †`L‡Z Pvb Zvn‡j Avevi †`Lvb| wPÎ cÖ`k©bx †k‡l Zvi †Kvb cÖkœ _vK‡j h_vh_ DËi †`qvi †Póv Kiæb| cÖkœKvix wPÎwU †`‡L †Kvb Ask wj‡L †bqvi cÖ‡qvRb n‡j e¨e¯’v wbb| avc 3.3 L) †mevcÖ`vb dig c~iY Ges †mevg~j¨ MÖnY Ÿ †mevcÖ`vb digwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kiæb; Ÿ g~j¨ZvwjKv Abyhvqx †mev MÖnYKvixi KvQ †_‡K wbw`©ó †mevi Rb¨ g~j¨ msMÖn Kiæb Ges iwm` cÖ`vb Kiæb| avc 3.3 M) ab¨ev` Rvbv‡bv Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mev MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ ab¨ev` w`b, †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨vb¨ †mev m¤ú‡K© AewnZ Kiæb Ges AveviI Avm‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| Ab¨‡`i Avm‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| mvßvwnK wfwWI wPÎ cÖ`k©bx: †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Kvh©µg‡K †eMevb Kivi j‡ÿ¨ wewfbœ wfwWI wPÎ cÖ`©kbxi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cÖwZw`b A_ev mßv‡n wbw`©ó w`‡b Dc‡hvMx mg‡q ev”Pv‡`i Rb¨ KvU©zb Qwe Ges wewfbœ ai‡bi wkÿvg~jK wfwWI †`Lv‡bvi e¨e¯’v ivLyb| eo‡`i Rb¨ welq wfwËK we‡bv`bg~jK wfwWI †`Lv‡bvi e¨e¯’v ivLyb| wewfbœ †ckvi gvby‡li Rb¨ wewfbœ †ckv wfwËK wfwWI wPÎ †`Lv‡bvi e¨e¯’v ivLyb| †eKvi hyeK‡`i Rb¨ wewfbœ cÖwkÿY welqK wfwWI †`Lv‡bvi e¨e¯’v ivLyb| wbgœwjwLZ Dcv‡q mvßvwnK wfwWI wPÎ cÖ`k©bxi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| avc K) wfwWI cÖ`k©bxi mvßvwnK cwiKíbv ˆZwi Ÿ wfwWI cÖ`k©bxi GKwU mvßvwnK mgqm~wP ˆZwi Kiæb †hLv‡b wbgœwjwLZ welq AšÍfy©³ Kiæb: § wfwWI wP‡Îi welq; § w`‡bi †Kvb mg‡q Ges mßv‡ni †Kvb w`‡b cÖ`k©b Kiv n‡e; § GKB mv‡_ wfwWIi g~j¨ZvwjKvI †hvM Kiæb| Ÿ mgqm~wP †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii mvg‡b eo K‡i Szwj‡q ivLyb hv‡Z mK‡j Zv †`L‡Z I Rvb‡Z cv‡i| 48 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  48. 48. avc L) RbmvaviY‡K AeMZ Kiv Ÿ Z_¨Kgx© hLb cÖwZw`‡bi Kv‡R †ei n‡eb ZLb MÖvgevmx Ges ev”Pv‡`i wfwWI cÖ`k©bxi mgq Ges welq m¤ú‡©K cÖPvi Kiæb; Ÿ m¤¢e n‡j cÖwZwU cª`k©bx‡Z Kviv AskMÖnY Ki‡Z AvMÖnx Zv wbe©vPb Kiæb Ges GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Kiæb| avc M) cÖ¯‘wZ m¤úbœ Kiv Ÿ wba©vwiZ w`‡b Ges cÖ`k©bx ïiæi c~‡e© Aek¨B mKj hš¿cvwZ (Kw¤úDUvi, wmwW, mvDÛ e· BZ¨vw`) wVKg‡Zv KvR Ki‡Q wK bv †`‡L wbb| avc N) k„•Ljv iÿv Kiv Ÿ †mevMÖnxZv †Uwj‡m›Uv‡i Avm‡j Zv‡`i mv‡_ Kzkj wewbgq Kiæb Ges Zv‡`i‡K myk„•Lj n‡q em‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Kiæb; Ÿ cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î †bvwUk †evW©, ey‡jwUb, Le‡ii KvMR BZ¨vw` co‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb; Ÿ c~‡e©i wbqg Abymv‡i †mevKvW© †`Lyb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b wbeÜb (bZzb †mevMÖnxZv n‡j) Kiæb; Ÿ cÖ‡qvR‡b cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki Rb¨ †mevdig c~iY, iwm` cÖ`vb I wbqg Abyhvqx wba©vwiZ g~j¨ msMÖn Kiæb| avc O) cÖ`k©bx ïiæ I cÖ‡qvRbxq cwi‡ek m„wó Ÿ wK wel‡q wfwWI wPÎ †`Lv‡bv n‡”Q Zv mnRfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiæb| Ÿ cÖ‡qvR‡b wfwWI wPÎ PjvKvjxb iæ‡g Ab¨‡`i cª‡ek msiÿY Kiæb; Ÿ Kw¤úDUv‡ii gwbUi Ggbfv‡e ivLyb hv‡Z mevi †`L‡Z myweav nq| avc P) cÖ`k©bxi ci KiYxq Ÿ †KD hw` wfwWIi †Kvb Ask Av‡iKevi †`L‡Z Pvb Zvn‡j Avevi †`Lvb| wfwWI cÖ`k©bx †k‡l †Kvb cÖkœ _vK‡j †m¸wji h_vh_ DËi w`b| avc Q) Ab¨vb¨ e¨e¯’vcbv Ÿ wba©vwiZ mgq e¨ZxZ †Kvb e¨w³ hw` wfwWI †`L‡Z Av‡mb Zvn‡j Zv‡K wba©vwiZ mg‡q Dcw¯’Z n‡Z Aby‡iva Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e m¤¢e n‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v wbb| 49 †Uwj‡m›Uvi cwiPvjbv mnvwqKv
  49. 49. avc 3.4: Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b hw` eB-cy¯ÍK I cÎ-cwÎKv e¨envi Ki‡Z nq avc 3.4 K) Ÿ cÖkœ Abyhvqx ZvwjKv †_‡K wbw`©ó eB-cy¯ÍK wKsev cÎ-cwÎKvwU Luy‡R †ei Kiæb; Ÿ cÖkœKvixi Kv‡Q cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡iv wKQz Z_¨ Rvbvi _vK‡j AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ †R‡b wbb| Gici wbw`©ó eB- cy¯ÍK wKsev cÎ-cwÎKv †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Lyu‡R †ei Kiæb; Ÿ cÖkœKvix‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ c‡o ïbvb, Zuv‡K fv‡jvfv‡e eywS‡q w`b; Ÿ cÖkœKvix wVKg‡Zv eyS‡Z cvi‡jv wK bv Zv wbwðZ †nvb; Ÿ cÖ‡qvR‡b DËiwU nv‡Z wj‡L w`b wKsev d‡UvKwc K‡i w`b| avc 3.4 L) †mevcÖ`vb dig c~iY Ges †mevg~j¨ MÖnY Ÿ †mevcÖ`vb digwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kiæb; Ÿ g~j¨ZvwjKv Abyhvqx †mev MÖnYKvixi KvQ †_‡K wbw`©ó †mevi Rb¨ g~j¨ msMÖn Kiæb Ges iwm` cÖ`vb Kiæb| avc 3.4 M) ab¨ev` Rvbv‡bv Ÿ †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii †mev MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ ab¨ev` w`b, †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨vb¨ †mev m¤ú‡K© AewnZ Kiæb Ges AveviI Avm‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| Ab¨‡`i Avm‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z Aby‡iva Kiæb| avc 3.5: Z_¨ I civgk© cÖ`v‡b †gvevBj †dvb wfwËK gva¨g (†níjvBb) e¨envi Ki‡j avc 3.5 K) wewfbœ cÖwZôvb cwiPvwjZ †níjvB‡bi civgk© cvIqvi c×wZ Rvbv Ÿ †`‡k cwiPvwjZ wewfbœ †níjvB‡bi †dvb b¤^i Avcbv‡`i msiÿ‡Y ivLyb; Ÿ wewfbœ †níjvB‡b †dvb K‡i civgk© cvIqvi c×wZ †R‡b ivLyb; Ÿ wewfbœ †níjvB‡b †dvb K‡i civgk© cvIqvi LiP †R‡b ivLyb; Ÿ wewfbœ †níjvB‡b wK wel‡q civgk© cvIqv hvq Zv †R‡b ivLyb; Ÿ wewfbœ †níjvB‡b civgk© cvIqvi mgqmxgv †R‡b ivLyb| GLv‡b D`vniY wnmv‡e ejv hvq, wW.†bU cwiPvwjZ †níjvB‡b wbgœwjwLZ gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© cvIqv hvq| Ÿ †gvevB‡j cÖkœ K‡i ZvrÿwbK †gvevB‡j DËi; Ÿ †gvevB‡j cÖkœ K‡i B-†gB‡j DËi; Ÿ ¯‹vBwc‡Z wKsev †g‡mÄv‡i cÖkœ-DËi| 50 mKj bvMwi‡Ki Rb¨ Z_¨ I Ávb e¨e¯’v
  50. 50. avc 3.5 L) mgm¨v †evSv Ÿ †Kvb e¨w³‡K †níjvB‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ I civgk© †mev cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cÖ_‡g Zvi mgm¨vwU fv‡jvfv‡e ïbyb Ges †evSvi †Póv Kiæb; Ÿ mgm¨vwU ï‡b we‡ePbv Kiæb †h, DËiwU †Uwj‡m›Uv‡ii Ab¨ ‰y֓

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