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Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka

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Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka

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Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka

  1. 1. Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka Hands-on VeriFast with STM32 microcontroller @ Osaka Kiwamu OkabeKiwamu OkabeKiwamu OkabeKiwamu OkabeKiwamu Okabe
  2. 2. Table of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of Contents ☆ Introduce ChibiOS/RT as a RTOS☆ Introduce ChibiOS/RT as a RTOS☆ Introduce ChibiOS/RT as a RTOS☆ Introduce ChibiOS/RT as a RTOS☆ Introduce ChibiOS/RT as a RTOS ☆ Get development environment for ChibiOS/RT☆ Get development environment for ChibiOS/RT☆ Get development environment for ChibiOS/RT☆ Get development environment for ChibiOS/RT☆ Get development environment for ChibiOS/RT ☆ Build a sample application on ChibiOS/RT☆ Build a sample application on ChibiOS/RT☆ Build a sample application on ChibiOS/RT☆ Build a sample application on ChibiOS/RT☆ Build a sample application on ChibiOS/RT ☆ Introduce STM32 microcontroller☆ Introduce STM32 microcontroller☆ Introduce STM32 microcontroller☆ Introduce STM32 microcontroller☆ Introduce STM32 microcontroller ☆ Run the application on STM32 board☆ Run the application on STM32 board☆ Run the application on STM32 board☆ Run the application on STM32 board☆ Run the application on STM32 board ☆ Introduce VeriFast☆ Introduce VeriFast☆ Introduce VeriFast☆ Introduce VeriFast☆ Introduce VeriFast ☆ Verify the application using VeriFast☆ Verify the application using VeriFast☆ Verify the application using VeriFast☆ Verify the application using VeriFast☆ Verify the application using VeriFast
  3. 3. What's ChibiOS/RT?What's ChibiOS/RT?What's ChibiOS/RT?What's ChibiOS/RT?What's ChibiOS/RT? ☆ http://www.chibios.org/☆ http://www.chibios.org/☆ http://www.chibios.org/☆ http://www.chibios.org/☆ http://www.chibios.org/ ☆ Simple / Small / Fast / Portable real-time OS☆ Simple / Small / Fast / Portable real-time OS☆ Simple / Small / Fast / Portable real-time OS☆ Simple / Small / Fast / Portable real-time OS☆ Simple / Small / Fast / Portable real-time OS ☆ Run on ARM Cortex-M / AVR / PowerPC e200☆ Run on ARM Cortex-M / AVR / PowerPC e200☆ Run on ARM Cortex-M / AVR / PowerPC e200☆ Run on ARM Cortex-M / AVR / PowerPC e200☆ Run on ARM Cortex-M / AVR / PowerPC e200 ☆ Context Switch (STM32F4xx): 0.40 µsec☆ Context Switch (STM32F4xx): 0.40 µsec☆ Context Switch (STM32F4xx): 0.40 µsec☆ Context Switch (STM32F4xx): 0.40 µsec☆ Context Switch (STM32F4xx): 0.40 µsec ☆ Kernel Size (STM32F4xx): 6172 byte☆ Kernel Size (STM32F4xx): 6172 byte☆ Kernel Size (STM32F4xx): 6172 byte☆ Kernel Size (STM32F4xx): 6172 byte☆ Kernel Size (STM32F4xx): 6172 byte
  4. 4. Overview of the devel-environmentOverview of the devel-environmentOverview of the devel-environmentOverview of the devel-environmentOverview of the devel-environment
  5. 5. Get the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #Windows Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Windows.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Windows.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Windows.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Windows.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Windows.en.md ☆ Install following:☆ Install following:☆ Install following:☆ Install following:☆ Install following: *�https://git-for-windows.github.io/ *�https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download *�https://ttssh2.osdn.jp/index.html.en *�https://cygwin.com/ *�http://www.st.com/en/embedded-software/stsw-link009.html *�https://git-for-windows.github.io/ *�https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download *�https://ttssh2.osdn.jp/index.html.en *�https://cygwin.com/ *�http://www.st.com/en/embedded-software/stsw-link009.html *�https://git-for-windows.github.io/ *�https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download *�https://ttssh2.osdn.jp/index.html.en *�https://cygwin.com/ *�http://www.st.com/en/embedded-software/stsw-link009.html *�https://git-for-windows.github.io/ *�https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download *�https://ttssh2.osdn.jp/index.html.en *�https://cygwin.com/ *�http://www.st.com/en/embedded-software/stsw-link009.html *�https://git-for-windows.github.io/ *�https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download *�https://ttssh2.osdn.jp/index.html.en *�https://cygwin.com/ *�http://www.st.com/en/embedded-software/stsw-link009.html ☆ Install following cygwin packages☆ Install following cygwin packages☆ Install following cygwin packages☆ Install following cygwin packages☆ Install following cygwin packages cmake�/�gcc-core�(5.3.0)�/�libusb1.0-devel�/�makecmake�/�gcc-core�(5.3.0)�/�libusb1.0-devel�/�makecmake�/�gcc-core�(5.3.0)�/�libusb1.0-devel�/�makecmake�/�gcc-core�(5.3.0)�/�libusb1.0-devel�/�makecmake�/�gcc-core�(5.3.0)�/�libusb1.0-devel�/�make
  6. 6. Get the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #Windows ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and install "stlink":☆ Open cygwin terminal, and install "stlink":☆ Open cygwin terminal, and install "stlink":☆ Open cygwin terminal, and install "stlink":☆ Open cygwin terminal, and install "stlink": $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�make�install) $�cp�/usr/local/lib/cygstlink-shared-1.dll�/usr/local/bin/ $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�make�install) $�cp�/usr/local/lib/cygstlink-shared-1.dll�/usr/local/bin/ $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�make�install) $�cp�/usr/local/lib/cygstlink-shared-1.dll�/usr/local/bin/ $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�make�install) $�cp�/usr/local/lib/cygstlink-shared-1.dll�/usr/local/bin/ $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�make�install) $�cp�/usr/local/lib/cygstlink-shared-1.dll�/usr/local/bin/ ☆ Download VeriFast from following URL, unzip it and set PATH to "verifast-XXXXXXX/bin" directory. ☆ Download VeriFast from following URL, unzip it and set PATH to "verifast-XXXXXXX/bin" directory. ☆ Download VeriFast from following URL, unzip it and set PATH to "verifast-XXXXXXX/bin" directory. ☆ Download VeriFast from following URL, unzip it and set PATH to "verifast-XXXXXXX/bin" directory. ☆ Download VeriFast from following URL, unzip it and set PATH to "verifast-XXXXXXX/bin" directory. https://github.com/verifast/verifast#binarieshttps://github.com/verifast/verifast#binarieshttps://github.com/verifast/verifast#binarieshttps://github.com/verifast/verifast#binarieshttps://github.com/verifast/verifast#binaries
  7. 7. Get the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #WindowsGet the devel-environment #Windows ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: $�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git
  8. 8. Get the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOS Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.MacOS.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.MacOS.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.MacOS.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.MacOS.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.MacOS.en.md ☆ Install brew packages:☆ Install brew packages:☆ Install brew packages:☆ Install brew packages:☆ Install brew packages: $�brew�tap�PX4/homebrew-px4 $�brew�update $�brew�install�wget�git�gcc-arm-none-eabi�cmake�picocom�libusb $�brew�tap�PX4/homebrew-px4 $�brew�update $�brew�install�wget�git�gcc-arm-none-eabi�cmake�picocom�libusb $�brew�tap�PX4/homebrew-px4 $�brew�update $�brew�install�wget�git�gcc-arm-none-eabi�cmake�picocom�libusb $�brew�tap�PX4/homebrew-px4 $�brew�update $�brew�install�wget�git�gcc-arm-none-eabi�cmake�picocom�libusb $�brew�tap�PX4/homebrew-px4 $�brew�update $�brew�install�wget�git�gcc-arm-none-eabi�cmake�picocom�libusb ☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink": $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install)
  9. 9. Get the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOSGet the devel-environment #macOS ☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH: $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly-osx.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH ☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: $�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git
  10. 10. Get the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #Linux Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Linux.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Linux.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Linux.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Linux.en.md Detail:�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast/blob/master/doc/ README.Linux.en.md ☆ Install deb packages:☆ Install deb packages:☆ Install deb packages:☆ Install deb packages:☆ Install deb packages: $�sudo�apt-get�install�wget�git�libgtk2.0-0�libgtksourceview2.0-0� libusb-1.0-0-dev�libgtk-3-dev�build-essential�cmake�gcc-arm-none-eabi�gdb- arm-none-eabi�picocom $�sudo�apt-get�install�wget�git�libgtk2.0-0�libgtksourceview2.0-0� libusb-1.0-0-dev�libgtk-3-dev�build-essential�cmake�gcc-arm-none-eabi�gdb- arm-none-eabi�picocom $�sudo�apt-get�install�wget�git�libgtk2.0-0�libgtksourceview2.0-0� libusb-1.0-0-dev�libgtk-3-dev�build-essential�cmake�gcc-arm-none-eabi�gdb- arm-none-eabi�picocom $�sudo�apt-get�install�wget�git�libgtk2.0-0�libgtksourceview2.0-0� libusb-1.0-0-dev�libgtk-3-dev�build-essential�cmake�gcc-arm-none-eabi�gdb- arm-none-eabi�picocom $�sudo�apt-get�install�wget�git�libgtk2.0-0�libgtksourceview2.0-0� libusb-1.0-0-dev�libgtk-3-dev�build-essential�cmake�gcc-arm-none-eabi�gdb- arm-none-eabi�picocom ☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink":☆ Install "stlink": $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�sudo�ldconfig $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�sudo�ldconfig $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�sudo�ldconfig $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�sudo�ldconfig $�git�clone�https://github.com/texane/stlink.git $�(cd�stlink�&&�make) $�(cd�stlink/build/Release�&&�sudo�make�install) $�sudo�ldconfig
  11. 11. Get the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #LinuxGet the devel-environment #Linux ☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH:☆ Download VeriFast, untar it and set PATH: $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH $�wget� http://82076e0e62875f063ae8-929808a701855dfb71539d0a4342d4be.r54.cf5.rackcdn. com/verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�tar�xf�verifast-nightly.tar.gz $�mv�verifast-*/�verifast $�export�PATH=`pwd`/verifast/bin:$PATH ☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code:☆ Checkout custom ChibiOS/RT source code: $�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git$�git�clone�https://github.com/fpiot/chibios-verifast.git
  12. 12. Build a ChibiOS/RT applicationBuild a ChibiOS/RT applicationBuild a ChibiOS/RT applicationBuild a ChibiOS/RT applicationBuild a ChibiOS/RT application ☆ Finally build the code:☆ Finally build the code:☆ Finally build the code:☆ Finally build the code:☆ Finally build the code: $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make
  13. 13. Coffee break #1Coffee break #1Coffee break #1Coffee break #1Coffee break #1
  14. 14. What's STM32?What's STM32?What's STM32?What's STM32?What's STM32? http://www.st.com/content/st_com/en/products/microcontrollers/stm32-32-bit- arm-cortex-mcus.html http://www.st.com/content/st_com/en/products/microcontrollers/stm32-32-bit- arm-cortex-mcus.html http://www.st.com/content/st_com/en/products/microcontrollers/stm32-32-bit- arm-cortex-mcus.html http://www.st.com/content/st_com/en/products/microcontrollers/stm32-32-bit- arm-cortex-mcus.html http://www.st.com/content/st_com/en/products/microcontrollers/stm32-32-bit- arm-cortex-mcus.html The STM32 family of 32-bit Flash microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M processor is designed to offer new degrees of freedom to MCU users. It offers a 32-bit product range that combines very high performance, real-time capabilities, digital signal processing, and low-power, low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development. The STM32 family of 32-bit Flash microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M processor is designed to offer new degrees of freedom to MCU users. It offers a 32-bit product range that combines very high performance, real-time capabilities, digital signal processing, and low-power, low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development. The STM32 family of 32-bit Flash microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M processor is designed to offer new degrees of freedom to MCU users. It offers a 32-bit product range that combines very high performance, real-time capabilities, digital signal processing, and low-power, low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development. The STM32 family of 32-bit Flash microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M processor is designed to offer new degrees of freedom to MCU users. It offers a 32-bit product range that combines very high performance, real-time capabilities, digital signal processing, and low-power, low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development. The STM32 family of 32-bit Flash microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M processor is designed to offer new degrees of freedom to MCU users. It offers a 32-bit product range that combines very high performance, real-time capabilities, digital signal processing, and low-power, low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development.
  15. 15. You can free to get own board, today!You can free to get own board, today!You can free to get own board, today!You can free to get own board, today!You can free to get own board, today! https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Nucleo-F091RC/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Nucleo-F091RC/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Nucleo-F091RC/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Nucleo-F091RC/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Nucleo-F091RC/ ☆ Board name: "NUCLEO-F091RC"☆ Board name: "NUCLEO-F091RC"☆ Board name: "NUCLEO-F091RC"☆ Board name: "NUCLEO-F091RC"☆ Board name: "NUCLEO-F091RC" ☆ ARM Cortex-M0 CPU / 256 KB Flash / 32 KB SRAM☆ ARM Cortex-M0 CPU / 256 KB Flash / 32 KB SRAM☆ ARM Cortex-M0 CPU / 256 KB Flash / 32 KB SRAM☆ ARM Cortex-M0 CPU / 256 KB Flash / 32 KB SRAM☆ ARM Cortex-M0 CPU / 256 KB Flash / 32 KB SRAM ☆ Include ADC / DAC / RTC / I2C / USART / SPI / CAN / HDMI CEC ☆ Include ADC / DAC / RTC / I2C / USART / SPI / CAN / HDMI CEC ☆ Include ADC / DAC / RTC / I2C / USART / SPI / CAN / HDMI CEC ☆ Include ADC / DAC / RTC / I2C / USART / SPI / CAN / HDMI CEC ☆ Include ADC / DAC / RTC / I2C / USART / SPI / CAN / HDMI CEC ☆ Download fiwmware and debug it using GDB☆ Download fiwmware and debug it using GDB☆ Download fiwmware and debug it using GDB☆ Download fiwmware and debug it using GDB☆ Download fiwmware and debug it using GDB ☆ Thanks a lot, STMicroelectronics!☆ Thanks a lot, STMicroelectronics!☆ Thanks a lot, STMicroelectronics!☆ Thanks a lot, STMicroelectronics!☆ Thanks a lot, STMicroelectronics!
  16. 16. How to run application? #WindowsHow to run application? #WindowsHow to run application? #WindowsHow to run application? #WindowsHow to run application? #Windows ☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and download application into the board: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and download application into the board: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and download application into the board: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and download application into the board: ☆ Open cygwin terminal, and download application into the board: $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash ☆ Open serial console using TeraTerm with baud rate 9600 ☆ Open serial console using TeraTerm with baud rate 9600 ☆ Open serial console using TeraTerm with baud rate 9600 ☆ Open serial console using TeraTerm with baud rate 9600 ☆ Open serial console using TeraTerm with baud rate 9600 ☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board
  17. 17. How to run application? #macOSHow to run application? #macOSHow to run application? #macOSHow to run application? #macOSHow to run application? #macOS ☆ Connect the board to your Mac using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your Mac using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your Mac using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your Mac using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your Mac using USB cable ☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board: $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash ☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console: $�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/tty.usbmodem1423$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/tty.usbmodem1423$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/tty.usbmodem1423$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/tty.usbmodem1423$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/tty.usbmodem1423 ☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board
  18. 18. How to run application? #LinuxHow to run application? #LinuxHow to run application? #LinuxHow to run application? #LinuxHow to run application? #Linux ☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable☆ Connect the board to your PC using USB cable ☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board:☆ Download application into the board: $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�flash ☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console:☆ Open serial console: $�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/ttyACM0$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/ttyACM0$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/ttyACM0$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/ttyACM0$�picocom�-b�9600�/dev/ttyACM0 ☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board☆ Push "USER" button on the board
  19. 19. Do you see test log of ChibiOS/RT?Do you see test log of ChibiOS/RT?Do you see test log of ChibiOS/RT?Do you see test log of ChibiOS/RT?Do you see test log of ChibiOS/RT? ☆ You will see following log on serial console:☆ You will see following log on serial console:☆ You will see following log on serial console:☆ You will see following log on serial console:☆ You will see following log on serial console: ***�ChibiOS/RT�test�suite *** ***�Kernel:�������3.1.5 ***�Compiled:�����Jan�15�2017�-�20:38:01 ***�Compiler:�����GCC�4.8.4�20140725�(release)�[ARM/embedded-4_8-branch� revision�213147] ***�Architecture:�ARMv6-M ***�Core�Variant:�Cortex-M0 ***�Port�Info:����Preemption�through�NMI ***�Platform:�����STM32F091xC�Entry�Level�Access�Line�devices ***�Test�Board:���STMicroelectronics�NUCLEO-F091RC ***�ChibiOS/RT�test�suite *** ***�Kernel:�������3.1.5 ***�Compiled:�����Jan�15�2017�-�20:38:01 ***�Compiler:�����GCC�4.8.4�20140725�(release)�[ARM/embedded-4_8-branch� revision�213147] ***�Architecture:�ARMv6-M ***�Core�Variant:�Cortex-M0 ***�Port�Info:����Preemption�through�NMI ***�Platform:�����STM32F091xC�Entry�Level�Access�Line�devices ***�Test�Board:���STMicroelectronics�NUCLEO-F091RC ***�ChibiOS/RT�test�suite *** ***�Kernel:�������3.1.5 ***�Compiled:�����Jan�15�2017�-�20:38:01 ***�Compiler:�����GCC�4.8.4�20140725�(release)�[ARM/embedded-4_8-branch� revision�213147] ***�Architecture:�ARMv6-M ***�Core�Variant:�Cortex-M0 ***�Port�Info:����Preemption�through�NMI ***�Platform:�����STM32F091xC�Entry�Level�Access�Line�devices ***�Test�Board:���STMicroelectronics�NUCLEO-F091RC ***�ChibiOS/RT�test�suite *** ***�Kernel:�������3.1.5 ***�Compiled:�����Jan�15�2017�-�20:38:01 ***�Compiler:�����GCC�4.8.4�20140725�(release)�[ARM/embedded-4_8-branch� revision�213147] ***�Architecture:�ARMv6-M ***�Core�Variant:�Cortex-M0 ***�Port�Info:����Preemption�through�NMI ***�Platform:�����STM32F091xC�Entry�Level�Access�Line�devices ***�Test�Board:���STMicroelectronics�NUCLEO-F091RC ***�ChibiOS/RT�test�suite *** ***�Kernel:�������3.1.5 ***�Compiled:�����Jan�15�2017�-�20:38:01 ***�Compiler:�����GCC�4.8.4�20140725�(release)�[ARM/embedded-4_8-branch� revision�213147] ***�Architecture:�ARMv6-M ***�Core�Variant:�Cortex-M0 ***�Port�Info:����Preemption�through�NMI ***�Platform:�����STM32F091xC�Entry�Level�Access�Line�devices ***�Test�Board:���STMicroelectronics�NUCLEO-F091RC
  20. 20. Coffee break #2Coffee break #2Coffee break #2Coffee break #2Coffee break #2
  21. 21. What's VeriFast?What's VeriFast?What's VeriFast?What's VeriFast?What's VeriFast? ☆ https://github.com/verifast/verifast☆ https://github.com/verifast/verifast☆ https://github.com/verifast/verifast☆ https://github.com/verifast/verifast☆ https://github.com/verifast/verifast ☆ A verifier for single-threaded and multi- threaded C and Java language programs annotated with preconditions and postconditions written in separation logic. ☆ A verifier for single-threaded and multi- threaded C and Java language programs annotated with preconditions and postconditions written in separation logic. ☆ A verifier for single-threaded and multi- threaded C and Java language programs annotated with preconditions and postconditions written in separation logic. ☆ A verifier for single-threaded and multi- threaded C and Java language programs annotated with preconditions and postconditions written in separation logic. ☆ A verifier for single-threaded and multi- threaded C and Java language programs annotated with preconditions and postconditions written in separation logic. ☆ VeriFast avoids illegal memory accesses such like buffer overflow. ☆ VeriFast avoids illegal memory accesses such like buffer overflow. ☆ VeriFast avoids illegal memory accesses such like buffer overflow. ☆ VeriFast avoids illegal memory accesses such like buffer overflow. ☆ VeriFast avoids illegal memory accesses such like buffer overflow. ☆ VeriFast is easy to use with own graphical IDE.☆ VeriFast is easy to use with own graphical IDE.☆ VeriFast is easy to use with own graphical IDE.☆ VeriFast is easy to use with own graphical IDE.☆ VeriFast is easy to use with own graphical IDE.
  22. 22. Get started with simple exampleGet started with simple exampleGet started with simple exampleGet started with simple exampleGet started with simple example //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����//if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Not�checked! ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����//if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Not�checked! ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����//if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Not�checked! ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����//if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Not�checked! ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ int�balance; }; int�main() //@�requires�true; //@�ensures�true; { struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); //if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Not�checked! ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; }
  23. 23. Example is compilable and runnable...Example is compilable and runnable...Example is compilable and runnable...Example is compilable and runnable...Example is compilable and runnable... $�gcc�--version gcc�(Debian�6.3.0-18)�6.3.0�20170516 Copyright�(C)�2016�Free�Software�Foundation,�Inc. This�is�free�software;�see�the�source�for�copying�conditions.��There�is�NO warranty;�not�even�for�MERCHANTABILITY�or�FITNESS�FOR�A�PARTICULAR�PURPOSE. $�gcc�-Wall�-Wextra�illegal_access.c�#�<=�No�error�shown $�./a.out����������������������������#�<=�No�segmentation�fault $�gcc�--version gcc�(Debian�6.3.0-18)�6.3.0�20170516 Copyright�(C)�2016�Free�Software�Foundation,�Inc. This�is�free�software;�see�the�source�for�copying�conditions.��There�is�NO warranty;�not�even�for�MERCHANTABILITY�or�FITNESS�FOR�A�PARTICULAR�PURPOSE. $�gcc�-Wall�-Wextra�illegal_access.c�#�<=�No�error�shown $�./a.out����������������������������#�<=�No�segmentation�fault $�gcc�--version gcc�(Debian�6.3.0-18)�6.3.0�20170516 Copyright�(C)�2016�Free�Software�Foundation,�Inc. This�is�free�software;�see�the�source�for�copying�conditions.��There�is�NO warranty;�not�even�for�MERCHANTABILITY�or�FITNESS�FOR�A�PARTICULAR�PURPOSE. $�gcc�-Wall�-Wextra�illegal_access.c�#�<=�No�error�shown $�./a.out����������������������������#�<=�No�segmentation�fault $�gcc�--version gcc�(Debian�6.3.0-18)�6.3.0�20170516 Copyright�(C)�2016�Free�Software�Foundation,�Inc. This�is�free�software;�see�the�source�for�copying�conditions.��There�is�NO warranty;�not�even�for�MERCHANTABILITY�or�FITNESS�FOR�A�PARTICULAR�PURPOSE. $�gcc�-Wall�-Wextra�illegal_access.c�#�<=�No�error�shown $�./a.out����������������������������#�<=�No�segmentation�fault $�gcc�--version gcc�(Debian�6.3.0-18)�6.3.0�20170516 Copyright�(C)�2016�Free�Software�Foundation,�Inc. This�is�free�software;�see�the�source�for�copying�conditions.��There�is�NO warranty;�not�even�for�MERCHANTABILITY�or�FITNESS�FOR�A�PARTICULAR�PURPOSE. $�gcc�-Wall�-Wextra�illegal_access.c�#�<=�No�error�shown $�./a.out����������������������������#�<=�No�segmentation�fault
  24. 24. But SEGV occurs if malloc return NULLBut SEGV occurs if malloc return NULLBut SEGV occurs if malloc return NULLBut SEGV occurs if malloc return NULLBut SEGV occurs if malloc return NULL $�w3m�http://www.nongnu.org/failmalloc/ $�wget�http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/failmalloc/ failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�tar�xf�failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�(cd�failmalloc-1.0�&&�./configure�&&�make�&&�sudo�make�install) $�gcc�-Wall�illegal_access.c $�env�LD_PRELOAD=libfailmalloc.so�./a.out Segmentation�fault $�w3m�http://www.nongnu.org/failmalloc/ $�wget�http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/failmalloc/ failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�tar�xf�failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�(cd�failmalloc-1.0�&&�./configure�&&�make�&&�sudo�make�install) $�gcc�-Wall�illegal_access.c $�env�LD_PRELOAD=libfailmalloc.so�./a.out Segmentation�fault $�w3m�http://www.nongnu.org/failmalloc/ $�wget�http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/failmalloc/ failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�tar�xf�failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�(cd�failmalloc-1.0�&&�./configure�&&�make�&&�sudo�make�install) $�gcc�-Wall�illegal_access.c $�env�LD_PRELOAD=libfailmalloc.so�./a.out Segmentation�fault $�w3m�http://www.nongnu.org/failmalloc/ $�wget�http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/failmalloc/ failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�tar�xf�failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�(cd�failmalloc-1.0�&&�./configure�&&�make�&&�sudo�make�install) $�gcc�-Wall�illegal_access.c $�env�LD_PRELOAD=libfailmalloc.so�./a.out Segmentation�fault $�w3m�http://www.nongnu.org/failmalloc/ $�wget�http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/failmalloc/ failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�tar�xf�failmalloc-1.0.tar.gz $�(cd�failmalloc-1.0�&&�./configure�&&�make�&&�sudo�make�install) $�gcc�-Wall�illegal_access.c $�env�LD_PRELOAD=libfailmalloc.so�./a.out Segmentation�fault
  25. 25. How to verify the simple example?How to verify the simple example?How to verify the simple example?How to verify the simple example?How to verify the simple example? Run "vfide" command on your terminal:Run "vfide" command on your terminal:Run "vfide" command on your terminal:Run "vfide" command on your terminal:Run "vfide" command on your terminal: $�vfide�illegal_access.c$�vfide�illegal_access.c$�vfide�illegal_access.c$�vfide�illegal_access.c$�vfide�illegal_access.c You should see "No matching heap chunks" error, after push "Verify" button. You should see "No matching heap chunks" error, after push "Verify" button. You should see "No matching heap chunks" error, after push "Verify" button. You should see "No matching heap chunks" error, after push "Verify" button. You should see "No matching heap chunks" error, after push "Verify" button.
  26. 26. How to fix the error?How to fix the error?How to fix the error?How to fix the error?How to fix the error? //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c�--�fixed #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Uncomment ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c�--�fixed #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Uncomment ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c�--�fixed #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Uncomment ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c�--�fixed #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ ����int�balance; }; int�main() ����//@�requires�true; ����//@�ensures�true; { ����struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Uncomment ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; } //�File:�verifast/tutorial_solutions/illegal_access.c�--�fixed #include�"stdlib.h" struct�account�{ int�balance; }; int�main() //@�requires�true; //@�ensures�true; { struct�account�*myAccount�=�malloc(sizeof(struct�account)); ����if�(myAccount�==�0)�{�abort();�}�//�Uncomment ����myAccount->balance�=�5; ����free(myAccount); ����return�0; }
  27. 27. Yeah, get green on verification!Yeah, get green on verification!Yeah, get green on verification!Yeah, get green on verification!Yeah, get green on verification!
  28. 28. Why capture the error on verification?Why capture the error on verification?Why capture the error on verification?Why capture the error on verification?Why capture the error on verification? VeriFast has own header to define malloc():VeriFast has own header to define malloc():VeriFast has own header to define malloc():VeriFast has own header to define malloc():VeriFast has own header to define malloc(): //�File:�verifast/bin/malloc.h void�*malloc(int�size); ����//@�requires�0�<=�size; ����/*@ ����ensures ��������result�==�0�? ������������emp ��������: ������������chars(result,�size,�?cs)�&*&�malloc_block(result,�size)�&*& ������������true�==�((char�*)0�<�result�&& ���������������������result�+�size�<=�(char�*)UINTPTR_MAX); ����@*/ //�File:�verifast/bin/malloc.h void�*malloc(int�size); ����//@�requires�0�<=�size; ����/*@ ����ensures ��������result�==�0�? ������������emp ��������: ������������chars(result,�size,�?cs)�&*&�malloc_block(result,�size)�&*& ������������true�==�((char�*)0�<�result�&& ���������������������result�+�size�<=�(char�*)UINTPTR_MAX); ����@*/ //�File:�verifast/bin/malloc.h void�*malloc(int�size); ����//@�requires�0�<=�size; ����/*@ ����ensures ��������result�==�0�? ������������emp ��������: ������������chars(result,�size,�?cs)�&*&�malloc_block(result,�size)�&*& ������������true�==�((char�*)0�<�result�&& ���������������������result�+�size�<=�(char�*)UINTPTR_MAX); ����@*/ //�File:�verifast/bin/malloc.h void�*malloc(int�size); ����//@�requires�0�<=�size; ����/*@ ����ensures ��������result�==�0�? ������������emp ��������: ������������chars(result,�size,�?cs)�&*&�malloc_block(result,�size)�&*& ������������true�==�((char�*)0�<�result�&& ���������������������result�+�size�<=�(char�*)UINTPTR_MAX); ����@*/ //�File:�verifast/bin/malloc.h void�*malloc(int�size); //@�requires�0�<=�size; /*@ ����ensures ��������result�==�0�? ������������emp ��������: ������������chars(result,�size,�?cs)�&*&�malloc_block(result,�size)�&*& ������������true�==�((char�*)0�<�result�&& ���������������������result�+�size�<=�(char�*)UINTPTR_MAX); ����@*/
  29. 29. How to verify ChibiOS/RT application?How to verify ChibiOS/RT application?How to verify ChibiOS/RT application?How to verify ChibiOS/RT application?How to verify ChibiOS/RT application? Run GNU make on your terminal:Run GNU make on your terminal:Run GNU make on your terminal:Run GNU make on your terminal:Run GNU make on your terminal: $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�vfide $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�vfide $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�vfide $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�vfide $�cd�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO $�make�vfide
  30. 30. What's invariant on ChibiOS/RT?What's invariant on ChibiOS/RT?What's invariant on ChibiOS/RT?What's invariant on ChibiOS/RT?What's invariant on ChibiOS/RT? ☆ ChibiOS/RT has own system states☆ ChibiOS/RT has own system states☆ ChibiOS/RT has own system states☆ ChibiOS/RT has own system states☆ ChibiOS/RT has own system states
  31. 31. The state chart means some invariantThe state chart means some invariantThe state chart means some invariantThe state chart means some invariantThe state chart means some invariant ☆ Application starts at "Init" state☆ Application starts at "Init" state☆ Application starts at "Init" state☆ Application starts at "Init" state☆ Application starts at "Init" state ☆ Change into "HALInited" state calling halInit()☆ Change into "HALInited" state calling halInit()☆ Change into "HALInited" state calling halInit()☆ Change into "HALInited" state calling halInit()☆ Change into "HALInited" state calling halInit() ☆ Change into "Thread" state calling chSysInit()☆ Change into "Thread" state calling chSysInit()☆ Change into "Thread" state calling chSysInit()☆ Change into "Thread" state calling chSysInit()☆ Change into "Thread" state calling chSysInit() ☆ You can call some ChibiOS/RT API on "Thread" state ☆ You can call some ChibiOS/RT API on "Thread" state ☆ You can call some ChibiOS/RT API on "Thread" state ☆ You can call some ChibiOS/RT API on "Thread" state ☆ You can call some ChibiOS/RT API on "Thread" state But run-time error is caused by violation. We would like to capture it on verification using VeriFast. But run-time error is caused by violation. We would like to capture it on verification using VeriFast. But run-time error is caused by violation. We would like to capture it on verification using VeriFast. But run-time error is caused by violation. We would like to capture it on verification using VeriFast. But run-time error is caused by violation. We would like to capture it on verification using VeriFast.
  32. 32. Your code already has annotationYour code already has annotationYour code already has annotationYour code already has annotationYour code already has annotation $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ghost-chibios.gh --snip-- inductive�SystemState�= ��│�InitState ��│�HALInitedState ��│�ThreadState ��│�IRQSuspendedState ��│�IRQDisabledState ��│�IRQWaitState ��│�ISRState ��│�SLockedState ��│�ILockedState ��; predicate�chibios_sys_state_context(int�threadId;�SystemState�state); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ghost-chibios.gh --snip-- inductive�SystemState�= ��│�InitState ��│�HALInitedState ��│�ThreadState ��│�IRQSuspendedState ��│�IRQDisabledState ��│�IRQWaitState ��│�ISRState ��│�SLockedState ��│�ILockedState ��; predicate�chibios_sys_state_context(int�threadId;�SystemState�state); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ghost-chibios.gh --snip-- inductive�SystemState�= ��│�InitState ��│�HALInitedState ��│�ThreadState ��│�IRQSuspendedState ��│�IRQDisabledState ��│�IRQWaitState ��│�ISRState ��│�SLockedState ��│�ILockedState ��; predicate�chibios_sys_state_context(int�threadId;�SystemState�state); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ghost-chibios.gh --snip-- inductive�SystemState�= ��│�InitState ��│�HALInitedState ��│�ThreadState ��│�IRQSuspendedState ��│�IRQDisabledState ��│�IRQWaitState ��│�ISRState ��│�SLockedState ��│�ILockedState ��; predicate�chibios_sys_state_context(int�threadId;�SystemState�state); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ghost-chibios.gh --snip-- inductive�SystemState�= ��│�InitState ��│�HALInitedState ��│�ThreadState ��│�IRQSuspendedState ��│�IRQDisabledState ��│�IRQWaitState ��│�ISRState ��│�SLockedState ��│�ILockedState ��; predicate�chibios_sys_state_context(int�threadId;�SystemState�state);
  33. 33. ChibiOS/RT API has pre/postconditionChibiOS/RT API has pre/postconditionChibiOS/RT API has pre/postconditionChibiOS/RT API has pre/postconditionChibiOS/RT API has pre/postcondition $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/hal.h --snip-- void�halInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ch.h --snip-- void�chSysInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); void�chThdSleepMilliseconds(uint32_t�msec); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/hal.h --snip-- void�halInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ch.h --snip-- void�chSysInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); void�chThdSleepMilliseconds(uint32_t�msec); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/hal.h --snip-- void�halInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ch.h --snip-- void�chSysInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); void�chThdSleepMilliseconds(uint32_t�msec); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/hal.h --snip-- void�halInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ch.h --snip-- void�chSysInit(void); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); void�chThdSleepMilliseconds(uint32_t�msec); ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ����//@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/hal.h --snip-- void�halInit(void); //@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); //@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_inc/ch.h --snip-- void�chSysInit(void); //@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�HALInitedState); //@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); void�chThdSleepMilliseconds(uint32_t�msec); //@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); //@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState);
  34. 34. Let's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotation $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO/main.c int�main(void) ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�false; { ��chSysInit();�//�<===�SWAP! ��halInit();���//�<===�SWAP! ��sdStart(&SD2,�NULL); ��chThdCreateStatic(waThread1,�THD_WORKING_AREA_SIZE(128),�NORMALPRIO,� Thread1,�NULL); ��while�(true) ����//@�invariant�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ��{ ����if�(!palReadPad(GPIOC,�GPIOC_BUTTON)) ������TestThread(&SD2); ����chThdSleepMilliseconds(500); $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO/main.c int�main(void) ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�false; { ��chSysInit();�//�<===�SWAP! ��halInit();���//�<===�SWAP! ��sdStart(&SD2,�NULL); ��chThdCreateStatic(waThread1,�THD_WORKING_AREA_SIZE(128),�NORMALPRIO,� Thread1,�NULL); ��while�(true) ����//@�invariant�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ��{ ����if�(!palReadPad(GPIOC,�GPIOC_BUTTON)) ������TestThread(&SD2); ����chThdSleepMilliseconds(500); $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO/main.c int�main(void) ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�false; { ��chSysInit();�//�<===�SWAP! ��halInit();���//�<===�SWAP! ��sdStart(&SD2,�NULL); ��chThdCreateStatic(waThread1,�THD_WORKING_AREA_SIZE(128),�NORMALPRIO,� Thread1,�NULL); ��while�(true) ����//@�invariant�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ��{ ����if�(!palReadPad(GPIOC,�GPIOC_BUTTON)) ������TestThread(&SD2); ����chThdSleepMilliseconds(500); $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO/main.c int�main(void) ����//@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); ����//@�ensures�false; { ��chSysInit();�//�<===�SWAP! ��halInit();���//�<===�SWAP! ��sdStart(&SD2,�NULL); ��chThdCreateStatic(waThread1,�THD_WORKING_AREA_SIZE(128),�NORMALPRIO,� Thread1,�NULL); ��while�(true) ����//@�invariant�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ��{ ����if�(!palReadPad(GPIOC,�GPIOC_BUTTON)) ������TestThread(&SD2); ����chThdSleepMilliseconds(500); $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F091RC-NUCLEO/main.c int�main(void) //@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�InitState); //@�ensures�false; { ��chSysInit();�//�<===�SWAP! ��halInit();���//�<===�SWAP! ��sdStart(&SD2,�NULL); ��chThdCreateStatic(waThread1,�THD_WORKING_AREA_SIZE(128),�NORMALPRIO,� Thread1,�NULL); ��while�(true) //@�invariant�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState); ��{ ����if�(!palReadPad(GPIOC,�GPIOC_BUTTON)) ������TestThread(&SD2); ����chThdSleepMilliseconds(500);
  35. 35. Then you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verification
  36. 36. More complex application #1More complex application #1More complex application #1More complex application #1More complex application #1 https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Discovery-F746NG/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Discovery-F746NG/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Discovery-F746NG/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Discovery-F746NG/https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/ST-Discovery-F746NG/ ☆ Board name: "DISCO-F746NG"☆ Board name: "DISCO-F746NG"☆ Board name: "DISCO-F746NG"☆ Board name: "DISCO-F746NG"☆ Board name: "DISCO-F746NG" ☆ ChibiOS/RT application shows directories and files on SD card onto serial console ☆ ChibiOS/RT application shows directories and files on SD card onto serial console ☆ ChibiOS/RT application shows directories and files on SD card onto serial console ☆ ChibiOS/RT application shows directories and files on SD card onto serial console ☆ ChibiOS/RT application shows directories and files on SD card onto serial console ☆ Two functions are already verified☆ Two functions are already verified☆ Two functions are already verified☆ Two functions are already verified☆ Two functions are already verified ☆ First: tmrfunc() run on "ISR" state☆ First: tmrfunc() run on "ISR" state☆ First: tmrfunc() run on "ISR" state☆ First: tmrfunc() run on "ISR" state☆ First: tmrfunc() run on "ISR" state ☆ Second: tmr_init() run on "Thread" state☆ Second: tmr_init() run on "Thread" state☆ Second: tmr_init() run on "Thread" state☆ Second: tmr_init() run on "Thread" state☆ Second: tmr_init() run on "Thread" state
  37. 37. More complex application #2More complex application #2More complex application #2More complex application #2More complex application #2 ☆ These functions use some APIs which have following invariant: ☆ These functions use some APIs which have following invariant: ☆ These functions use some APIs which have following invariant: ☆ These functions use some APIs which have following invariant: ☆ These functions use some APIs which have following invariant: *�chEvtBroadcastI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chVTSetI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chSysLock()�should�be�called�on�"Thread"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"S-Locked" *�chSysUnlock()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"Thread" *�chSysLockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"ISR"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"I-Locked" *�chSysUnlockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"I-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"ISR" *�chEvtBroadcastI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chVTSetI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chSysLock()�should�be�called�on�"Thread"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"S-Locked" *�chSysUnlock()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"Thread" *�chSysLockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"ISR"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"I-Locked" *�chSysUnlockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"I-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"ISR" *�chEvtBroadcastI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chVTSetI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chSysLock()�should�be�called�on�"Thread"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"S-Locked" *�chSysUnlock()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"Thread" *�chSysLockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"ISR"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"I-Locked" *�chSysUnlockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"I-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"ISR" *�chEvtBroadcastI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chVTSetI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chSysLock()�should�be�called�on�"Thread"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"S-Locked" *�chSysUnlock()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"Thread" *�chSysLockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"ISR"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"I-Locked" *�chSysUnlockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"I-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"ISR" *�chEvtBroadcastI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chVTSetI()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�or�"I-Locked"�state *�chSysLock()�should�be�called�on�"Thread"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"S-Locked" *�chSysUnlock()�should�be�called�on�"S-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"Thread" *�chSysLockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"ISR"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"I-Locked" *�chSysUnlockFromISR()�should�be�called�on�"I-Locked"�state, ��and�change�state�into�"ISR"
  38. 38. More complex application #3More complex application #3More complex application #3More complex application #3More complex application #3 $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP- FATFS-USB/verified/verified.c --snip-- static�int�cnt; --snip-- static�void�tmrfunc(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�?count); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP- FATFS-USB/verified/verified.c --snip-- static�int�cnt; --snip-- static�void�tmrfunc(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�?count); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP- FATFS-USB/verified/verified.c --snip-- static�int�cnt; --snip-- static�void�tmrfunc(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�?count); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP- FATFS-USB/verified/verified.c --snip-- static�int�cnt; --snip-- static�void�tmrfunc(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�?count); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ --snip-- $�cat�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP- FATFS-USB/verified/verified.c --snip-- static int�cnt; --snip-- static void�tmrfunc(void�*p) /*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�?count); ���@*/ /*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ --snip--
  39. 39. More complex application #4More complex application #4More complex application #4More complex application #4More complex application #4 --snip-- void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�10); ���@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; --snip-- --snip-- void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�10); ���@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; --snip-- --snip-- void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�10); ���@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; --snip-- --snip-- void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ ���/*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�10); ���@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; --snip-- --snip-- void�tmr_init(void�*p) /*@ �������requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�_); ���@*/ /*@ �������ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ThreadState)�&*& �����������integer(&cnt,�10); ���@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; --snip--
  40. 40. You can see symbolic execution treeYou can see symbolic execution treeYou can see symbolic execution treeYou can see symbolic execution treeYou can see symbolic execution tree ☆ Please set off "Check arithmetic overflow" on "Verify" menu ☆ Please set off "Check arithmetic overflow" on "Verify" menu ☆ Please set off "Check arithmetic overflow" on "Verify" menu ☆ Please set off "Check arithmetic overflow" on "Verify" menu ☆ Please set off "Check arithmetic overflow" on "Verify" menu ☆ Push "Verify" button.☆ Push "Verify" button.☆ Push "Verify" button.☆ Push "Verify" button.☆ Push "Verify" button. ☆ Drag the right-hand border of the VeriFast window to the left ☆ Drag the right-hand border of the VeriFast window to the left ☆ Drag the right-hand border of the VeriFast window to the left ☆ Drag the right-hand border of the VeriFast window to the left ☆ Drag the right-hand border of the VeriFast window to the left ☆ Select "Verifying function 'tmrfunc'" item☆ Select "Verifying function 'tmrfunc'" item☆ Select "Verifying function 'tmrfunc'" item☆ Select "Verifying function 'tmrfunc'" item☆ Select "Verifying function 'tmrfunc'" item ☆ Click dots on the pane to follow symbolic execution tree ☆ Click dots on the pane to follow symbolic execution tree ☆ Click dots on the pane to follow symbolic execution tree ☆ Click dots on the pane to follow symbolic execution tree ☆ Click dots on the pane to follow symbolic execution tree
  41. 41. Let's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotationLet's violate the annotation $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS- USB/verified/verified.c void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&� integer(&cnt,�?count);�@*/ ���/*@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&�integer (&cnt,�_);�@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; ��systime_t�st�=�MS2ST(POLLING_DELAY); ��chSysUnlock();������������������//�<===�SWAP! ��chVTSetI(&tmr,�st,�tmrfunc,�p);�//�<===�SWAP! } $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS- USB/verified/verified.c void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&� integer(&cnt,�?count);�@*/ ���/*@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&�integer (&cnt,�_);�@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; ��systime_t�st�=�MS2ST(POLLING_DELAY); ��chSysUnlock();������������������//�<===�SWAP! ��chVTSetI(&tmr,�st,�tmrfunc,�p);�//�<===�SWAP! } $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS- USB/verified/verified.c void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&� integer(&cnt,�?count);�@*/ ���/*@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&�integer (&cnt,�_);�@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; ��systime_t�st�=�MS2ST(POLLING_DELAY); ��chSysUnlock();������������������//�<===�SWAP! ��chVTSetI(&tmr,�st,�tmrfunc,�p);�//�<===�SWAP! } $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS- USB/verified/verified.c void�tmr_init(void�*p) ���/*@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&� integer(&cnt,�?count);�@*/ ���/*@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&�integer (&cnt,�_);�@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; ��systime_t�st�=�MS2ST(POLLING_DELAY); ��chSysUnlock();������������������//�<===�SWAP! ��chVTSetI(&tmr,�st,�tmrfunc,�p);�//�<===�SWAP! } $�vi�chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS- USB/verified/verified.c void�tmr_init(void�*p) /*@�requires�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&� integer(&cnt,�?count);�@*/ /*@�ensures�chibios_sys_state_context(currentThread,�ISRState)�&*&�integer (&cnt,�_);�@*/ { ��chEvtObjectInit(&inserted_event); ��chEvtObjectInit(&removed_event); ��chSysLock(); ��cnt�=�POLLING_INTERVAL; ��systime_t�st�=�MS2ST(POLLING_DELAY); ��chSysUnlock();������������������//�<===�SWAP! ��chVTSetI(&tmr,�st,�tmrfunc,�p);�//�<===�SWAP! }
  42. 42. Then you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verificationThen you will see error on verification
  43. 43. Difference on VeriFast and Frama-C?Difference on VeriFast and Frama-C?Difference on VeriFast and Frama-C?Difference on VeriFast and Frama-C?Difference on VeriFast and Frama-C? "What�is�difference�between�VeriFast�and�Frama-C?" https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/verifast/xbUHyhPjAe4 "What�is�difference�between�VeriFast�and�Frama-C?" https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/verifast/xbUHyhPjAe4 "What�is�difference�between�VeriFast�and�Frama-C?" https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/verifast/xbUHyhPjAe4 "What�is�difference�between�VeriFast�and�Frama-C?" https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/verifast/xbUHyhPjAe4 "What�is�difference�between�VeriFast�and�Frama-C?" https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/verifast/xbUHyhPjAe4 ☆ WP plugin on Frama-C is similar to VeriFast☆ WP plugin on Frama-C is similar to VeriFast☆ WP plugin on Frama-C is similar to VeriFast☆ WP plugin on Frama-C is similar to VeriFast☆ WP plugin on Frama-C is similar to VeriFast ☆ WP and VeriFast have difference to deal with pointers ☆ WP and VeriFast have difference to deal with pointers ☆ WP and VeriFast have difference to deal with pointers ☆ WP and VeriFast have difference to deal with pointers ☆ WP and VeriFast have difference to deal with pointers ☆ WP maintains pointers on own memory model (first-order logic) ☆ WP maintains pointers on own memory model (first-order logic) ☆ WP maintains pointers on own memory model (first-order logic) ☆ WP maintains pointers on own memory model (first-order logic) ☆ WP maintains pointers on own memory model (first-order logic) ☆ VeriFast maintins pointers on separation logic☆ VeriFast maintins pointers on separation logic☆ VeriFast maintins pointers on separation logic☆ VeriFast maintins pointers on separation logic☆ VeriFast maintins pointers on separation logic
  44. 44. HomeworkHomeworkHomeworkHomeworkHomework ☆ Get done with verifying entirely on following code. ☆ Get done with verifying entirely on following code. ☆ Get done with verifying entirely on following code. ☆ Get done with verifying entirely on following code. ☆ Get done with verifying entirely on following code. chibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS-USBchibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS-USBchibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS-USBchibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS-USBchibios-verifast/verifast_demo/STM32/RT-STM32F746G-DISCOVERY-LWIP-FATFS-USB ☆ Capture more invariant on ChibiOS/RT application (e.g. changing of global variable). ☆ Capture more invariant on ChibiOS/RT application (e.g. changing of global variable). ☆ Capture more invariant on ChibiOS/RT application (e.g. changing of global variable). ☆ Capture more invariant on ChibiOS/RT application (e.g. changing of global variable). ☆ Capture more invariant on ChibiOS/RT application (e.g. changing of global variable).
  45. 45. For more informationFor more informationFor more informationFor more informationFor more information ##�In�English "The�VeriFast�Program�Verifier:�A�Tutorial" https://people.cs.kuleuven.be/~bart.jacobs/verifast/tutorial.pdf ##�In�Japanese �プログラム検証器�VeriFast:�チュートリアル� https://github.com/jverifast-ug/translate/blob/master/Manual/Tutorial/ Tutorial.md "TPPMark2016�を解きながら学ぶ�VeriFast" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/tppmark2016-wojie-kinagaraxue-bu-verifast "VeriFast�Termination�Checking�Introduction(α)" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/verifast-termination-checking-introduction-a ##�In�English "The�VeriFast�Program�Verifier:�A�Tutorial" https://people.cs.kuleuven.be/~bart.jacobs/verifast/tutorial.pdf ##�In�Japanese �プログラム検証器�VeriFast:�チュートリアル� https://github.com/jverifast-ug/translate/blob/master/Manual/Tutorial/ Tutorial.md "TPPMark2016�を解きながら学ぶ�VeriFast" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/tppmark2016-wojie-kinagaraxue-bu-verifast "VeriFast�Termination�Checking�Introduction(α)" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/verifast-termination-checking-introduction-a ##�In�English "The�VeriFast�Program�Verifier:�A�Tutorial" https://people.cs.kuleuven.be/~bart.jacobs/verifast/tutorial.pdf ##�In�Japanese �プログラム検証器�VeriFast:�チュートリアル� https://github.com/jverifast-ug/translate/blob/master/Manual/Tutorial/ Tutorial.md "TPPMark2016�を解きながら学ぶ�VeriFast" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/tppmark2016-wojie-kinagaraxue-bu-verifast "VeriFast�Termination�Checking�Introduction(α)" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/verifast-termination-checking-introduction-a ##�In�English "The�VeriFast�Program�Verifier:�A�Tutorial" https://people.cs.kuleuven.be/~bart.jacobs/verifast/tutorial.pdf ##�In�Japanese �プログラム検証器�VeriFast:�チュートリアル� https://github.com/jverifast-ug/translate/blob/master/Manual/Tutorial/ Tutorial.md "TPPMark2016�を解きながら学ぶ�VeriFast" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/tppmark2016-wojie-kinagaraxue-bu-verifast "VeriFast�Termination�Checking�Introduction(α)" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/verifast-termination-checking-introduction-a ##�In�English "The�VeriFast�Program�Verifier:�A�Tutorial" https://people.cs.kuleuven.be/~bart.jacobs/verifast/tutorial.pdf ##�In�Japanese �プログラム検証器 VeriFast:�チュートリアル� https://github.com/jverifast-ug/translate/blob/master/Manual/Tutorial/ Tutorial.md "TPPMark2016�を解きながら学ぶ VeriFast" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/tppmark2016-wojie-kinagaraxue-bu-verifast "VeriFast�Termination�Checking�Introduction(α)" https://speakerdeck.com/eldesh/verifast-termination-checking-introduction-a
  46. 46. 簡約!? λカ娘10 @ 参照透明な海を守る会簡約!? λカ娘10 @ 参照透明な海を守る会簡約!? λカ娘10 @ 参照透明な海を守る会簡約!? λカ娘10 @ 参照透明な海を守る会簡約!? λカ娘10 @ 参照透明な海を守る会 ☆ コミックマーケット92 - 1日⽬ ⾦曜日 東た11b☆ コミックマーケット92 - 1日⽬ ⾦曜日 東た11b☆ コミックマーケット92 - 1日⽬ ⾦曜日 東た11b☆ コミックマーケット92 - 1日⽬ ⾦曜日 東た11b☆ コミックマーケット92 - 1日⽬ ⾦曜日 東た11b ☆ http://www.paraiso-lang.org/ikmsm/books/ c92.html ☆ http://www.paraiso-lang.org/ikmsm/books/ c92.html ☆ http://www.paraiso-lang.org/ikmsm/books/ c92.html ☆ http://www.paraiso-lang.org/ikmsm/books/ c92.html ☆ http://www.paraiso-lang.org/ikmsm/books/ c92.html *�第1章�モナドとひも *�第2章�⽮澤にこ先輩と⼀緒にモナドモナド! *�第3章�Coqダンジョン:�底抜けの壺の夢 *�第4章�IST(Internal�Set�Theory)�⼊門�(後編) *�第5章�静的コード解析はいいぞ! *�第6章�VeriFastチュートリアル *�第1章�モナドとひも *�第2章�⽮澤にこ先輩と⼀緒にモナドモナド! *�第3章�Coqダンジョン:�底抜けの壺の夢 *�第4章�IST(Internal�Set�Theory)�⼊門�(後編) *�第5章�静的コード解析はいいぞ! *�第6章�VeriFastチュートリアル *�第1章�モナドとひも *�第2章�⽮澤にこ先輩と⼀緒にモナドモナド! *�第3章�Coqダンジョン:�底抜けの壺の夢 *�第4章�IST(Internal�Set�Theory)�⼊門�(後編) *�第5章�静的コード解析はいいぞ! *�第6章�VeriFastチュートリアル *�第1章�モナドとひも *�第2章�⽮澤にこ先輩と⼀緒にモナドモナド! *�第3章�Coqダンジョン:�底抜けの壺の夢 *�第4章�IST(Internal�Set�Theory)�⼊門�(後編) *�第5章�静的コード解析はいいぞ! *�第6章�VeriFastチュートリアル *�第1章 モナドとひも *�第2章 ⽮澤にこ先輩と⼀緒にモナドモナド! *�第3章 Coqダンジョン:�底抜けの壺の夢 *�第4章 IST(Internal�Set�Theory)�⼊門�(後編) *�第5章 静的コード解析はいいぞ! *�第6章 VeriFastチュートリアル
  47. 47. Special thanksSpecial thanksSpecial thanksSpecial thanksSpecial thanks ☆ STMicroelectronics provides STM32 boards.☆ STMicroelectronics provides STM32 boards.☆ STMicroelectronics provides STM32 boards.☆ STMicroelectronics provides STM32 boards.☆ STMicroelectronics provides STM32 boards. ☆ Fenrir Inc. provides this meeting room.☆ Fenrir Inc. provides this meeting room.☆ Fenrir Inc. provides this meeting room.☆ Fenrir Inc. provides this meeting room.☆ Fenrir Inc. provides this meeting room. ☆ @ruicc supports macOS environment.☆ @ruicc supports macOS environment.☆ @ruicc supports macOS environment.☆ @ruicc supports macOS environment.☆ @ruicc supports macOS environment. ☆ @eldesh supports Windows environment, and gives much advice for usage of VeriFast. ☆ @eldesh supports Windows environment, and gives much advice for usage of VeriFast. ☆ @eldesh supports Windows environment, and gives much advice for usage of VeriFast. ☆ @eldesh supports Windows environment, and gives much advice for usage of VeriFast. ☆ @eldesh supports Windows environment, and gives much advice for usage of VeriFast.
  48. 48. License of photos #1License of photos #1License of photos #1License of photos #1License of photos #1 *�Creative�Commons�BBB�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/steren/2732488224/ ��Copyright:�Steren�Giannini�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Microsoft�│�Microsoft�Store,�Connecticut,�12/2014�by�Mike�Mo��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeepersmedia/15966145248/ ��Copyright:�Mike�Mozart�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Mac�20th�anniversary�poster�#14:�iMac�│�The�last�in�the�seri��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2234474972/ ��Copyright:�Marcin�Wichary�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�I'm�determined�to�do�my�own�latte�art�one�day��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3457656569/ ��Copyright:�Kenny�Louie�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�Matt�Laugier�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/110206196@N06/14898090455/ ��Copyright:�Matt�Laugier�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Creative�Commons�BBB�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/steren/2732488224/ ��Copyright:�Steren�Giannini�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Microsoft�│�Microsoft�Store,�Connecticut,�12/2014�by�Mike�Mo��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeepersmedia/15966145248/ ��Copyright:�Mike�Mozart�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Mac�20th�anniversary�poster�#14:�iMac�│�The�last�in�the�seri��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2234474972/ ��Copyright:�Marcin�Wichary�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�I'm�determined�to�do�my�own�latte�art�one�day��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3457656569/ ��Copyright:�Kenny�Louie�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�Matt�Laugier�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/110206196@N06/14898090455/ ��Copyright:�Matt�Laugier�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Creative�Commons�BBB�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/steren/2732488224/ ��Copyright:�Steren�Giannini�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Microsoft�│�Microsoft�Store,�Connecticut,�12/2014�by�Mike�Mo��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeepersmedia/15966145248/ ��Copyright:�Mike�Mozart�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Mac�20th�anniversary�poster�#14:�iMac�│�The�last�in�the�seri��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2234474972/ ��Copyright:�Marcin�Wichary�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�I'm�determined�to�do�my�own�latte�art�one�day��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3457656569/ ��Copyright:�Kenny�Louie�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�Matt�Laugier�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/110206196@N06/14898090455/ ��Copyright:�Matt�Laugier�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Creative�Commons�BBB�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/steren/2732488224/ ��Copyright:�Steren�Giannini�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Microsoft�│�Microsoft�Store,�Connecticut,�12/2014�by�Mike�Mo��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeepersmedia/15966145248/ ��Copyright:�Mike�Mozart�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Mac�20th�anniversary�poster�#14:�iMac�│�The�last�in�the�seri��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2234474972/ ��Copyright:�Marcin�Wichary�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�I'm�determined�to�do�my�own�latte�art�one�day��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3457656569/ ��Copyright:�Kenny�Louie�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�Matt�Laugier�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/110206196@N06/14898090455/ ��Copyright:�Matt�Laugier�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Creative�Commons�BBB�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/steren/2732488224/ ��Copyright:�Steren�Giannini�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Microsoft�│�Microsoft�Store,�Connecticut,�12/2014�by�Mike�Mo��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeepersmedia/15966145248/ ��Copyright:�Mike�Mozart�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Mac�20th�anniversary�poster�#14:�iMac�│�The�last�in�the�seri��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2234474972/ ��Copyright:�Marcin�Wichary�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�I'm�determined�to�do�my�own�latte�art�one�day��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3457656569/ ��Copyright:�Kenny�Louie�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Coffee�break�│�Matt�Laugier�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/110206196@N06/14898090455/ ��Copyright:�Matt�Laugier�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0
  49. 49. License of photos #2License of photos #2License of photos #2License of photos #2License of photos #2 *�WGS7�DeltaIV�Liftoff�│�Shots�from�the�WGS7�DeltaIV�rocket�la��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mseeley1/19953519882/ ��Copyright:�Michael�Seeley�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Sumo�│�Better�Than�Bacon�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/slurm/3989895242/ ��Copyright:�Better�Than�Bacon�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Start�│�Start�up�│�CréAj�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/103939386@N07/15423955496/ ��Copyright:�CréAj�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�Homework�│�ejecutivoagresivo�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejecutivoagresivo/5872031749/ ��Copyright:�ejecutivoagresivo�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�ESAT�KULeuven�│�Pues�aquí�es�donde�trabajo�durante�estos�mes��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/juanvvc/4688054880/ ��Copyright:�Juan�V.�Vera�del�Campo�/�License:�CC�BY-SA�2.0 *�WGS7�DeltaIV�Liftoff�│�Shots�from�the�WGS7�DeltaIV�rocket�la��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mseeley1/19953519882/ ��Copyright:�Michael�Seeley�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Sumo�│�Better�Than�Bacon�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/slurm/3989895242/ ��Copyright:�Better�Than�Bacon�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Start�│�Start�up�│�CréAj�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/103939386@N07/15423955496/ ��Copyright:�CréAj�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�Homework�│�ejecutivoagresivo�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejecutivoagresivo/5872031749/ ��Copyright:�ejecutivoagresivo�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�ESAT�KULeuven�│�Pues�aquí�es�donde�trabajo�durante�estos�mes��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/juanvvc/4688054880/ ��Copyright:�Juan�V.�Vera�del�Campo�/�License:�CC�BY-SA�2.0 *�WGS7�DeltaIV�Liftoff�│�Shots�from�the�WGS7�DeltaIV�rocket�la��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mseeley1/19953519882/ ��Copyright:�Michael�Seeley�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Sumo�│�Better�Than�Bacon�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/slurm/3989895242/ ��Copyright:�Better�Than�Bacon�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Start�│�Start�up�│�CréAj�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/103939386@N07/15423955496/ ��Copyright:�CréAj�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�Homework�│�ejecutivoagresivo�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejecutivoagresivo/5872031749/ ��Copyright:�ejecutivoagresivo�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�ESAT�KULeuven�│�Pues�aquí�es�donde�trabajo�durante�estos�mes��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/juanvvc/4688054880/ ��Copyright:�Juan�V.�Vera�del�Campo�/�License:�CC�BY-SA�2.0 *�WGS7�DeltaIV�Liftoff�│�Shots�from�the�WGS7�DeltaIV�rocket�la��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mseeley1/19953519882/ ��Copyright:�Michael�Seeley�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Sumo�│�Better�Than�Bacon�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/slurm/3989895242/ ��Copyright:�Better�Than�Bacon�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Start�│�Start�up�│�CréAj�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/103939386@N07/15423955496/ ��Copyright:�CréAj�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�Homework�│�ejecutivoagresivo�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejecutivoagresivo/5872031749/ ��Copyright:�ejecutivoagresivo�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�ESAT�KULeuven�│�Pues�aquí�es�donde�trabajo�durante�estos�mes��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/juanvvc/4688054880/ ��Copyright:�Juan�V.�Vera�del�Campo�/�License:�CC�BY-SA�2.0 *�WGS7�DeltaIV�Liftoff�│�Shots�from�the�WGS7�DeltaIV�rocket�la��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/mseeley1/19953519882/ ��Copyright:�Michael�Seeley�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Sumo�│�Better�Than�Bacon�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/slurm/3989895242/ ��Copyright:�Better�Than�Bacon�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Start�│�Start�up�│�CréAj�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/103939386@N07/15423955496/ ��Copyright:�CréAj�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�Homework�│�ejecutivoagresivo�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejecutivoagresivo/5872031749/ ��Copyright:�ejecutivoagresivo�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�ESAT�KULeuven�│�Pues�aquí�es�donde�trabajo�durante�estos�mes��│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/juanvvc/4688054880/ ��Copyright:�Juan�V.�Vera�del�Campo�/�License:�CC�BY-SA�2.0
  50. 50. License of photos #3License of photos #3License of photos #3License of photos #3License of photos #3 *�Thank�you...�│�Thank�you�to�everyone�on�Flickr�who�comments���│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlslaceandruffles/4767722515/ ��Copyright:�Dee�♥�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�kindle�paperwhite�3G�│�Kindle�paperwhite...�│�Tatsuo�Yamashita�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/yto/8197280407/ ��Copyright:�Tatsuo�Yamashita�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�buttons�│�Dean�Hochman�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/33100533341/ ��Copyright:�Dean�Hochman�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Thank�you...�│�Thank�you�to�everyone�on�Flickr�who�comments���│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlslaceandruffles/4767722515/ ��Copyright:�Dee�♥�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�kindle�paperwhite�3G�│�Kindle�paperwhite...�│�Tatsuo�Yamashita�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/yto/8197280407/ ��Copyright:�Tatsuo�Yamashita�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�buttons�│�Dean�Hochman�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/33100533341/ ��Copyright:�Dean�Hochman�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Thank�you...�│�Thank�you�to�everyone�on�Flickr�who�comments���│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlslaceandruffles/4767722515/ ��Copyright:�Dee�♥�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�kindle�paperwhite�3G�│�Kindle�paperwhite...�│�Tatsuo�Yamashita�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/yto/8197280407/ ��Copyright:�Tatsuo�Yamashita�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�buttons�│�Dean�Hochman�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/33100533341/ ��Copyright:�Dean�Hochman�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Thank�you...�│�Thank�you�to�everyone�on�Flickr�who�comments���│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlslaceandruffles/4767722515/ ��Copyright:�Dee�♥�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�kindle�paperwhite�3G�│�Kindle�paperwhite...�│�Tatsuo�Yamashita�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/yto/8197280407/ ��Copyright:�Tatsuo�Yamashita�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�buttons�│�Dean�Hochman�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/33100533341/ ��Copyright:�Dean�Hochman�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�Thank�you...�│�Thank�you�to�everyone�on�Flickr�who�comments���│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/pearlslaceandruffles/4767722515/ ��Copyright:�Dee�♥�/�License:�CC�BY-ND�2.0 *�kindle�paperwhite�3G�│�Kindle�paperwhite...�│�Tatsuo�Yamashita�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/yto/8197280407/ ��Copyright:�Tatsuo�Yamashita�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0 *�buttons�│�Dean�Hochman�│�Flickr ��https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/33100533341/ ��Copyright:�Dean�Hochman�/�License:�CC�BY�2.0

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