Sustainable development

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Sustainable development

  1. 1. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1 I.E.S. Juan de Garay, Valencia Departamento de Ciencias Sociales. Curso 2011/2012 Students: Pablo Amador Labrador Claudia Esteban Patón Miguel López Gil Julia Navarro Piqueres Helena Palao Galarzo
  2. 2. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAININDEXI. INTRODUCTIONII. TEACHING OBJECTIVES 2III. CONTENTS:  Organic farming  Organic animal farming  Alternative energy sources  Sustainable tourism: a) definition b) main principles c) eco-tourism  Sustainable architecture  The Ecological House  The culture of the three "Rs": reduce, reuse, recycle.IV.SPANISH LEGISLATION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTV. ACTIVITIESVI.ASSESSMENT:  Student’s assessment on the subject  School’s assessment on the Comenius project
  3. 3. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINI. - INTRODUCTIONSustainable developmentFrom the 70s, humanity began to realise that many of their actions had had a great impact onnature. This is why some specialists pointed out at the evident loss of biodiversity and elaboratedtheories to explain the vulnerability of natural systems. 3The term ‘sustainable development’, everlasting or sustainable, is applied to thesocioeconomic development, it was made official for the first time in a document known as” TheBrundtland report” (1987), result of the works by the Environment and Development World-wideCommission of United Nations, created in Assembly of United Nations in 1983. This definitionwould be assumed in the 3rd Principle of the Declaration of Rio (1992).According to the Bruntland report, it is defined as: “Meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet to their own needs.”The characteristics that sustainable development must have are: to look for the way for economic activity to maintain or improve the environmental system to assure that the economic activity improves the quality of everybody’s life, not only of a few ones to use the resources efficiently to promote recycling and reusability to trust development and the implantation of clean technologies to recover the damaged ecosystems to promote regional self-sufficiency to recognize the importance of nature for human well-beingThe area of sustainable development can be divided into three parts: ecological, economic andsocial. Society’s needs, like feeding, clothing, housing and work, must be satisfied, because ifpoverty becomes usual, the world will be lead to catastrophes of several types, includingecological ones. Moreover, development and social welfare are limited by not only a technologicallevel, but also by the environment resources and their capacity to absorb the effects of humanactivity.Having said that, a possibility of improving technology and social organisation arises so that theenvironment can restore itself, while being affected by human activity.
  4. 4. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINII. - TEACHING OBJECTIVES1. To learn to establish social relationships and to take part in group activities, with supportive andtolerant attitudes.2. To know and respect the rights and duties of citizens.3. To assimilate habits and strategies of individual and group work that favour students learning 4and intellectual development.4. To value the differences between individuals positively.5. To establish affective relations with people of different ages and sex, overcoming any type ofdiscrimination.6. To learn to manage information (research, selection and data processing), to be able tointerpret it and to value it in a critical way; and to transmit it to others in an organized andintelligible way.7. To use new technologies for data management and analysis and presentation of assignmentsand reports.8. To use strategies of identification and problem solving in different areas of knowledge, throughboth logical reasoning and formulation/contrast of hypotheses.9. To critically know and to value scientific and technological development that has taken placethroughout history in different areas of the knowledge.10. To acquire basic knowledge on the laws and mechanisms which rule nature.11. To acquire a functional communicative skill in the foreign language(s) which are object ofstudy.12. To value the necessity to know, protect and conserve the geography and the patrimony ofSpain and the world.13. To know and respect the mechanisms and values that rule society, developing a favourableattitude to know them and understand them better.14. To develop habits and attitudes that help the own individual development and the conservationof environment.15. To know how to interpret, value and produce messages, which may use diverse artistic,scientific and technical codes, to enrich the possibilities of understanding and expression in acreative, communicative and precise way.16. To analyse in a critical way the values that underlie in different messages from audio-visualand written mass media.
  5. 5. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINIII. - CONTENTS: Organic farmingEcological agriculture, organic or biological, is a system used to farm an autonomous piece of landusing the nature resources effectively, without using chemical agents of synthesis, or geneticallymodified organisms (OGMs) - nor for fertilizer nor to fight plagues - obtaining organic foods as 5well as conserving the earth’s fertility and respecting the environment, always in a sustainable andbalanced way.The main objectives of organic agriculture are: the obtaining of healthy food, of greater nutritiousquality, without the presence of chemical substances. These have been obtained by means ofsustainable processes.Advantage and disadvantagesNowadays, there are no studies which show that consumption of biological products has a greaterbenefit on our health. In fact, some have shown that there are no significant nutritional differencesfor our health between “bio” and ordinary foods. Nevertheless there are not enough quality studiesto be able to conclude the long-term effects on consumers’ health.Among the pointed benefits of ecological farming, the ones that are often mentioned are:  Ones related to its environmental impact, as fewer chemicals are used.  The help to local farmers (who are the main producers of organic farming)  The avoidance of dangerous chemicals by the farmers.Video on What’s wrong with our food system, talk by Birke Baehr (11 years old) (2010)http://www.ted.com/talks/birke_baehr_what_s_wrong_with_our_food_system.html
  6. 6. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN 6 Organic products from the Valencian Horta. Organic allotment in Galicia
  7. 7. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN Organic animal farmingThe organic animal farming is based on the strong bond between the animals and theirenvironment. This necessity of bonding with the earth forces us to provide the animals withoutdoor access. Their feeding needs to be organic too and preferably in the farm itself.When talking about organic animal farming, these points need to be taken into account: The main requirement when developing ecological farming is to fulfil the principle of 7 complementarity between the soil and the animals, reason why production in closed stables is excluded. The fact that production is bound to the ground implies that the animals have outdoors space and that the density of animal by hectare is limited. All the bred animals in the same farm must grow up according to the rules of ecological production. Breeds, the ones that better adapt to the surroundings and the most resistant to diseases, must be selected. The vets must emphasize prevention. Should treatment be needed, the natural ones must be preferred over treatments with antibiotics. Growth-stimulating substances are forbidden (i.e. hormones), as well as the ones that control the reproduction. The well-being of the animal is high-priority. Some practices (as cutting their tails, teeth or getting rid of their corns) are used solely for security, hygiene or health reasons. It is not allowed to keep the animals tied. Very precise regulations are settled down on the characteristics of a breeding facility. Transport must be made respecting the well-being of the animal, so that stress is minimal.An example of sustainable farm is the Farm San Ramon, located in Requena (Valencia), which, inaddition to milk, generates electricity, avoids the emission of 17,000 tons of CO 2 (thanks to itsplant of biofuel) and has created an odourless fertilizer.It is the first Spanish farm with “zero carbon” result; thanks to its processing of faeces which areused to generate gas and electricity. Each San Ramon cow daily produces the energyconsumed in one day by an average home in Spain. The farm also uses other local products tocreate their Biofuel, such rice straw or orange pulp to obtain energy.Cattle has bad reputation due to the widely spread affirmation that methane produced by animalfaeces contribute to global warming, however, cows’ faeces contribute to the opposite fact, that isto say, to create sustainable energy which avoids CO2 emission and allows the farm to be energy-efficient.
  8. 8. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN 8 San Ramón farm, Requena (Valencia)
  9. 9. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINAlternative energy sourcesEnergy consumption is one of the main elements used to check development and well-being in asociety.Renewable energy refers to the one that is obtained from natural sources, which are virtuallyendless, either due to the huge amount of energy they have, either because of their ability toregenerate naturally. 9A similar concept is that one of ‘alternative energy sources’ which are the ones that maysubstitute the current sources, either due to their lower polluting effect or mainly because of theirrenovation capability.Regarding sustainable development, it is accomplished by: Renewable energy sources, as the fossil fuel currently exploited will be used up. Clean sources, leaving conventional combustion processes and nuclear fission behind. Extensive exploitation of energy sources, and alternatively fomenting self-consumption (which avoids the building of big facilities for generation and distribution of electricity) Diminishing the energetic demand through the improvement of the performance of electrical appliances. Less electricity, as lots of it is wasted.The production of clean, alternative and renewable energies is not an attempt to improve theenvironment but a necessity, no matter our opinion, beliefs or personal likes.They can be divided into 2 groups: non-polluting (or clean/green energy) and polluting ones.Among the former ones we find: Blue energy: confluence of fresh water with salt water. Wind power: generated by the wind. Geothermal: the heat of the earth. Hydraulic or hydroelectric: generated by rivers or water streams. Tidal energy: seas and oceans. Solar: generated by the sun Wave power: generated by the sea waves.On the other hand, the polluting ones are created from organic materials (bio-mass) and may bedirectly used as fuel (i.e. wood or other solid materials), in the way of bioethanol or biofuel.Nevertheless, they have the same problem than fossil sources: they emit carbon dioxide, agreenhouse effect gas. They are even more polluting, as combustion is not as clean. They areincluded in this section because they will exist as long as the vegetables that created them can begrown. Moreover, they are “cleaner” than their fossil alternatives because, theoretically, their CO2has previously been absorbed when turning into organic material (via photosynthesis).
  10. 10. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINWe can also obtain energy through solid urban waste or mud from water treatment plants. Thisalso pollutes, but the whole process would, as organic materials rotten and emit natural gas andCO2. 10The sunflower, icon of renewable energies due to its great use of sunlight, its usage to create biodiesel and its resemblance with the sun.
  11. 11. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN Sustainable tourism: a) Definition b) Main principles c) Eco-tourism a) Definition 11Sustainable tourism is an industry which commits itself in not only having a low impact on theenvironment and local culture but also in generating an income and employment for the localpopulation.The World-wide Organization of Tourism (OMT), following the definition of sustainabledevelopment established by the Brundtland Report, states that:The development of sustainable tourism responds to the necessities of tourists and hostingregions, while protecting and improving the opportunities of the future. It is focused on themanagement of all resources so that they satisfy all economic, social and aesthetic needs as wellas respecting cultural integrity, ecological processes, biological diversity and traditional resourcesof an area.Sustainable tourism does not refer to any form of specific tourism, although it seems thattraditional tourism has more difficulty in reaching sustainability. However, under the term“alternative tourism”, we may find some proposals which are in fact managed in the same way astraditional ones, having an undeniable impact on the environment.All tourist activity that really wishes to define itself as sustainable must consider thefollowing aspects:  To be suitable use of the natural resources  To show respect by the socio-cultural diversity  To assure suitable enterprise practices b)The principles of sustainable tourism are: The natural and cultural resources are kept for their continued use in the future. The tourist development is planned and managed so that it does not cause serious environmental or socio-cultural problems; The environmental quality stays and improves; To maintain a high level of visitor satisfaction is aimed, therefore the destination keeps its prestige and commercial potential The benefits of the tourism must be widely distributed between the whole society. Sustainable tourism can reduce the impact of the tourism in many ways, including: To give information about the culture, policy and economy of the visited communities To respect local culture To contribute to intercultural understanding and tolerance.
  12. 12. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN To support local culture integrity, favouring the companies that preserve the cultural patrimony and traditional values. To support local economy through buying local products. Conserving resources, looking for companies which are environmentally concerned and using few non-renewable resources.c) Eco-tourism.It is one of the best ways for “alternative tourism”. Its original definition would be that of “a way of 12sustainable tourism” as it emphasizes both the environmental issue and the socio-economicfactor.The success of this term has misled tourist operators to use it when defining ways of tourismwhich are not very (or not at all) sustainable.Having said this, responsible tourism does not come across as a role model, but as a movementwhich: Looks for the establishment of sustainable tourism patterns, specific for each destination (bearing in mind its social, economic and environmental circumstances) Complains about the negative impact on the hosting regions, as well as the distorted image that visitors may perceive. Values and claims for the responsibility of tourists, organisers, public institutions and tourist operators when promoting these sustainable touristic patterns.Sustainable tourism in Mallorca, Spain
  13. 13. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN Sustainable architecture.Also named green architecture, eco-architecture and environmentally sustainable architecture, isa way of conceiving the architectural design to take advantage of the natural resources, in such away that buildings minimize their environmental impact. The principles which sustainablearchitecture relies on are: To take into account the climatic conditions, the hydrography and the ecosystems of 13 the environment in which the buildings are constructed to obtain the maximum performance with less impact The efficiency and moderation in the use of construction materials, using those with low energetic content instead of those with higher content. The reduction of energy consumption for heating, refrigerating, lighting and other equipment, covering the rest of the demand by using renewable sources. The diminishing of the global energetic balance of the whole construction process (including the design, building, usage and end of a building’s “lifetime”). Meeting the comfort needs and health regulations while using correctly all the natural sources.A proper sustainable building must use recycled or second-hand materials to be considered assuch. If less brand new materials are used, there will be less consumption of the energy needed inthe process of creating all those new materials. Moreover, sustainable architects must try to adaptexisting structures and buildings to be able to meet new needs, avoiding building from scratch andbeing energy and money saving.Therefore we must assume that energy efficiency is one of the main goals of sustainablearchitecture.
  14. 14. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN The ecological houseIt is seen as a way of designing whose aim is the optimisation of natural resources andconstruction systems. Then again, its objective is to reduce the environmental and human impacton the environment.The adequate materials must have low energetic content and emit a low quatity of greenhousegases. For example, in the case of wood, rather than using wood from native forests, it ispreferable to use the one grown in fields (with a specific purpose) such as pine trees or 14eucalyptus, among others.On the one hand we find some of the most energy valuable materials, such as: Commercial aluminium: it is 30 % recyclable. Neoprene Synthetic types of paint and varnish. Polystyrene Primary copperOn the other hand, some of the recyclable materials are: Masonry rubble: used to build sub-flooring. Woods from certain roofs, roof panels and flooring. Concrete paving Doors and windows Ceramic Metallic pipes covered with sheet panel Wrought iron for smaller building sites. Cast iron for water and gas piping. Metal fences. Water saving has become a basic need to preserve the environment. With this objective, a company in Chapela (Galicia, Spain), specialized in green construction, promotes a system to use rain water for domestic usage, saving up to a 50 %.
  15. 15. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN The culture of the three Rs: reduce, reuse, recycle.Currently, the manufacturing of products is steadily increasing. At the same time, society’sconsumerism is rising. The combination of these two aspects involves not only the exploitation ofresources and raw materials, but also the creation of an increasing quantity of waste.This situation is not sustainable; therefore, to avoid it, the culture of the three Rs should bespread. This consists of the following process: 15 First of all, the so-called responsible consumption makes us aware of the type and quantity of products which we buy and use; it is not only important to reduce our unnecessary costs, but also to lessen the production and the plundering of resources and raw materials. Then, through reusing, we reduce the exploitation of resources. We must prolong the lifespan of many products, or acquire products which could be used for a longer period of time. Alternatively, when these products are no longer used, we can give them “a second chance” as second hand objects. Finally, when a product is no longer useful and it becomes waste material, a selective collection process should be carried out to facilitate the recycling process. Selective waste collection, as well as being a way to control the hazardous, problematic waste, allows us to retrieve it or manipulate it in order to obtain new raw materials, such as paper, plastic or glass.
  16. 16. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINIV.- SPANISH LEGISLATION ON SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTIn Spanish environmental rules and norms, there is one article which has special relevance. Thisis the 45th article of The Spanish Constitution of 1978, which states that: 161st Every citizen has the right to enjoy an environment which is adequate for his/her personaldevelopment, as well as the duty to preserve it.2nd Public forces will attempt for a rational usage of every natural resources, aiming at protectingand improving quality of life and defending the environment, leaning on collective support.3rd For those who do not follow the above mentioned principles, according to the law, theappropriate penalties will be applied, as well as they will be obliged to repair the damages.Likewise Spain has a Spanish Strategy of Sustainable Development and the Law 45/2007, 13thDecember, about Sustainable Development of the Rural Environment. Similarly, the Law ofSustainable Economy was approved in November 2009. It aimed for a starting position forSpanish Economy in terms of knowledge and innovation, using tools that respected theenvironment and favouring quality of employment, equal opportunities and social cohesion.
  17. 17. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINV. - ACTIVITIES 1. Guided trip to l Horta of Valencia to see how organic farming works. 2. A visit to farm of San Ramón de Campo Arcis, in Requena (València) 3. Design of a PowerPoint on the use of alternative energy sources. 17 4. Creation of a video in which students show the way to save both energy and water. 5. Possible excursion to Benidorm, to see an example of non-sustainable development. 6. Explanation of the case of the hotel “El Algarrobico” (Almería). 7. Preparation of a report on sustainable tourism. 8. Bicycle tour to the riverbed of the Turia River. 9. Assessment of the impact of certain physical activities in the environment (e.g. skiing in Valdelinares, cycling on the road to Ojos Negros.) 10. Campaigns of recycling in an educational centre (IES Juan de Garay) and its assessment. 11. Development of a logbook where possible measures for recycling and its use will be explained and analysed. 12. Control of municipal solid waste (R.S.U.), such as pharmaceuticals, tyres, batteries, Town Hall or Plan Renove campaigns, etc. 13. Guided visit to the recycling building located in the industrial estate of Vara de Quart (València). 14. Re-creation of an ecological house.
  18. 18. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAINVI. - ASSESSMENT: 1. A) personal: strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree other and in this case, give their opinion - This unit made it easier for me to understand 18 English. - This unit made it easier for me to speak English. - This unit made it easier for me to read English. - This unit made it easier for me to write English. - I would have preferred this lesson in another language. - The lesson was more interesting because it was in English. - This unit made me understand the importance of being able to communicate in English. - I would like to have more topics taught in English. Other comments (in English please): B) scientific content  10 multiple choice questions – 4 alternatives – one mark per correct answer  1 open question for 5 marks (answer in the language of your choice)  For us: how many of the students answered in English? C) Project evaluation:  after the mobilities and at the end: questions to be precised during the next meeting
  19. 19. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN2. A) personal: strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree other and in this case, give their opinion - This unit made it easier for me to understand English. - This unit made it 19 easier for me to speak English. - This unit made it easier for me to read English. - This unit made it easier for me to write English. - I would have preferred this lesson in another language. - The lesson was more interesting because it was in English. - This unit made me understand the importance of being able to communicate in English. - I would like to have more topics taught in English. Other comments (in English please): B) scientific content  10 multiple choice questions – 4 alternatives – one mark per correct answer  1 open question for 5 marks (answer in the language of your choice)  For us: how many of the students answered in English? C) Project evaluation: after the mobilities and at the end: questions to be precised during the next meeting
  20. 20. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN3. A) personal: strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree other and in this case, give their opinion - This unit made it easier for me to understand English. - This unit made it 20 easier for me to speak English. - This unit made it easier for me to read English. - This unit made it easier for me to write English. - I would have preferred this lesson in another language. - The lesson was more interesting because it was in English. - This unit made me understand the importance of being able to communicate in English. - I would like to have more topics taught in English. Other comments (in English please): B) scientific content  10 multiple choice questions – 4 alternatives – one mark per correct answer  1 open question for 5 marks (answer in the language of your choice)  For us: how many of the students answered in English? C) Project evaluation: after the mobilities and at the end: questions to be precised during the next meeting
  21. 21. Comenius Project: Natural sciences, natural English 2011-2013. IES JUAN DE GARAY – VALÈNCIA-SPAIN4. A) personal: strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree other and in this case, give their opinion - This unit made it easier for me to understand English. - This unit made it 21 easier for me to speak English. - This unit made it easier for me to read English. - This unit made it easier for me to write English. - I would have preferred this lesson in another language. - The lesson was more interesting because it was in English. - This unit made me understand the importance of being able to communicate in English. - I would like to have more topics taught in English. Other comments (in English please): B) scientific content  10 multiple choice questions – 4 alternatives – one mark per correct answer  1 open question for 5 marks (answer in the language of your choice)  For us: how many of the students answered in English? C) Project evaluation: after the mobilities and at the end: questions to be precised during the next meeting

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