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PICHUTZ: THE SHAPE OF KNOWLEDGE
Vo Viet Anh, XPRIZE Vanguard, vovietanh@gmail.com
http://bit.ly/ReadTheSP
Abstract
This ...
2
I. INTRODUCTION
The model of knowledge for Pichutz (pronounced pē-shūt'z) featuring 4 dimensions of
knowledge is the res...
3
2. Strategic profiling: There are too many credentialed people out there to decide who to listen to,
partner with, or hi...
4
risks, while the majority of the world (even smart people5
) is ignorantly6
squandering resources
(including their brain...
5
is the explosive redundancy of knowledge, e.g. “bin Laden might be dead” and “bin Laden was
killed.” If there is a platf...
6
knowledge is filled in to either create new knowledge or prove/disprove the existing, NOT to
collect all existing knowle...
7
II. THE ROOMS
A unit of knowledge that can be (NOT “meant to be”) mapped on Pichutz is not limited to
academic knowledge...
8
technology such as mass production of robotic soldiers, directed-energy weapons, and portable
fusion reactors) might tur...
9
2. Between two rooms with no direct relation on different floors, the Higher room often
supersede/happens regardless of ...
10
For example, without transistors to run a transitional generation of computers and create a wide
range of tools to buil...
11
So, can I be even Harder? What if I could invent all Deep mathematics, all High theories and
algorithms, build a machin...
12
Examples of Soft knowledge vs. Hard knowledge:
Photography vs. brain imaging, love vs. brain on love, winning
Olympic G...
13
difficult, and risky (i.e.
invest too much time and
money in the wrong
idea); Soft learners are
driven by joy, happines...
14
In times of resource crises or foreseeable disasters, humans would automatically focus on
Hard/S-Hard knowledge for sur...
15
related knowledge. For example, a “2018 Bomber” Scopic node links to and fro a description
text and all scientific know...
16
DNA/molecular language (between molecules), and the futuristic computronium/quantum
language (between computronium)[44]...
17
VII. TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATION
1. Dimension: can be understood as one of the three axes of the triaxial spectrum of ...
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13. A person’s consciousness: a subset of one’s own knowledge (as humans cannot recall
everything we know at once and t...
19
this document. I wish to rely on machine learning to rush up the Core but have to admit that we
still don’t have what i...
20
even rawer languages which I have not imagined yet. In addition, each room is associated with a
probability distributio...
21
A set of rooms is designated to be on floor 0. The floor of a new room A is equal to the higher
value between the floor...
22
doors to access the Deepest floors (and, next, the Highest floors). This activity encourages
massive collaboration in s...
23
affiliate institutions or by submitting evidence of your knowledge, (2) be endorsed by high-cred
users, or (3) have you...
24
If a RP exceeds a certain threshold, its room becomes an accounted room, and the RP will be
accounted in the computatio...
25
7. Crossing: An AI will identify open questions in every discipline and search for solutions in
other disparate areas o...
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(5) A tool to verify and address long-term danger/existential risks to regulate knowledge
acquisition (e.g. encourage p...
27
[64][63]
X. THEORY OF WEAKNESSES
Pichutz is scary, because there are countless rooms to light. If someone lights a room...
28
engineering, he can steal your electricity. If you don't check your children's DNA, you may end
up raising someone else...
29
However, there’s no need to be desperate. Most powerful elites in world raise enough layers of
High protection around t...
30
The bottom line is: inside Pichutz, it contains an incomplete theory about itself.40
So, if you use
Pichutz but there'r...
31
As mentioned, I'm not just proposing a new structure for a knowledge system, but also a new
way of filling that system ...
32
will need an educational hut to arrange that huge amount of high quality education in one place
so that users can recor...
33
junk teen bestsellers (Beth Reekles’s The Kissing Booth and Maya Van Wagenen’s Vintage
Wisdom for a Modern Geek)? Why d...
34
Many intellectual elders in my country think that Americans simply waged wars in our country
out of monetary greed. In ...
35
mostly depended on invention of more mathematics44
and more mathematics is always needed to
develop Higher theories45
....
36
[44]
Computronium:
“According to the law of accelerating returns, by the end of this century we will be able to create
...
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28
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Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28

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Pichutz (Singularity Pyramid) concept April 28

  1. 1. 1 PICHUTZ: THE SHAPE OF KNOWLEDGE Vo Viet Anh, XPRIZE Vanguard, vovietanh@gmail.com http://bit.ly/ReadTheSP Abstract This document provides a high-level description of Pichutz (formerly “Singularity Pyramid”), an online multidimensional knowledge mapping platform (which, for simplicity, can be regarded as a futuristic Wikipedia), wherein each unit of knowledge is associated with a probability distribution of probabilities to reflect the probabilistic nature of reality. Knowledge mapping wouldn't be a big deal if not for four well-defined abstract dimensions (Conceptual, Purposeful, Scopic, and “Language”) that capture the collective body of knowledge in its entirety. With the Singularity placed at one end of each dimension as the ultimate goal, these dimensions give you a sense of direction in learning/creating knowledge. With knowledge mapping, Pichutz provides Singularitarians with a bigger picture to realize the roadmap towards the Singularity while seeking to address numerous problems that are impeding their progress—no coherent knowledge tree structure for academic research and massive collaboration, no strategic profiling platform, leader discord, lack of awareness of existential risks, negligence of macro-vulnerabilities, “language” barrier to pure knowledge and redundancy of knowledge. It is also a tool that I myself have always coveted for use in planning, decision making, risk management, and resource allocation. The “theory of weaknesses” based on Pichutz has the potential to change your worldview forever. Engineering Pichutz is an unprecedented and formidable task which I foresee rapid advances in technology in the next year may fulfill. Also, the intuitive (easy to memorize, visualize, and contribute) and functional (designed for practical use) structure of Pichutz makes it a candidate for the brain of the Singularity Superintelligence (SS). Note: there is no technical detail in this document. Keywords Singularity, knowledge mapping, hierarchy, probability, crowdsourcing
  2. 2. 2 I. INTRODUCTION The model of knowledge for Pichutz (pronounced pē-shūt'z) featuring 4 dimensions of knowledge is the result of my lifelong attempts to make sense of all knowledge I had stumbled upon. It is the ultimate culmination of all of my intellectual and emotional experiences to date, the answer to all of my questions[8] , and the tool to solve every future problem. 4 dimensions of Pichutz were defined for a singular purpose of reaching the Singularity: (1) The 1st (Conceptual) dimension shows the conceptual hierarchy of knowledge. It places the Singularity tentatively at the top as the goal to climb towards[11] . (2) The 2nd (Purposeful) dimension draws the lines between 3 classes of knowledge based on their relevance to our ultimate goal of survival. It forces you to ask yourself “What good is knowing this for?” and reminds you to maximize resource efficiency by focusing on knowledge at the Core[9] . (3) The 3rd (Scopic) dimension groups up knowledge. It encourages you to combine branches of knowledge into more substantial knowledge[10] such as sophisticated technologies, and compel you to back your knowledge with data and facts. (4) The 4th (Language) dimension presents different versions of the same knowledge. It welcomes you to provide and translate knowledge into rawer, less ambiguous, more machine-friendly forms of language (other than human language). After mastering these dimensions, you will organize your thoughts and look at the world in entirely different ways[1] . With them, Pichutz seeks to address 6 mains problems: 1. Academic research and massive collaboration: Web users can only look at one piece of knowledge at a time (at Wikipedia or other Google search results) rather than a big picture containing all pieces of the collective human knowledge and their relations. I grew dissatisfied with what I could find during online research with Wikipedia[6] and Google[7] . It was not because there was too much knowledge on the web but because a single coherent tree structure for all knowledge was nonexistent. It was easy to get lost trying to figure out all foundations of a complex multidisciplinary knowledge (e.g. cloud robotics) or all applications of a theory (e.g. general relativity), the highest level philosophical insights of experts in a field (e.g. “Bitcoin will be bigger than the internet”) or the deepest level technical tips (e.g. algorithms measuring Levenshtein distance between two strings), or in which intellectual direction I should explore in order to ultimately invent new knowledge, i.e. original research or novel technology. At the same time, scientists lack an optimal tool that integrates the tree structure of knowledge for massive collaboration in solving hard problems1 . To address these problems, I envisioned a futuristic Wikipedia that surpasses the conventional concepts of all knowledge bases[24] , make it easier to research systematically, navigate intellectually, collaboratively solve hard problems to arrive at original and/or profitable ideas. 1 https://gowers.wordpress.com/2009/01/27/is-massively-collaborative-mathematics-possible
  3. 3. 3 2. Strategic profiling: There are too many credentialed people out there to decide who to listen to, partner with, or hire. Every person is represented by a long list of achievements, companies, publications, public profiles, questions and answers, social network, status messages scattered across multiple sources on the web, which take too long to research. On the other hand, what we are concerned the most with when gauging someone’s skill depth, wisdom, and mindset/logic, are (1) his deepest technical knowledge, (2) highest level conclusions, and (3) how one jumped from assumptions to conclusions (in an extreme case, Deepak Chopra’s logic was so flawed he made long shots to inane conclusions outside of his fields). By treating each user as an object on the 3rd dimension (together with other group objects) comprised of pointers to all pieces of knowledge he has created, endorsed, learned, and connections he has drawn between these pieces, Pichutz allows each user to maintain a singular profile on the web including the most meaningful information about that person’s mind—basically what matters most to find or be found by like-minded partners, employers, or benefactors. 3. Leader discord: It’s very common to find experts in the same field with glaringly contrasting positions[18] and there’s no way to verify their conclusions in order to decide which one is correct2 . For example, Dr. Kurzweil complained in [Kurzweil 2012] about Paul Allen’s lack of point-to-point critique that preluded any constructive argument. Each of them stood for a unique set of data, facts, life experiences, influences, and disciplinary knowledge that simply doesn’t overlap with the other’s enough to convince the other. There’s no platform for them to map their “knowledge set” to serve as the basis of their argument. In other cases, I often encountered intellectual leaders who were apparently smart with deep expertise in their respective fields but somehow naïve or even ignorant regarding worldly matters[22] . Some were too clouded by their ego (inability to admit one's own fault lest losing face) or emotion (traumatically forged reaction) to reason beyond their jelled assumptions, to unlearn and relearn. A constant question in my mind was “What exactly made this person assume that? Does he know a crucial piece of knowledge that may change my mind, or simply have a ridiculous Deepak-Chopra-esque logic? Where is he stuck?” Without such knowledge, there’s no way to pinpoint the root of their assumptions and hold a constructive conversation. As a result, I had been thinking of a platform to help mitigate bias and close the gap between subjectivity and objectivity[2] —where experts can exhaustively trace their current positions back to assumptions that constitute their fundamental differences, and verify these assumptions in order to reach a consensus. 4. Unawareness of danger: A level of awareness high enough to perceive existential risks requires a high amount of the right knowledge. Since any knowledge has a price-tag, there is just not enough resource to pursue all kinds of knowledge. However, only a limited number of people at this level of awareness (e.g. those at CSER3 and FLI4 ) are concentrating their resources on acquiring the core body of scientific and technological knowledge that may help us avert these 2 http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-reliable-are-tv-doctors 3 Centre For The Study of Existential Risk http://cser.org/about/who-we-are/ 4 The Future of Life Institute http://thefutureoflife.org/who/
  4. 4. 4 risks, while the majority of the world (even smart people5 ) is ignorantly6 squandering resources (including their brainpower7 ) on knowledge that doesn’t directly translate to our long-term survival. A series of frustration had led me to the conception of Pichutz: When I became conscious of climate change and other environmental issues, my peers in university hadn’t, so I joined the environmental movement alone. When I became conscious of the limitations of purely environmental solutions and approaches, my fellow activists and scientists hadn’t, so I engaged in the Singularitarian community to explore knowledge in various fields alone. When I realized that the community, in their fixation on disruptive technologies, had lost track of the big picture where politics and public ignorance largely affect the pace of their progress towards the Singularity, Singularitarians didn’t seem to heed, so I conceived Pichutz. 5. Negligence of weaknesses: Everyone in the computer sciences knows how much damage bugs or deep technical vulnerabilities may cause to rapidly expanding information systems. However, very few are aware of how much threat larger-scale and more abstract vulnerabilities pose to our survival against the odds of existential risks from Nature or even our own exponential technological revolution. To ensure our survival, we must learn to identify vulnerabilities (called “weaknesses” in this paper) from the smallest to the largest scale—every bit and piece of information we miss, the content of what you eat or breathe, any possibility we fail to take into account in our plan/theory/algorithm, or any failure to acknowledge and insulate our own biological limitations, and the very population of people that carry such weaknesses. With a knowledge map, it would be possible to circle where weaknesses might be most damaging if exploited in order to contain them with layers of high-level security plans, or concentrate resources to eliminate them once and for all—a process called weakness management. Against the prospect of future crime, Pichutz is meant to be worth millions of words on security8 . 6. Language barrier and knowledge redundancy: Wikipedia is written in the most human-friendly language—human language, which is not optimal for knowledge representation. IBM’s Watson and most AIs have to derive knowledge through crawling and parsing countless data in this language, which might take indefinitely long for them to achieve human-level intelligence. So, why is there no Wikipedia for AIs, written in more machine-friendly languages? Humans expect machines to understand them and yet so few (mostly programmers) can make their thoughts clear-cut enough to be understood by machines in forms of code and algorithms. There are code crowdsourcing websites such as Stack Overflow, TopCoder, and Kaggle but their solutions are so disconnected and limited to very deep technical problems, while there is an enormous amount of high-level knowledge that can be translated into more machine-friendly languages by just anyone (not just programmers) so that machines can help us solve higher level problems. Another problem with our reliance on human languages, which are a barrier to pure knowledge, 5 Having a bunch of best thinkers become lawyers is waste of human capital http://qr.ae/qW6rp 6 http://www.businessinsider.com/scientists-and-the-public-disagree-on-everything-2015-2 7 http://www.businessinsider.com/wikipedia-comprised-of-bryan-henderson-wikignome-2015-2 8 http://singularityhub.com/2015/01/22/we-need-a-manhattan-project-for-cyber-security/
  5. 5. 5 is the explosive redundancy of knowledge, e.g. “bin Laden might be dead” and “bin Laden was killed.” If there is a platform to crowdsource systematic codification of hierarchical knowledge, we can accelerate machine learning (a top-down approach to complement current bottom-up approaches), all while downsizing the collective knowledge, and teaching users algorithmic thinking to think in first order logic and rigorously define actionable high-level knowledge, e.g. an algorithm to allocate resources and determine actions taken against specific populations within a time frame that guarantees existential risks lower than a threshold. The 4th dimension is a future project to upgrade Pichutz into such a platform. Figure 1: Conceptual illustration of Pichutz At first, this model had many names—the Pyramid of Knowledge, Symmetry, Wisdom, etc. In 2012, I learned about the Technological Singularity and realized that this model could become a powerful tool to achieve it faster, if not in time. Hence the name Singularity Pyramid to align my goal with the Singularitarian community’s. After a serious naming effort, it’s Pichutz now. I tried to make Pichutz easier to understand by referencing Wikipedia to imply that this is also a "knowledge system." However, this platform is not an encyclopedia. Definition of hot dog, birthplace of Barack Obama, or details of a music album, is among what I LEAST expect can make it into Pichutz. Because with Pichutz, I'm not just proposing a new knowledge tree structure, but an entirely new way of filling one. Its knowledge is need-based, meaning
  6. 6. 6 knowledge is filled in to either create new knowledge or prove/disprove the existing, NOT to collect all existing knowledge in one place. For light-hearted examples, “seawater is abundant on Earth” + [seawater-based fusion energy generation technologies]  [laws in a seawater economy] (new knowledge); data, facts, life experiences, and disciplinary knowledge are posted to (dis)prove "AI could spell the end of mankind" by Stephen Hawking or "Only morons start a business on loan" by Mark Cuban. Compared to Wikipedia, Pichutz also takes time to crowdsource knowledge, but it’s more functional, offering a wide range of applications in everyday, profit-driven, or high-level activities[12] , and thus promises benefits for contributors and ROI[16] for investors. Table of Content II. The rooms 7 III. The 1st dimension 7 IV. The 2nd dimension 10 V. The 3rd dimension 14 VI. Secondary dimensions 15 VII. Terminology and abbreviation 17 VIII. Building the pyramid 18 IX. Application 25 X. Theory of weaknesses 27 XI. My next step 30 XII. Interpretation and notes 31 XIII. Example 38 XIV. Bibliography 51 XV. Vitae 52 XVI. Dark 52
  7. 7. 7 II. THE ROOMS A unit of knowledge that can be (NOT “meant to be”) mapped on Pichutz is not limited to academic knowledge but refers to the broadest possible definition of knowledge—anything that can be known, which is as infinite as the universe itself. It can be anything conceivable: a qubit, a datum, a fact, an opinion, a citation, an object, an idea, an action, a thought, an event, a phenomenon, a theory, a plan, or virtually any information to predict exactly anything that may happen the next moment, etc. Metaphorically speaking, Pichutz is a structure with countless rooms on each floor, each room representing a unit of knowledge. False knowledge doesn’t exist in Pichutz, e.g. “the US government is run by lizard men,” but can be brought in through factualization, e.g. “Barack Obama said the US government is run by lizard men.” Lit rooms are acquired knowledge, and dark rooms uncharted knowledge. Once a room is lit, it’s globally lit, but locally dark to those who haven’t lit it. Since human knowledge is built mostly bottom up, the top of Pichutz is mostly locally dark. When you try to discover new knowledge, you launch yourself into the dark. Then you either land into a dark room (come up with something right) or outside of Pichutz (come up with something wrong). If the room you land into is globally dark (a discovery), you’re free to command benefit from it, and choose to let it be globally or locally lit. But if that room is locally dark (a secret), which means someone has been there before, you may be pushed out of Pichutz to death. For insights into the dark top of the Pyramid, please refer to the Dark section after going through this whole document. Each room is associated with a probability distribution of probability values, which indicates the percentage of users who have rated each probability value. I decided to use the probability distribution of probabilities because it reflects the probabilistic nature of reality, tells you more information than a probability[47] , and is the closest expression to a wave function, which has later implications for Pichutz. III. THE 1ST DIMENSION It all started when I realized an apparent hierarchy between the conscious levels of a naïve physicist and a wise politician (both are smart). What did the physicist know? Complex technical concepts in physics and engineering. What did the politician know? Economic insights and political secrets. What was perceived at the level of the latter’s understanding (e.g. the unified axis of government and corporate power) might supersede the effects of both the former’s works in physics and the very physical systems the former was studying or building (e.g. rocket engines), e.g. by slashing state funding to his research. Conversely, a breakthrough in the former’s field (e.g. E=mc2 , atomic bomb, hydraulic franking, any disruptive/transformational
  8. 8. 8 technology such as mass production of robotic soldiers, directed-energy weapons, and portable fusion reactors) might turn the whole political system that the later knew upside down. Thus they seemed to be situated at two extremities of equal importance. If the physicist was “deep,” then the politician should be “high.” This hierarchy reemerged during my academic research when I realized that biological processes emerge from chemical reactions, which can be derived from physical laws, which are described and predicted by mathematical models, which are deduced from logics and founded on proofs, which can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements known as axioms. Economic principles, political rules, and life hacks are all based on these scientific concepts to various degrees, albeit unfathomably remotely. In this hierarchy of concepts, one is founded upon others. This is basically the same hierarchy of the brain’s pattern recognition modules described in [Kurzweil 2012] as functional units to recognize components of human languages—from phonemes down to frequency bands of sound (perceived as pitches), up to words, phrases, sentences, contexts, to abstractions such as attractiveness, irony, happiness, frustration, envy, sarcasm, humor, nuance, metaphors, similes, implications, secret code, and so on. Therefore, I have unified these compatible hierarchies into the 1st (Conceptual) dimension. It’s worth pointing out that we humans do not start at the top digging down or at the bottom climbing up. We are born into the knowledge somewhere in the middle of Pichutz, where I call the Free- lunch Zone[21] , before embarking in two opposite directions simultaneously. The knowledge in this Zone is the easiest for humans to acquire, and thus can be described as either Low or Shallow. From the bottom to the top of Pichutz, the relative position of a room can be described in order as Deep, Shallow, Low, and High. Most of the time when someone asked me “Are you in deep thoughts?” I usually responded “No, I’m in High thoughts.” Skip to The 2nd dimension[32] Basic rules 1. Higher rooms are founded upon Lower rooms. A Lower room would prop up (be part of/produce a subset of solutions of/contribute to/prove/deduce) a Higher room, while the Higher room would backprop (predict/contain/incorporate/dictate) a Lower room. The direct relation between a pair of rooms is either a prop or backprop, which indicates their relative position along the 1st dimension. For example, computing technologies for a speed of 1019 cps and nondestructive brain scanning technologies are required to prop the mind uploading technology; advanced technologies in propellant, engine, materials, design, pilot safety, tires, sensors, space, etc. are required to prop the blueprint of a spaceship with recyclable rocket engines.
  9. 9. 9 2. Between two rooms with no direct relation on different floors, the Higher room often supersede/happens regardless of the Lower room, while the Lower room makes happen/possible the concept of the Higher room[37] . In definition, a strategy is Higher than a tactic, and the latter usually Deeper than the former. 3. Normally, a Higher room must be built upon Lower rooms. However, in fact, Nature (evolution) has gotten ahead of humans since the Earth’s birth and lit High rooms long before we could reach them methodologically bottom-up. These rooms called Hints provide suboptimal but effective solutions for now, from which principles to develop optimal solutions can be derived later[53] . Taking advantages of Hints thus accelerates humans’ exploration of knowledge. Reverse-engineering the brain to model its interactions at the molecular level (or even quantum level) and search for the “secrets of the human brain” is a prime example of acquiring Hints. 4. Rooms from High to Deep correspond to a decreasing level of generalization, abstraction, “simplification”[27] , an increasing level of specialization, specificity, precision[26] . For example, there are many theories for the brain with resolutions ranging from the whole cortex (High), to modules consisting of neurons, to neurons, to very detailed level of molecules in a neuron, to quantum phenomena in the brain (Deep). 5. Rooms from Low to High or Shallow to Deep correspond to increasing difficulty and energy level. A higher “energy level” means either more energy/matter (higher number of molecules studied, higher temperature, or higher speed), more energy density (e.g. from a white dwarf to a neutron star to a black hole), or more energy/time/resource/brainpower consumption (e.g. a cool quantum computer chip costs a far more amount of energy, resources, and brainpower to invent than that of a spectacular electron-spewing Tesla coil). In fact, the upper limit energies of particle colliders dictate whatever final resolution humans are able to deliver in terms of scientific and technological development. Every time the Large Hadron Collider raises its energy limit, a barrage of discoveries will follow, Theory of Everything as the likely final destination. 6. The Higher room A is to room B, the more probable it is that room A can supersede/obsolete room B[52] . There are two notable degrees of High-ness: [37] a) Paradigm-High: Room A is paradigm-Higher than room B if they have no direct relationship but room A completely supersede/obsolete room B. For example, technological paradigms were characterized by these technologies—electromechanical computers, relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits—and next comes the self-configuring 3D molecular circuits (and then my speculated nonlocal circuits). In another example, Israel Intel shifted the computer chip paradigms twice when upgrading the 486 chips to Pentium M chips, and then to Core 2 Duo chips. Previous technologies don’t direct prop later technologies which are smaller, faster, cheaper, more efficient, and based on whole classes of Deeper concepts (e.g. quantum entanglement), but they made POSSIBLE the conception of the next paradigms’ technologies.
  10. 10. 10 For example, without transistors to run a transitional generation of computers and create a wide range of tools to build tools, humans could never have invented integrated circuits. (b) Meta-High: Normally Room A is Higher than room B when it supersedes room B, but not ALL rooms on room B’s floor/energy level. It is only meta-High when it can supersede all rooms on par with and below room B[59] . In physics, a High theory may apply to a highly energetic system with a stable energy level, but a meta-High one can apply to a more realistic system with varied energy levels. In life, a High dictator can dictate a Low farmer but there’s a small chance the farmer can backstab the dictator, unless the dictator is High enough to predict and counter ALL possibilities regarding the farmer’s actions (including his interactions with the environment). This has profound implications in the theory of weaknesses[63] . 7. Deepest rooms are the foundations for Highest rooms. A commonly observed phenomenon— also an optimal knowledge acquisition strategy—is the bouncing between the Deep and the High[36] . For example, a sort of rapid ricochet between abstract theory and down-and-dirty practice is commonplace in startups. This is because only discoveries of Deep knowledge can enable discoveries of High knowledge, and vice versa. 8. A High theory is a Symmetry of one or many approximation theories (Approxes) if that theory unifies all these Approxes[54] . For example, M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory, which arise as special limiting cases of M-theory. Please refer to an incomplete list of related topics on the 1st (Conceptual) dimension9 . [32] IV. THE 2nd DIMENSION “You are too SOFT” was what my best friend told me whenever I immersed myself in romantic literature, popular fiction, songwriting, poem, fashion10 , dancing, basketball, pick-up lines, love songs, Korean drama, football, etc. just to impress and conquer the girls who had those interests. He didn’t say so to make me less human. He said so because he knew me so well, that such knowledge would largely distract me, waste my time, and not serve my purposes in life. But what if my actions had purposes? What if I knew that those girls were either very rich or somehow a specific link in my grand plan? What if I lived my life only to please everyone and do everything needed (even laugh and cry) for the sole purpose of long-to-infinite-term survival and evolution? That reminds me of the notion of HARD scientists, who are the practical, goal- oriented, and not concerned with whether the Singularity is near or not, nor whether an AI is “strong” or “weak,” nor what the bleep “consciousness” is. 9 Related topics on the 1st (Conceptual) dimension http://qr.ae/qWJCq 10 Almost everything to know about wearing suits http://qr.ae/q9UQn
  11. 11. 11 So, can I be even Harder? What if I could invent all Deep mathematics, all High theories and algorithms, build a machine to run them, dominate the world, and then merge with that machine, survive cosmic catastrophes, exponentially evolve, and eventually dominate the universe (absorbing all matter and energy and know everything that can be known in this universe and all parallel universes if there be). If that happened, then at some point, there would be no distinction between me and the machine—no “human touch.” That’d be beyond Hard—SUPER HARD, which reverberates the concept of the Singularity Superintelligence. Therefore, I conceived the 2nd dimension consisting of three levels of purposefulness—a Soft shell, a Hard shell, and a Super-Hard (S-Hard) Core. It’s not meaningful to divide any further. Skip to The 3rd dimension[33] Differentiation Soft Hard S-Hard Knowledge for the sake of psychologically keeping humans alive by enriching our mental life and allowing “meaningful” human interactions11 Knowledge for the sake of deriving S-Hard knowledge Knowledge for the sake of survival and evolution Limitless knowledge created by humans but not contradicting Hard and S-Hard knowledge Minimum amount of knowledge for humans to achieve Singularity Minimum amount of knowledge for a computer to achieve Singularity A practically limitless realm of knowledge inherent to humans; basically a collective body of virtually any possible random knowledge[51] which humans who can see beauty in every trivial detail would create if given unlimited lifespan, time, and resources; every single slightly different piece of creative work; appeal to humans’ senses All knowledge a machine needs in the context of human existence, to serve humans, pass the Turing test, act like a human, gain humans’ trust, so that humans can help the machine become even smarter, until the machine can take over the process of improving itself All knowledge that a machine needs to survive, evolve in any environment, “maximize the diversity of possible futures”12 or simply “dominate the universe” Has human touch No human touch For mental survival For physical survival 11 Why do people care about and remember all imaginary details http://qr.ae/qWJCN 12 http://www.ted.com/talks/alex_wissner_gross_a_new_equation_for_intelligence
  12. 12. 12 Examples of Soft knowledge vs. Hard knowledge: Photography vs. brain imaging, love vs. brain on love, winning Olympic Gold medal vs. sports, fine dining vs. nutrition, fashion vs. armor, sex vs. cloning, makeup vs. cognitive augmentation, music composing vs. sound engineering, virtual sex vs. virtual doctor, slice of life vs. science fiction, leisure chatbot vs. expert system, emotional robots[68] vs. security robots, contemporary art vs. classical art, recreational drugs vs. medicine, recreational mathematics vs. competitive programming, graphic-intensive video games vs. classical strategy games (scrabble, chess, backgammon, Go, Bridge), Victoria’s Secret diamond-laced bra vs. diamond drill. Human-independent knowledge that any species would need to survive: logic, mathematics, algorithms, physics, chemistry, robotics, AI, energy, weapon, transportation, rocket, metamaterials, computation, etc. Soft climbing: acquiring Higher and Higher Soft knowledge. Pros: humans believe that they can discover grains of wisdom in epic fantasy novels, technological inspirations in science fiction, the universe’s mysteries while traveling the world, or Nature’s laws in this paper. Cons: knowledge acquired is low- prob, incomprehensible to AIs. Hard climbing: acquiring Higher and Higher Hard/S-Hard knowledge, including two processes: (1) Fast top-down process of acquiring Hard knowledge thanks to a large amount of Hints provided by Nature[69] . S-Hard knowledge is then derived from Hard knowledge. (2) Slow bottom-up process of acquiring S-Hard knowledge (mostly in logic, mathematics, physics, and engineering), analogous to a walk into the darkness because of a low amount of Hints and insufficiently resource allocation (i.e. time, capital, material, brainpower) due to “Soft drifting.” Soft drifting: the tendency and preference of humans to acquire Soft knowledge rather than Harder knowledge. Reasons: peace and resource abundance allows Soft climbing; Hard climbing is boring, Hard rushing: is accelerated Hard climbing under extraordinary circumstances. Normally people acquire knowledge in all directions. Only in extreme/life-or-death situations such as war13 or a startup under resource constraints14 would the human instinct remind us of the ultimate Hint on top of Pichutz to aim for—“I must survive.” During such times, humans did everything it took to survive, namely taking the direct course up the Core (e.g. the Mahattan project), and consistently achieved paradigm-High breakthroughs[30] , which are later adapted for a wide range of civil (Soft/Hard) uses, e.g. 13 http://www.spacenews.com/article/opinion/37245end-of-wwii-model-shakes-up-aerospace-industry 14 SpaceX on the verge of failure http://qr.ae/qW30W
  13. 13. 13 difficult, and risky (i.e. invest too much time and money in the wrong idea); Soft learners are driven by joy, happiness, and freedom. chemotherapies are offshoots of chemical-warfare agents. Driven by instinct, fear and hope. Consumed less physical resources and time (more efficiency) but more human resources (casualties15 ), e.g. in war smart people on both sides died. If during peace time academics may undertake researches in all kinds of directions, during wartime they all had to focus mostly on physics and engineering. Soft appeal: Anything Soft always appeals more to humans because our biological systems are not optimized for continuous Hard-working. Imaginative technologies and science in sci-fi/superhero novels/movies16 are more enjoyable to kids and humans in general17 . Soft knowledge activates the brain’s reward system, triggers positive emotions, signaling that there’s no resource constraint endangering our existence, makes us forget all purposes. Honestly, had I been born in a rich family with enough money to do anything I ever wanted, I doubt I would be writing this right now. Hard-hitting: When a technology has touched the boundary between Hard and Soft then any further development would only make the technology less efficient due to the presence of paradigm-Higher technologies. Whenever this happens, humans have officially advanced into the next technological paradigm. Any further development of older technologies would be for aesthetic (e.g. steampunk, antiques, and pixel art) or other irrational human purposes. Rooms from S-Hard to Soft correspond to an increasing disorder/entropy (rooms with minor differences become increasingly undistinguishable), an increasing redundancy (vast amount of variations of the same knowledge), a decreasing “density” (more dark rooms), and a decreasing resource-efficiency. The purposefulness of Soft and Hard knowledge can be subjective (varies from person to person) and constantly changing (depending on the context including resource availability). A Soft knowledge such as fashion knowledge may become Hard when you need it to approach a powerful fashionista. However, if there’s not enough time for Soft knowledge, you might have to utilize your Hard knowledge to kidnap that person and force him to do what you want, all while taking more risks than learning fashion. Lack of investment in acquiring S-Hard knowledge (e.g. SpaceX’s $1 billion investment compared to Whatsapp’s $22 billion acquisition) is attributable to the fact that financial resources were still concentrated in the hands of people who don’t possess the amount of knowledge required to comprehend existential risks and large-scale vulnerabilities. It’s wise people like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking’s responsibility to force High insights down the throat of people who own enough resources to ensure our survival (not necessarily the masses). 15 http://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2015/02/13/how-to-die-at-los-alamos/ 16 http://www.wired.com/2014/11/can-hulk-lift-thors-hammer/ 17 DARPA’s project to teach STEM https://www.topcoder.com/case-studies/darpa/
  14. 14. 14 In times of resource crises or foreseeable disasters, humans would automatically focus on Hard/S-Hard knowledge for survival’s sake. However, in most cases, the majority of the world wouldn’t reach the Conceptual level High enough to realize the crises or disasters they are facing and fail to act accordingly. Despite the seemingly more important nature of Hard/S-Hard knowledge, given the current mental state of humans, it is necessary to pursue all three kinds of knowledge simultaneously[43] . For more examples, please refer to the Example section[39] . “Soft,” “Hard,” and “S-Hard” indicate not only the degree of Purposefulness of knowledge but also a person’s propensity for the respective body of knowledge, that person’s activities, lifestyle, and mentality that constitute such propensity. In my opinion, the current world’s Hardest celebrity is Elon Musk. [33] V. THE 3rd DIMENSION The Scopic dimension is the easiest to understand because it only tells you which groups a room belongs to, for example arithmetic belongs to mathematics. For simplicity, it is like a supply chain—raw numerical data supply facts; these data and facts supply disciplinary knowledge, which in turn supplies all kinds of group objects such as disciplines, and users’ Pyrofiles. We adopt both a standardized disciplinary taxonomy (each group called taxon, plural taxa, has a well-defined taxonomic rank) represented by a Taxonomic Tree, and user-generated arbitrary groupings (each group called scopon, plural scopa, has a floating Scopic rank) represented by a Scopic Tree. A scopon may contain a taxon or taxa but not vice versa. The Scopic rank of a scopon indicates its relative scope/scale/size (the number of rooms it contains) and the highest rank of the scopa it contains. The hierarchy in this dimension is very simple—higher ranked scopa contain lower ranked scopa. The first four ranks—(1) data[41] , (2) facts, and (3) disciplinary knowledge—are fixed while higher ranks float. Rank-1 rooms (data) are stored in form of a description text, along with numbers, arrays, matrixes, or links to datasets. Rank-2 rooms (facts) are stored in form of free texts, photos, videos, blueprints, or other forms of media. Rank-3 rooms (disciplinary knowledge) are stored in form of free text and LaTeX. Future development of the 4th (Language) dimension will host other versions of these rooms in rawer, machine-friendly languages18 . Each room is linked to and fro only one node on the Taxonomic Tree, but many nodes on the Scopic Tree. Each node on either tree stores (1) a free text, (2) a pointer to a definition room (e.g. “Physics” room which stores a broad definition of physics), and (3) pointers to all grouped rooms (e.g. all physics-related knowledge). Each node on the Scopic Tree can be a technology, an academic paper, a solution to a problem, a submission to a competition, etc. linked to all of its 18 http://matt.might.net/articles/discrete-math-and-code
  15. 15. 15 related knowledge. For example, a “2018 Bomber” Scopic node links to and fro a description text and all scientific knowledge employed in the Bomber such as metamaterials, explosives, and computational algorithms. Philosophy and religion are two interesting group objects19 . The purpose of this dimension is to encourage users to (1) group distant knowledge to create new (and Higher) knowledge[40] or identify problems in one field that have solution in another field (e.g. by running a search for rooms that share a majority of props from data and facts), and (2) support existing knowledge and facts with numerical data in order to calibrate their probabilities. In other words, by mapping all knowledge on Pichutz, we can (1) systematically explore all of the overlapping boundaries between our exponentially expanding frontiers of knowledge, and (2) hook up experts in different industries, enable them to look beyond just their narrow discipline, juxtapose their knowledge next to each other, and identify the same concepts being described in different terminology. This is important because one (sub)-field may have actually solved a problem that another (sub)-field20 was attempting to solve but it is not realized because these fields use different terminology. Similar processes are known in mathematics as “abstraction”[42] . VI. SECONDARY DIMENSIONS Knowledge bases employ only ontology and/or taxonomy; Kurzweil’s hierarchical model of mind has only the Conceptual dimension; none gives you a sense of direction. Never before have the vague concepts of knowledge dimensions been defined, refined and put together into a single coherent picture like Pichutz. Yet, I still want to make this picture more complete. There are some dimensions I want to add to or combine with the three primary ones—the 4th (Language) dimension, the 5th (Technical) dimension, the 6th (Applied) dimension, which are all slightly parallel to the 1st and 2nd dimensions. 1. The Language dimension: [73] With this dimension, I want to introduce a completely new notion of “language”: If human language is a collective of languages humans use to communicate with each other, then a molecular language should be a language molecules use to communicate with each other. Examples of languages in order of decreasing human-friendliness are human language (between humans), programming language (between humans and machines), machine language (the lowest level programming language with op codes and operand numbers), electronic/digital/binary language (between electrons and electronic components), neuronal/electrochemical language (“language of though” between neurons or the hypothetical neocortical patterns[45] ), 19 http://spyramid.quora.com/Philosophy-and-religion 20 Problems in one field solved by solutions in another field http://qr.ae/q9BMK
  16. 16. 16 DNA/molecular language (between molecules), and the futuristic computronium/quantum language (between computronium)[44] . Languages can exist in more abstract form depending on the structure and substrate of the communicating entities. For example, whenever a genetic algorithm (GA) successfully generates a set of parameters which constitute a solution that can magically solve all problems at hand perfectly (e.g. speech recognition), these parameters embody High and Deep knowledge in an entirely new language, which is incomprehensible to humans and has to be studied to derive whatever secrets they are holding to achieve perfect speech recognition. The number and physical relations between these parameters are dependent of the substrate of the hardware. As exotic computing architecture with smaller substrates or substrates with more accessible states (e.g. qubit) become available, down to a maximum at quantum level, rawer forms of language will be invented by the GA, embodying Higher and Deeper knowledge acquired through the interaction inside the machine or between it and its environment. Eventually, following this pattern, the SS will invent the rawest possible form of language that only it can understand. When this dimension is introduced, users will be compelled to translate knowledge into more machine-friendly languages (programming code, pseudo-code, or mathematical symbols) and, in that process, identify inconsistencies in their own thinking. With this dimension, I also want to raise an issue that humans’ instinctual attachment to human language might turn out to be a barrier to pure knowledge or “true understanding” of knowledge, which is largely formless and not intuitive. In fact, my neurons have their own language that only they can understand. Evidently, even though my ideas for Pichutz are so fluid in my mind, I’m having a hard time putting them down in this document. 2. The Insightful-Technical dimension: is important for new learners who want to start learning the most readable, insightful texts of a concept before diving into less comprehensible, more technical details. When studying a theory, you will be able to choose between reading texts explaining it in an insightful manner and those explaining it in technical details. 3. The Theoretical-Applied (or Global-Local) dimension: Knowledge should also be arranged according to the degree of relevance to the environment of the users. 4. Correlation with the 1st and 2nd dimensions: The closer it is to the Core and the bottom, the more disciplines become more computational (e.g. computational social sciences), more quantitative, Deeper, more universal or “global,” harder to express in human language and easier to express in rawer languages. Skip to Building the Pyramid[65]
  17. 17. 17 VII. TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATION 1. Dimension: can be understood as one of the three axes of the triaxial spectrum of knowledge in Pichutz. 2. Room: a unit of knowledge, which can be anything that can be known—a qubit, a datum, a fact, an opinion, a citation, an object, an idea, an action, a thought, an event, a phenomenon, a theory, a plan, a conspiracy, or virtually any information to predict exactly anything that may happen the next moment, etc. 3. Low-prob and high-prob: short for low probability (<70%) and high probability (>=70%). 4. Conceptual floor or floor: a level in the 1st dimension. 5. Hard shell and Soft shell: two outermost levels in the 2nd dimension. 6. [9] Super-Hard Core, S-Hard Core or Core: the innermost level in the 2nd dimension. The Core is not called the “Core” for nothing. It’s filled up with the least possible amount of knowledge required to reach the top. In other words, it’s the shortest path to the top. 7. Scope rank or rank: a level in the 3rd dimension. 8. SP: Singularity Pyramid. 9. SS: Singularity Superintelligence. 10. Hints: provide suboptimal yet effective solutions (e.g. brain-inspired computer architecture) from which principles to develop optimal solutions can be derived. Fields that study or take advantage of Hints include biomimetics, bionics, swarm technologies and communications, bio- inspired computing, human-inspired Big Data Access Strategies, etc. 11. Insight: a High, usually low-prob, room lit based on a large amount of Low rooms. In other words, an Insight is a loosely founded speculative knowledge which, if turning out to be correct, can be refined and developed into a complete theory. Very smart people have a propensity for very High low-prob fringe scientific theory21 . Insights and Hints together often led to very popular but scientifically unfounded theories and concepts, e.g. Feng Shui, Chakra, Ki, Yin Yang, Chinese/papal/shamanic exoteric knowledge, parapsychology, and alternative medicine. 12.[3] Consciousness: is defined, in this paper, as the brain’s equivalent of a computer’s random access memory. It doesn’t colloquially refer to self-consciousness, metacognition, the ability to think about one’s own thinking or other misleading, unfounded, and pseudoscientific notions of “consciousness.” Knowing how oft-abused the word “consciousness” is, please strip your mind of all definitions you have ever come across until now. 21 https://www.quora.com/What-is-it-like-to-have-an-extremely-high-IQ/answers/8485223
  18. 18. 18 13. A person’s consciousness: a subset of one’s own knowledge (as humans cannot recall everything we know at once and that’s why we often make the same mistakes all over gain); one’s perspective is a chosen subset of her consciousness (e.g. “Let’s take a perspective of a mathematician and then that of a computer scientist to approach this problem.”). 14. Conscious level: is the level of the Highest room of a person’s consciousness. A High person is someone with relatively High conscious level. 15. Symmetry: a High theory that unifies several approximation theories (Approxes). 16. Approx (short of approximation): is one of the approximation theories of a Symmetry, often a theory that is only accurate and useful within certain boundaries. For example, the Albert-and- Rex model of the brain22 is a fun inspirational read (the most upvoted Quora post) and can be somehow applied in everyday activities until you can acquire a degree in neuroscience to develop more accurate theories. 17. Cred (short for credentials): indicates the weight of a user’s rating for a taxon. A High cred in one field doesn’t correspond to a High cred in another field. High-profile people may have credentials in certain areas but not in other areas. For example, Deepak Chopra can have a great voice in heart surgery matters, but be banned from any conference on philosophy or physics. 18. Logic-set: If you prospective employers/lovers check out your Pyrofile, they will be most concerned with not only your Highest and Deepest rooms but how you connect rooms. Each prop/backprop you draw between rooms reflects your unique logic. In the future, one’s logic-set (in form of a webgraph) may matter much more than one’s “mindset” or skillset. 19. Mini-Pichutz with respect to room A: is a subset of Pichutz with room A as its local top. It includes all rooms upon which the top is founded. [65] VIII. BUILDING THE PYRAMID Guidelines [Suh 2009] has observed that Wikipedia growth has essentially plateaued, hence unsolicited contributions from human volunteers may yield a limited amount of knowledge going forward. However, I believe that such a limit was largely attributable to the two words “unsolicited” and “volunteer.” What if we give contributors a mission and benefits? It’d be very likely that we can harness the full human potential to crowdsource knowledge. The mission can be to push the frontiers of knowledge towards the Singularity in each dimension, or simply to survive; benefits is access to Pichutz’s analytic/predictive tools described later in 22 http://www.quora.com/How-do-I-get-over-my-bad-habit-of-procrastinating/answer/Oliver-Emberton
  19. 19. 19 this document. I wish to rely on machine learning to rush up the Core but have to admit that we still don’t have what it takes go full S-Hard and thus still have to depend on human curation. Pichutz’s initial objective is NOT to amass information (like most knowledge bases did) but to encourage people to first post their Insights[46] (assumptions, “pearls of wisdom”) and then exhaustively and logically validate them (the way most people in logical professions such lawyers, scientists, and engineers do on a regular basis) by gathering all information and knowledge to support them. That way, they will light all the rooms they have mentally skipped on their way rushing up, in order to get rid of unfounded thoughts, make unexpected discoveries, expand their Insights into full theories, and create a strong foundation to go even Higher than where they are standing. [2] Most people don't have the resolution to verify their own assumptions, which are usually High Insights derived from disparate memories throughout their life and suddenly put together precariously through a mysterious process inside the brain often called the “intuition.” It's troublesome to dig out the specific memories that led to these assumptions. Even when they have successfully dug them out, these memories may turn out to be so remotely/vaguely connected to the assumptions at hand that they would feel too embarrassed to admit. It’s important to overcome this mental inertia in order to accelerate towards the Singularity. Content-wise, since Pichutz’s focus is different from that of most knowledge bases (Wikipedia, Freebase, Knowledge Grapth, DBpedia, Knowledge Vault, etc.), facts such as Obama’s birthplace, music albums, or anything not in English are the LEAST of our concern. Rooms on rank 1 and 2 (data and facts) should be filled up with mostly statistics, measurements, or free texts describing events, e.g. “On December 21, 2012, Barack Obama conspired in a bar.” Skip to Application[48] Technology There are 3 main elements: the database, the visualization, and the AI. We may use MySQL database with a layer of memcached servers in front of the databases. In the future, we can "scale up" as we grow to a machine with lots of cores and ram, plus a replica. This relational data model is the right way to structure most of the data for an application like Pichutz and for most user-generated content sites. Schemas allow the data to persist in a typed manner across new versions of Pichutz as it's developed, serving as documentation, and prevent bugs. SQL lets us move the computation to the data as necessary rather than having to fetch tons of data and post-process it in the application everywhere. We may switch a new database when someone implements a distributed relational database with relaxed semantics. I will have to consult with experts on this. The main information in each room is stored in form of free text (for the most part of Pichutz), mathematical symbols, programming code and, in the future, other data types to accommodate
  20. 20. 20 even rawer languages which I have not imagined yet. In addition, each room is associated with a probability distribution of integer probabilities and a representative probability in percentage. The initial value of each room’s probability needs to be set by deep evidence-based probability rating algorithms, with reference to Watson’s Deep Q&A. This initial rating is multiplied with a cred of 100% in the equation of the room’s representative probability, which at first will overshadow most users’ ratings. A data visualization tool can be built with Three.js, a comprehensive WebGL library. Only three primary dimensions are visualized in form of a 3D pyramid. The user interface (resembling WikiGalaxy23 and Google Earth) includes basic operations like add, edit, remove, prop, backprop, endorse, suggest edit, search, etc. on the top and advanced, licensed analytic/predictive tools at the bottom. Rooms can be opened in multiple resizable, movable windows for reading or editing. Figure 2: Each object stores pointers to every object an arrow originating from it points to. A user can (1) create a room (including a text, initial probability of accuracy, and Hardness) and tag it with standardized Taxa or create new Scopa to tag it, (2) endorse a room with a probability, (3) create a prop or backprop between room A and room B (a directional relation) along with the probability of that relation, (4) create a tag and add rooms, Taxa, or Scopa to it, and (5) create a black thread that links 2 rooms the user deems similar (e.g. “Bin laden died” and “Bin laden was killed”), or a red thread that links 2 rooms the user deems opposite (e.g. “Bin laden is dead” and “Bin laden is alive”). The lowest tag ranks (Scopic ranks) are rank 1 for “data” and rank 2 for “facts.” When a new Scopon is created, its rank is equal to the highest rank of the Scopon it contains plus 1. 23 WikiGalaxy the visualization of Wikipedia wiki.polyfra.me
  21. 21. 21 A set of rooms is designated to be on floor 0. The floor of a new room A is equal to the higher value between the floor of a room B which props room A plus 1 and the floor of a room C that backprops room A minus 1. When there is confusion (resulting from users’ unfamiliarity with the concepts of prop and backprop), for example when room C is Higher than room B, the floor of room A is set to 0 and flagged for reconsideration. The AI will be developed in later phases to perform tasks discussed below. Figure 3: Data associated with each room/user and how they correspond to the visualization Human involvement 1. Question attachment: Users can attach questions or links to questions at Q&A sites, such as Quora and Stack Overflow, to and fro a room in order to facilitate knowledge validation (down), exploration of same-level knowledge (horizontal), to development of Higher theories (up)[4] . For example, lists of unsolved problems in mathematics24 and computer science25 represent locked 24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Prize_Problems 25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_computer_science
  22. 22. 22 doors to access the Deepest floors (and, next, the Highest floors). This activity encourages massive collaboration in solving hard problems while leveraging other platforms. 2. Conflict flagging: For each theories/facts/events, there always exist several conflicting counterparts. By flagging these rooms in conflict, we can draw other users’ attention to resolve the conflict, by proving that most, if not all, of them are low-prob, or by coming up with a unifying theory/Insight if all of them are high-prob. Dr. Kurzweil used to do this[49] . 3. Pichutz backup: Only one state of Pichutz needs to be backed up because users can add or adjust content but cannot remove anything. If you think a room has something wrong, repost that room with the wrong thing omitted and suggest users related to the original room to endorse the new room. Rapid changes of rooms related to topics on the news can be recorded with considerably more temporal resolution for research purposes. 4. Actions: The role of Pichutz is to help you or a machine know what actions to perform, not to sit idly thinking forever. Therefore, the knowledge in each room is prioritized to present a part of or this whole sequence: conditions  concepts  definitions  actions  results. At programming language level, they should be in form of functions or procedures. 5. Users have to avoid and improve absolute, incomplete, or excessive statements. For example, “The less government intervention the better” and “To succeed, you must be merciless” are absolute and incomplete. You should improve and replace them with “In fast growing markets or where leaders are incompetent, the less government intervention the better; otherwise, government tend to play in important role” and “To succeed, when mercy is valued by people who are valuable to you more than your gain from being merciless, be merciful; otherwise, be merciless.” The more what-ifs and details, the better. You may add statistics, thresholds, mathematical models, etc. but they have to relate to the core point of the room; otherwise it will become excessive and needs to be divided. Computation 1. Pyrofile and credentials (cred): “You’re rooms26 ; everything is just rooms.” In Pichutz, you are your knowledge, either self-sourced or externally-sourced. Cred is a measure of your credentials for a taxon (not scopon) in percentage (0% to 100%). It is calculated as the average of all of your learn-rates (also in percentage) for each accounted room in that taxon. A user’s learn-rate for a room is accounted in the calculation of that user’s cred for all taxa that contain that room. For example, someone who has learned 90% of everything there is in theoretical physics can have a cred in physics as high as 75%. There are three ways you can raise your cred for a taxon (tentatively equally distributed): (1) earn learn-rate for any room in that taxon or the whole taxon by taking courses of Pichutz- 26 How many rooms are you? http://qr.ae/qSkVI
  23. 23. 23 affiliate institutions or by submitting evidence of your knowledge, (2) be endorsed by high-cred users, or (3) have your contributed content endorsed by high-cred users. Cred(user X, taxon Y) = ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑  Learnrate: user X’s learn-rate for each room in taxon Y, in %  Roomcount1: the number of accounted rooms in taxon Y  EndorserY: the endorser’s cred under taxon Y, in %  EndorsedY (input): the value of cred endorsed by that endorser for taxon Y, in %  RP: the representative probability of each room in taxon Y, in %  Roomcount2: the number of accounted rooms submitted by user X in taxon Y When a user earns a cred value of x% for a taxon X from another user, the learn-rates of all rooms under taxon X are set to the highest value between their current values and x%. Accounted rooms of user X are rooms with a representative probability that exceeds a certain threshold (tentatively 70%). Only the learn-rates of accounted rooms of user X will be accounted in that user’s cred for all taxa containing those rooms. 2. Room and representative probability (RP): Each room is represented by a probability distribution of integer probability values from 0 to 100 (telling you the percentage of users who rated each value) and an RP. The RP of a room is increased in two ways (tentatively, 50-50)—direct probability voting (users input a percentage for the room’s probability) and weighted probabilities transferred from (back)propping rooms (users input a percentage for how much they think room A is important/relevant to room B). RP(room A) = ∑ ∑ ∑ ⁄ ∑  Userprob (input): the probability rated by a user X for room A, in %  Usercred: the cred of a user X for the nearest taxon of room A, in %  RP(room B): the representative probability of a (back)propping room B, in %  Userweight (input): the user-rated importance of a (back)propping room B to room A, in %  Cred1, cred2: the cred(s) of a user X for the nearest taxon of room A and the nearest taxon of room B, respectively, in % 3. Order of computation: There are many objects (rooms, users, taxa, scopa) and the values (RP, learn-rate, cred) associated with these objects are highly interconnected. They are computed using a simple iterative algorithm. Each iteration calculates the next set of values based on the resulting set of values of the last iteration. To avoid a feedback loop, this continues until the values converge.
  24. 24. 24 If a RP exceeds a certain threshold, its room becomes an accounted room, and the RP will be accounted in the computation of all related rooms’ RPs and all related users’ learn-rates. Only learn-rates are stored in the database; creds are not. A cred of user X for taxon Y will be computed when user X endorses a room, user, or prop/backprop a room in that taxon. Therefore, the order is as follows:  Each room’s RP is computed from RPs of all accounted rooms related to it, and the creds of the nearest taxa of all related raters.  A cred of user X for taxon Y, when called, will be computed from the learn-rates of all accounted rooms user X has in in taxon Y. 4. Cost factor: The path to the Singularity is not smooth. It’s not to choose simply the most obvious routes but routes we can afford. That’s why we have to keep a good check on alternate routes’ resource consumption in order to allocate resources accordingly. Thus I’m looking into how to associate a cost factor with each room. [13] And then come the AI In the future, an AI must be heavily developed to learn from humans’ interaction with Pichutz to perform a variety of complicated tasks. 1. Stitching: Most of the time, users would prefer reading knowledge in Wikipedia-article style rather than browsing rooms endlessly in a 3D pyramid. They need a software to stitch knowledge together in meaningful ways according to a wide range of criteria (e.g. probability >= 70%, within 10 floors of room A, Hard & S-Hard, rank 3) into well-organized 2D articles. 2. Analytics/prediction: This will be the main source of revenue. Refer to Application section. 3. Validating: automatically prop or backprop knowledge to calibrate its probability. 4. Critical-thinking: performs a continual background scan of all of the existing rooms, flagging those in conflict. 5. Leveling-up: Upon identifying contradicting rooms, this AI would chain them together, and attempt to create a room at a Higher floor that resolves the apparent contradiction by providing a perspective that explains both ideas. 6. Questioning: If the AI failed to create a unifying room, it would generate open questions over the chained rooms, or search for current questions on Q&A websites such as Quora and Stack Overflow. Humans would then attempt to answer these questions or extract knowledge from current answers on Q&A websites.
  25. 25. 25 7. Crossing: An AI will identify open questions in every discipline and search for solutions in other disparate areas of knowledge, or provide an Insight from an apparently disconnected field. 8. Translating: translates knowledge along the Language dimension from human language to more machine-friendly languages, at least programming language. For more understanding about the role of the AI27 to Pichutz, and their implications for the SS28 , please refer to the footnote links. [12] IX. APPLICATION a. Phase 1: Prototype (1) A comprehensive hierarchical knowledge map to support systematic academic research. (2) A platform to validate problem statements, explore existing solutions to similar problems, map all knowledge required to solve the problems, predict and map must-have features of the solution, generate hypotheses, gather academic materials or experimental data to support each hypothesis, etc. in preparing academic paper, project proposal, or solution to grand challenges. (3) A platform to verify intellectual leaders’ insights, and for intellectual point-to-point critique where each opponent can lay out assumptions, counter the other’s assumptions, back own assumptions with further assumptions or facts or data, trace these assumptions to the deepest level possible, and so on. Opponents may adjust their assumptions according to new information provided be each other, split the difference, and resolve the argument; or arrive at assumptions which either side cannot or refuse to reason beyond for subjective reasons. This platform can be used to resolve any argument between you and your opponents simply by using a tool to overlap your Pyrofile and theirs to see where they meet. b. Phase 2: Full version (4) An educational hub for users to map knowledge, keep track of their learning, follow Pichutz- derived principles to produce original knowledge, acquire certified knowledge from Pichutz- affiliate education partners and build their comprehensive online credentials (Pyrofile). A selective Board of Experts will rate (assign a cred value of x% to each taxon covered by) massive open online courses (provided by Coursera, Udacity, edX, etc.), programs of educational institutions or organizations. When a user graduates, her learn-rate for all rooms in each covered and rated taxon will be set to the higher value between their current values and x% times the user’s grade in percentage, e.g 100% for A, 80% for B, 0% for F and so on. This will be a major application because, in no time, all of education will be online[15] . 27 Roles of AIs to Pichutz http://qr.ae/qeQcw 28 From Pichutz to the SS http://qr.ae/qeQ6r
  26. 26. 26 (5) A tool to verify and address long-term danger/existential risks to regulate knowledge acquisition (e.g. encourage people to study engineering rather than literature). (6) Provider of a distributed platform (“Home Pichutz”) to privately organize personal knowledge; crowdsource/groupsource personal, military, or political planning assistance; identify weaknesses and plan courses of actions to contain these weaknesses. For example, you can post “I should work for Google” and “I should work for Facebook” and have your friends prop these two options with their knowledge. In military, we can map weapons, countermeasures, counter-countermeasures, human resources, psychological weakness, geographical advantages, public ignorance, etc. (our own weaknesses and the enemies’). (7) A platform to crowdsource systematic codification of hierarchical knowledge. Users can post knowledge in rawer, more machine-friendly languages than human language, such as mathematical language, pseudo-code, programming language, or even rawer forms. These versions of knowledge are used to accelerate machine learning. (8) In the face of the a paralyzing speed of academic publications worldwide (5 publications per minute by 2013), Pichutz can serve as a template for academic publications so that we easily identify the relationships between ideas, terminology, and data within a publication, between different publications, and verify even the most technical details in these publications ourselves. I also envision a similar template for solution submission to science competitions, so that voters can visually investigate and compare technical advantages between solutions rather than watch videos that tell nothing and depend heavily on production values29 . (9) A platform for AI experiments[13] on hierarchical and machine-friendly knowledge, which opens the door to profitable analytic/predictive tools; also a source of problems for competitive programming sites such as TopCoder and Kaggle. For example, a tool can monitor the collective knowledge of a market to identify market gaps; if there is a gap between the standard of appreciation for food, hygiene, movie, etc. of Vietnam and that of the rest of the world, you can provide products at just above their current standards and charge as much as you want; in my country, people love paying for crap. That tool can be applied to the business of art30 . At some point, Pichutz will spawn a new breed of ultra-high-tech analysts called “Paralysts.” (10) A complete understanding of Pichutz opens your mind to a wide range of everyday mental applications31 . 29 Nokia Sensing XChallenge Finalists https://www.nokiasensingxchallengevoting.org/ 30 The business of art http://qr.ae/qefSR 31 A list of random everyday applications http://qr.ae/qZ7nW
  27. 27. 27 [64][63] X. THEORY OF WEAKNESSES Pichutz is scary, because there are countless rooms to light. If someone lights a room you haven’t, it becomes your relative weakness to that person. No matter how High you are, you can’t always rely on your Highest knowledge which supersede most Lower knowledge to solve every Lower problem. Your plan/tool based on High knowledge may help you succeed most of time but it’s possible to fail when you suddenly need a Low knowledge that you lack. Even the most advanced systems these days have to be regularly debugged lest being hacked[60] . You can be considered invincible if you own the only gun in the town, but anyone can defeat you with as easy as a kick in the crotch unless you have expected that and trained properly. Theoretically, a weakness has the potential to affect ALL rooms above it. In other words, it can cause damage to all people who have lit any room above it. The relatively Deeper a weakness is, the more damage it may cause, e.g. the Heartbleed bug that unfolded early this year32 . The one who lit the room has the option to share it for little recognition and reward, or exploit it for more. It’s easiest to think of weaknesses as vulnerabilities in computer sciences, which are most documented. In the future, weaknesses in life sciences33 will be much more debilitating. Global weaknesses are objective, knowledge lacked from the whole collective of human knowledge (e.g. deep space, aliens, unknown existential risks) while local weaknesses are subjective, knowledge lacked by an incident person or, in order word, ignorance. A person’s lack of a certain knowledge is to that person what that person is to the mankind—a local weakness. Our world is plagued with local weaknesses rather than global weaknesses. Dark or exclusively-lit relatively-Deep room, bug, hole, loophole, gap, vulnerability, shortcoming, blind spot, opening (in martial arts), uncertainty, ignorance, weakness—the lingo is endless, but the concept is universal. Let’s call it “weakness.” Whenever a weakness is discovered, resources are concentrated to fix it. That is the whole law behind crime and war— humans target and/or fix others’ weaknesses for a profit. If Pichutz is a living organism and resources its blood, then weaknesses are where if targeted Pichutz would cave and its blood would flow in to mend the wound and fill in the gap. Weaknesses everywhere Weaknesses are mostly exposed for exploitation/fixing under extreme/life-or-death conditions such as war[61] . Nevertheless, they can be every bit and piece of information you miss when you “let your guard down.” [62] If you overestimated your security and didn't buy a good door, a thief can break in. If you miss a piece of news about the company whose stocks you own due to lack of connections, you lose money. If you find a hole in the law system, exploit it and make sure not to be discovered, you can beat the system and get rich. If your neighbor is good at electrical 32 Heartbleed https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heartbleed 33 Hacking DNA http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/11/hacking-the-presidents-dna/309147/
  28. 28. 28 engineering, he can steal your electricity. If you don't check your children's DNA, you may end up raising someone else's kids. If your IT system is imperfect, a hacker will find and exploit it or extort you. If you are not good-looking and careless about your appearance, you can lose a job or be bullied. If a person hates you and you don’t know, when a situation arises, he will do everything within his abilities to harm you. If you depend on someone, your dependence is a weakness. When I was an environmentalist, whenever one of my fellows vandalized or swore before the press camera like an illiterate dropout, I would look worse in the public eyes. Such person was my weakness. Every time a Vietnamese steals from a local grocery in a foreign country, I would look worse in that country so they count as my weakness. If one of your teammates is not good enough, greedy, emotional, has a habit, someone to die for, or any weakness, that person’s weaknesses become your weaknesses that other teams will exploit. The State of Israel is a perfect example of a brilliant people having their weaknesses exposed continuously and having what it takes to fix them all. [Senor 2011] has all the examples. The Yom Kippur war that happened on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, reminded Israelis of what’s more important to survival than praying, and led to the institution of the Talpiot program to recruit the best of the best humans in all faculties in Israel to defend the nation and more. They fixed their weaknesses (the holy day); their scientific and technological breakthroughs achieved while Hard-rushing (in war) fluidly found their way into the global markets since no country could have all conditions met to get that High. With those breakthroughs, their alumni and those of Unit 8200—another Israeli miracle—found leading companies in the world such as NICE and Check Point. US Army recently bought the Iron Dome from Israel34 —a technology that only a country showered with rockets on a daily basis could develop. Besides war, it used to be a matter of life-or-death for this nation to grow food on dessert. Now one of their leading companies Netafim is exporting their agricultural technology to the whole world, their wastewater recycling rate of 72% being the highest in the world. Inherent weaknesses However, how about inherent weaknesses? What if I’m smart and rich, but short and weak? Just knowing that doesn’t improve anything. Doesn’t that mean there’s a permanent, no matter how small, chance that one day I can be toyed around and killed in humiliation by a brainless brawny thug? In order to ensure my absolute survival, I must become meta-High—mastering all knowledge on all floors below my conscious level—to be smart and rich enough to make myself big and strong. However, the meta-High concept should always be regarded as a goal rather than a realistic description of any entity that may exist at all. Turning into an elite fighter capable of dodging bullets or warding off whoever attempts on my life is not inefficient, considering how limited my resources are and how many floors I have to master to be truly meta-High. 34 US Army bought Iron Dome http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/186951
  29. 29. 29 However, there’s no need to be desperate. Most powerful elites in world raise enough layers of High protection around themselves to seal off their weakness which is their fragile biology. To defeat them and survive, attackers must also master High floors to break away from the grasp of their High protection, which diminished the attackers’ incentives to perform the attack at all. In case of network vulnerabilities, the one to exploit weaknesses of the systems must be High enough to succeed while maintain his anonymity. However, the High people in the society have contained the risks of these potential weaknesses so well with their High knowledge that no one who had the relatively Deep skills to exploit the weakness also had the High skills to escape justice. There were countless instances of hackers, including members of the Anonymous group35 , getting caught for their miscalculations. To further understand inherent weaknesses, refer to the Robocop (2014) case study36 . The Inevitable What we have discussed above is not to zero in on apparent solutions, but to encourage you to acknowledge and accept natural laws of knowledge and the inevitable future resulting from them. Any knowledge/technology WILL be weaponized and put in bad use37 by criminals, terrorists, and hackers as long as the weaknesses inherent to us as a species (emerging from both our brains and biological bodies) exist as targets for entities with fewer weaknesses to exploit and benefit from. It is ineffective to encourage people to develop technologies “responsibly.”38 Exponential technologies will entail exponential weaknesses as they guarantee exponentially widening gaps and holes in our knowledge for criminals to exploit, just like a fast growing IT system harboring more and more vulnerabilities for hackers to exploit39 . Developing Higher power (authority, money), technology (Internet of Things, synbio), and conscious level (realization of profit from destruction) will only add more dark floors below—weaknesses. Only with a powerful information tool such as Pichutz can we ascend High enough to come up with not just strategies to address each threat separately, but even much Higher plan to seal off our weaknesses completely. Pichutz as a game Why do I have to play Pichutz? Can’t I just learn instead of competing? It’s up to you. However, over time, Pichutz will resemble a virtual reality rather than an “online knowledge mapping system.” Like in any reality, competition is inevitable, as implied above. 35 Arrests of the Anonymous https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anonymous_(group)#Arrests_and_trials 36 Robocop (2014) case study http://qr.ae/qZ8e7 37 Exponential crime http://www.ted.com/talks/marc_goodman_a_vision_of_crimes_in_the_future 38 Build the future “responsibly” http://singularityhub.com/2014/11/20/summit-europe-artificial-intelligence- evolving-from-disappointing-to-disruptive/ 39 Massive bank attack http://money.cnn.com/2014/08/28/technology/security/bank-hack/index.html
  30. 30. 30 The bottom line is: inside Pichutz, it contains an incomplete theory about itself.40 So, if you use Pichutz but there're still things you do not know about it, they will become your weaknesses. This will remind you forever that you reek of weaknesses and had better hurry up get High! The Higher you get, the more you will feel like playing a game with your everything at stakes. You interactions with knowledge at such levels will bring about enormous consequences. And your Pyrofile will be one of your primary weapons when we introduce a feature that lets you set the “conditional visibility” of separate parts of your Pyrofile. It means only users who meet certain conditions can see the parts you want to hide. Also, it’s worth noting that the moment High dark rooms (dark secret of the government, military, and corporations) are open to you and the public, their first explorers—the Highest masterminds will have moved up to the next floors. So it is an endless race. But don’t worry! My goal in proposing Pichutz is to leverage the power of knowing and empower you, giving you another tool to close the gap between yourself and those near the top. So the bottom line is Pichutz will provide a paradigm-High knowledge service and learning experience compared to Wikipedia. The chance is for everyone, but the reward is not. XI. MY NEXT STEP I believe Pichutz concept is powerful enough and its implications profound enough to attract people with complementary skills to join me. My plan is to seek feedback to refine the concept, gather like-minded partners, seek technical advices and endorsement, apply to incubators, acquire must-have technical knowledge as fast as possible to communicate with prospective technical partners and shape the vision of Pitchutz in a programming-intensive future, go to an incubator this year, look for co-founders and work on this project full-time with the intention of a building startup. I have envisaged a prototype for when I can go to an incubator, I will offer it to all participants as a tool to map their highest-level insights in order to find like-minded partners and form teams; resolve any conflict by exhaustively verifying their assumptions; list and verify problem statements or existential risks they are tackling with facts, data, and disciplinary knowledge; compare these problems to determine the most pressing; trace the root of current problems to tackle it now, or prepare to tackle it later before solutions to current problems become obsoleted; map knowledge from all fields required for their solutions (neuroscience, synbio, AI, etc.) to identify which knowledge to acquire next and track their learning progress; devise strategies to outsmart competitors, customers, and the public; identify where outputs of team projects overlap to create synergy; etc. That would be a win-win for both me and those teams. 40 The consciousness of Pichutz http://qr.ae/qSmOI
  31. 31. 31 As mentioned, I'm not just proposing a new structure for a knowledge system, but also a new way of filling that system with knowledge. In order to establish the posting standards and input the first substantial patch of knowledge into this platform as reference, I’m in need of a highly selective audience, who is mature, wise, purpose-driven, multidisciplinary, and whose knowledge covers a wide range from the deepest-level technical techniques to the highest-level philosophical insights, and from the most pressing knowledge that contributes directly to the survival of mankind such as deep learning or rocket science to the least likely knowledge to be fed to a computer such as French fine-dining or Chinese poetry. Therefore, the incubator I’m going to should attract an eclectic group for me to crowdsource my project’s critical database. This project and another one are my life. Except for technical knowledge, I have a firm grasp of the concept, its implications, and its “real” plan for the future—the future that I want to live in. If not for that, I wouldn’t live another second. To borrow Eric Schmidt’s and Jonathan Rosenberg’s words in “How Google Works,” I want to bet on an unimaginable future, because such big bets can sometimes be easier to achieve than small ones, since they attract the best people. XII. INTERPRETATIONS & NOTES [6] Limitations of Wikipedia: users’ ratings are equally weighted; information is linearly sorted with no meaningful order; has semantic structures but presents no big picture. Solutions: take user credentials into account, and add three dimensions. [7] Limitations of Google: ratings are based on the page’s quality rather than the knowledge’s probability; information is linearly sorted with no meaningful order; has the Knowledge Graph but no big picture. Solutions: add three dimensions. [11] The Singularity is expected to be near the Top, but not literally at the Top. The Theory of Everything should be comparatively closer to the Top. I doubt humans will survive to witness what lies at the Top. [15] Opportunities in education: Over the next five years or so, all of education—K-12, college, and graduate school—will be online, in every major language. Companies like Google and others are working to bring very low cost, or no cost, Internet to everyone in the world. In the future, we will see very high quality education, both in terms of online education with human thinkers, as well as computer-assisted instruction by artificial intelligence, thus providing higher quality education to everyone. There
  32. 32. 32 will need an educational hut to arrange that huge amount of high quality education in one place so that users can record and share their life of learning in a single place41 . [8] An incomplete list of my questions in life in four main sets: 1. The structure of knowledge: How can I put all knowledge in the same picture? The whole picture comprises of all fields. People are going up and down without anticipating where to meet halfway in order to hold hands and walk up to the Top together. Why didn’t high school teachers teach mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as a seamless body of science where biology emerges from chemistry, which in turn emerges from physics, while mathematics is the seed of science that describes everything? In theoretical physics, why didn’t scientists from two camps (string theorists who go bottom up and model builders who go top down) work hand in hand trying to meet somewhere in the middle? If scattered in the body of religious knowledge to date are tiny pearls of truth/real knowledge then how should they be positioned compared to scientific knowledge? Should scientists take leaps of faith for unlikely breakthroughs? What does it take to draw a roadmap to the Singularity? 2. The map of a humans’ consciousness:[3] Why can’t big minds agree on everything with each other? Why are some of the most intelligent people I know in their fields so naïve and ignorant in worldly matters, and not conscious at all of the hidden danger threatening our lives every second? How can I convince very intelligent people who have huge ego to sit down and point out their elusive deficiencies in order to work out real solutions together? How can I convince people who love or hate Hitler or other monstrous historical figures that they were inevitable existence born out of the context of history rather than good or bad people? How can I prove the relative and probabilistic nature of the reality (nothing is absolutely true and everything is governed by a probabilistic distribution)? Do levels of consciousness exist (People of higher level of consciousness are exposed to certain knowledge that enables them to realize things closer to truth or on a larger physical scale.) and how can I visualize someone’s consciousness? How can I really put myself in someone’s shoes to understand why that person’s view is so glaringly contrasting to mine? 3. The reason for variety: Why are people still enjoying 2D games (Flappy Bird) while there are so many awesome 3D games? Why not create the best thing but the best things? Why can’t I have a one-size-fits-all all-time strategy? Why do people suddenly fall in love with retro- styled music or fashion? Why do we still have martial arts while we have weapons? What exactly do the arts of gardening, dancing, gourmet cooking, fine dining, fashion, photography, poetry, etc. contribute to the humans’ progress towards the Singularity? Why are there always people who over-appreciate particular inane forms of art (Mark Rothko’s black-on- black—abstract expressionism—or Kasimir Malevich’s white-on-white—suprematism) and 41 A Q&A with Ray Kurzweil http://roi.ted.com/2014/10/15/singularity-university-the-future-of-education-and-the- evolution-of-search-a-qa-with-ray-kurzweil
  33. 33. 33 junk teen bestsellers (Beth Reekles’s The Kissing Booth and Maya Van Wagenen’s Vintage Wisdom for a Modern Geek)? Why did junk teen novelists like Beth Reekles and Maya Van Wagenen become two among The 16 Most Influential Teens of 2013? How could Nikita Singh become such a best-selling Indian novelist if her best known works were named “Love@Facebook” (2011), “Accidentally in Love…With Him? Again?” (2011), “If It's Not Forever...It's Not Love” (2012), “The Promise” (2012), “Someone Like You” (2013), “The Unreasonable Fellows” (2013), “Right Here Right Now” (2014)? 4. The nature of war and peace: Why does war exist? Does absolute peace exist? Why do people fight? Are all kinds of violence and crime (robbery, murder, protest, IT hacking, etc.) during peace time just another manifestation of war? Why do we need red team exercises in computer science and life sciences? As long as there is profit in war, can there really be no more war? Why were there many scientific breakthroughs in war that lead to the invention of the computer and the Internet? What are the benefits of war? What exactly did wars contribute to the collective sum of human knowledge? How did the process of developing weapons and defense systems against certain weapons and uncertainty contribute to the collective sum of human knowledge? Isn’t it true that every time a hacker found and exploited a vulnerability for profit, the vulnerability will be fixed and the IT system will get one step closer to perfection? Are all kinds of damage and losses the costs of collective improvement and perfection? [16] Business model: Free services: research (able to keep track of frequent content updates), data mining, AI testing (pay if discontinued due to low content endorsement rate), and Home Pichutz for personal/organizational uses. Paid services: advanced analytic/predictive tools (document parsing, market niche brute force search, like-minded partner search), result sharing from AI developers, education (affiliate institution rating), assess to hidden Pyrofiles (paying Pyrofiles’ owners who are willing to sell their content), headhunting (candidate search, assessment), job analysis (based on current employees), media (paid by journalists and news outlets who use Pichutz format), etc. [22] Wisdom and Intelligence: One thing in RPG games that I think reflects real life is the separation of a character's two attributes Intelligence and Wisdom. I have met very intelligent people who are experts in their fields but naive and ignorant in most worldly matter. They could make instant calculation or draw very complicated blueprints of buildings and machineries but couldn't understand why the Titanic sank or why 11/9 happened or how disaster capitalism worked.
  34. 34. 34 Many intellectual elders in my country think that Americans simply waged wars in our country out of monetary greed. In most cases, high Wisdom requires high Intelligence, but not vice versa. It’s easier to imagine an entity with extreme intelligent rather than on with extreme wisdom. For example, the “ultra-intelligent” character Schön in Macroscope (1969) could play games and do almost everything perfectly but never thought of living forever or dominating the universe. On the other hand, the evil genius in Oliver Emberton’s to-be-published novel42 is comparably wiser to advance his agenda and dominate the world, laying the foundation for his descendants to achieve even more. Deriving from important concepts in Pichutz, I have attempted to redefine Wisdom (which is largely based on the Highest floor level one has reached) and Intelligence[23] . [24] Pichutz in comparison with Google Knowledge Vault: People as users are evolving/interactive part of the picture rather than just static objects; presents a big picture; seek High human subjective Insights rather than just objective knowledge; the purpose is not “ask me anything”; knowledge creation is guided. If Google's mission is to organize the world's information, Pichutz’s mission is to organize the collective body of knowledge. [26] The Deeper, the scarier: American scientist Herbert A. Simon, in describing an AI program called EPAM, wrote in 1973 that to understand the mysterious EPAM program, he would provide us with three versions of the explanation. One would be the form in which it was actually written (programming language) with its whole structure of routines and subroutines. Alternatively, he could provide us with a machine-language version of EPAM after the whole translation had been carried out. The third would be the electromagnetic equations and boundary conditions that the computer, viewed as a physical system, would have to obey while behaving as EPAM. That would be an acme of reduction and incomprehensibility. [Kurzweil 2012] [29] The expert manager was itself a software program that was programmed to learn the strengths and weaknesses of these different systems by examining their performance in real-world situations. It was based on the notion that these strengths were orthogonal; that is, one system would tend to be strong where another was weak. Indeed, the overall performance of the combined systems with the trained expert manager in charge was far better than any of the individual systems. [36] Bouncing between the Deep and the High: High applications of mathematics in engineering and theoretical physics have driven much development in Deep mathematics. Conversely, a Deep achievement43 in mathematics, logic, or algorithm can usher a cascade of High technological wonders. In fact, the Highest theories 42 Evil genius takes over the world http://qr.ae/qSLHD 43 Take over the world after proving P=NP http://qr.ae/qSLiG
  35. 35. 35 mostly depended on invention of more mathematics44 and more mathematics is always needed to develop Higher theories45 . Computer scientists regularly bounce between developing Deep algorithms (for the software) and building faster computers/networks based on High technologies (for the hardware). In far future, the development of Deep computronium language will optimize calculations of High ToE equations. One of my favorite bounce happened when I learned about the probabilistic nature of reality through the equations of wave functions and Schrödinger's equation (Deep). Thereafter, I only describe things as “probable” rather than “accurate.” I also realized that if wave functions really never collapse then the reality that we perceive is merely the interference between all the wave of every quantum in our brain and body with that of every quantum in the universe. I found an allegory in Young’s double-lid experiment with photons, where the visible light bands are the reality while the waves of the photons are always present but invisible. That means everything is predetermined, which resonates Einstein’s quote “God doesn’t play dice.” Yes, he doesn’t play dice because he has known the dice’s wave function and all of its possibilities! Hence my original expansion of Einstein’s quote “God doesn’t play dice, because He sees all sides at once” and the huge dice showing three sides with a dark top on the 1st page of this paper. [42] Abstraction in mathematics is the process of extracting the underlying essence of a mathematical concept, removing any dependence on real world objects with which it might originally have been connected, and generalizing it so that it has wider applications or matching among other abstract descriptions of equivalent phenomena. Two of the most highly abstract areas of modern mathematics are category theory and model theory. One of the advantages of abstraction is: It reveals deep connections between different areas of mathematics. Known results in one area can suggest conjectures in a related area. Techniques and methods from one area can be applied to prove results in a related area. [43] Why we need Soft, Hard, and S-Hard while S-Hard is all we needs to reach the top? If a perfect AI magically sprang into existence, in no presence of humans, it would gather only knowledge at the Core, which is all it needs to reach the top of the pyramid. Unfortunately, it has to be created by humans, so it needs Hard knowledge to co-exist with humans. On the other hand, humans are living organisms so, in order to stay alive and productive, we need all sorts of Soft knowledge—entertainment, tasty food, fun, joy, love, fashion, touch, art, photography, fiction, sex, reward, music, flower, bar, club, firework, emotion, party, movies/books that elaborate trivial life philosophies (Mr. Nobody46 , Cloud Atlas47 ), etc. As a result, humans have to fill up Soft, Hard, and S-Hard knowledge simultaneously until the Core has filled up enough for an AI to use it to fill up the rest of the Core. 44 Inventing mathematics http://qr.ae/qSLJe 45 Need more mathematics http://qr.ae/qS0NW 46 Mr. Nobody http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0485947/ 47 Cloud Atlas http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1371111/
  36. 36. 36 [44] Computronium: “According to the law of accelerating returns, by the end of this century we will be able to create computation at the limits of what is possible, based on the laws of physics as applied to computation. We call matter and every organized in this way “computronium,” which is vastly more powerful pound per pound than the human brain. It will not just be raw computation but will be infused with intelligent algorithms…. The potential of matter to compute is also governed by a very small number, Planck’s constant 6.6x10-34 joule-seconds. This is the smallest scale at which we can apply energy for computation. We obtain the theoretical limit of an object to perform computation by dividing the total energy by Planck’s constant. Lloyd shows how the potential computing capacity of a kilogram of matter equals pi times energy divided by Planck’s constant. Since the energy is such a large number and Planck’s constant is so small, this equation generates an extremely large number: about 5x1050 operations per second.” [Kurzweil 2012] [45] Quotes on the language of thought: “I very rarely think words at all. A thought comes, and I may try to express it in words afterwards.” – Albert Einstein. “As we experience our own thoughts and memories, we “know” what they mean, but they do not exist as readily explainable thoughts and recollections. If we want to share them with others, we need to translate them in to language.” [Kurzweil 2012] [47] Why a probability distribution of probabilities (PDP) but not simply a probability distribution or probability or just a Boolean value of true and false? It’s simple—to provide more information. We could have used a probability distribution of probability distributions of probability distributions of… Unfortunately, I don’t think most people would find such level of complexity meaningful and useful. If a room has a tentative representative probability of 50%, a PDP would suffice to help you distinguish between these different cases: (1) everyone has the some opinions, e.g. everyone rated 50%, (2) everyone has a different opinion, e.g. ratings are evenly distributed from 0% to 100%, and (3) there are two opposite camps, e.g. half of the ratings are 0% and half 100%. [59] Why are all Conceptual levels needed (not just the Highest)? “It would be extremely difficult to interpret what these higher level patterns meant without actually copying all of the information at every level into our own cortex. Thus each pattern in our neocortex is meaningful only in light of all the information carried in the levels below it…. if we were able to detect the pattern activations in someone’s neocortex, we would still have little idea what those pattern activations meant without also having access to the entire hierarchy of patterns… below each activated pattern. That would pretty much require access to that person’s entire neocortex.” [Kurzweil 2012]

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