GAME DESIGN LAB 1.0: Bucharest


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This is the short presentation introducing into the gamification hype. It is the intellectual junk for our left brains that does not explain what happens in the GAME DESIGN LAB but calms down our ratio. Have fun and start playing for real!

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  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • What’s in a name? Even within the realm of gamification, there is not a 100% consensus on the term and its definition. According to Jesse Schell, the term “gamification” is just the tip of the iceberg of an idea that has far larger implications for society [Gamespot, 2011]. Other terms that are often associated with the trend, either rightly or wrongly, include: Game mechanics which refers to the actual rules and mechanisms that are employed to create the structured experience. Examples of such mechanics might include: Appointment dynamic: “A dynamic in which to succeed, one must return at a predefined time to take some action.” e.g. happy hour at your local pub [Priebatsch, 2010] Communal Discovery: “wherein an entire community is rallied to work together to solve a riddle, a problem or a challenge. Immensely viral and very fun.” [Priebatsch, 2010] See Appendix 1 for an extensive list of game mechanics. Gaming dynamics are related to game mechanics but recognise that different people respond to the same incentives and rewards differently. Whereas game mechanics are static rules put in place to define the shape of an experience, game dynamics adjust the rules and mechanics in response to the player’s performance and the current game state. Game theory, which has very little to do with gamification. Game theory is an area of mathematical economics developed in the mid-20 th century in order to predict individual choices within specific real-world and hypothetical scenarios (such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma). Serious games refer to experiences where the outcome has a real-world impact and, thus, is more than just a game played for personal enjoyment. Examples include game researcher, Jane McGonigal’s, Evoke, an alternate reality game (ARG) created for the World Bank Institute wherein participants create social and technological innovation and development. Badgification or pointsification is a pejorative term that describes the implementation of shallow aesthetics and mechanics (e.g. badges, bright colours, progress bars) without giving due attention to the underlying mechanics which are the true driving force behind real engagement. Game design is the process of creating a game, often purely for entertainment purposes.
  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • Gamer types As touched on in the “game dynamics” section, people behave in different ways. Different people are motivated in different ways. To account for this, Zicherman [2010] suggests thinking through different usage scenarios and designing specific streams into the game structure. According to Bartle [1997], there are four main player types, each of which needs to be catered for when designing a game experience. Achievers (10% of users) focus on the big rewards with the most recognition and status (e.g. an illustrious title or large number of contributions). Socializers (80% of users) make up the undergrowth of the community. They support and nourish the other player types with their recognition and adoration. Socializers are non-confrontational, are looking to engage and will easily reciprocate. Explorers (9% of users) take pride in mapping a system in terms of its features and decision spaces. They thrive on the social credit that they receive for their discoveries. Day suggests building achievements into your game-space that reward users for exploring the platform in novel ways, for example by using an unpopular feature. Killers make up 1% of the community. They are similar to Achievers in that they go for the big rewards, but with a subtle difference. When they win, someone else has to lose publicly so that the community can recognise their actions (e.g. forum trolls and comment killers). Killers are highly active and engaged and can be dealt with by harnessing their energy by putting them onto rails (step-wise progressions that are built into the system) that shape their behaviour by following a path intended by the designer. Jane McGonigal [2008] points out that most communities follow a power law curve in terms of engagement (similar to the 80-20 rule). A few users contribute most of the content while the majority are relatively passive. This syncs up with what we know about Bartle’s Player Types, where the vast amount of Socializers support and nourish the highly active users in the form of Achievers, Explorers and Killers. McGonigal [2008] goes on to point out that emotional goals differ between players, using Lazzaro’s framework to make the distinction between four main emotional categories: Fiero ( an Italian word that describes the rush of emotion that one feels right after the moment of success), Curiosity, Amusement and Relaxation. Figure 6 has a detailed breakdown of the various emotions that fall into each category.
  • Hijacking the Brain: How does gamification work? Gamification it taps into the deep-seated, primal tendencies and biases that have been sculpted over time by evolution to maximise our chances of survival. 10,000 years ago, we used these deeply ingrained biases and tendencies to effectively navigate our natural environment. Today, games have become adept at pushing these same buttons to create sensations of enjoyment and reward. Tom Chatfield [2010] identifies several ways in which games push our buttons:   Experience systems give us a sense of achievement for reaching milestones and keep us working towards them. For example, the LinkedIn progress bar shows how much profile information you still need to provide and outlines the simple steps you need to take to achieve that goal. Short- and long-term goals in parallel allow us to achieve on a micro scale while simultaneously making progression towards the macro goal seem more manageable. Rewards for effort (i.e. positive reinforcement) trigger releases of feel-good chemicals in our brain, which train us towards desired behaviour. For example, Foursquare rewards users with badges for checking in the most times at a specific venue (mayor badge). Rapid, frequent, clear feedback in response to a user’s actions which also sets off the reward centres in our brains. For example, Facebook is addictive partly because it allows its users to receive real-time feedback in response to their comments and Likes. An element of uncertainty is crucial for an effective reward scheme. Gamblers become addicted to slot machines due to the unpredictable nature of the pay-offs [see Montague & Berns, 2002]. It is the element of uncertainty that has people constantly checking to see whether an email has arrived in their Inbox or whether someone has commented on their Facebook status. Other people (i.e. social elements ) probably provide our brains with the greatest rewards. Humans are social creatures by nature. Adding other people into your experience is a no-brainer as evidenced by the rise of social media in the form of Facebook, Twitter, etc. According to Gavin Marshall, Head of Innovation for Mxit, South Africa’s largest social network, MXit users’ rewards are mostly social in nature.
  • Rewards Effective rewards cost designers relatively little but are highly valued by users. Less effective rewards cost designers more for the same level of user valuation as a more effective reward. Reward types are listed below in order of decreasing effectiveness [CNET, 2010]: Status is probably the most effective reward. It costs designers next to nothing and is highly valued by users as it taps into our social natures. Zicherman [2010] suggests that status has replaced material rewards such as cash, and that the less status rewards a game doles out, the more material rewards it needs to hand out to keep users engaged. Access to restricted features, options and areas e.g. VIP room in a nightclub or member-only analytics on a website. Power is an effective incentive for some e.g. community moderators that can ban users, remove status or shift points around; voting to change contents of front page of a website; etc. Stuff , both material (e.g. cash prizes) and virtual (e.g. game weapons or FarmVille seeds). Material stuff is costly to provide, whereas virtual goods are often free. According to Day, “you can sculpt [a] psychological reward-scape to some degree, but ultimately the best rewards are the ones in the minds of your players”.
  • Flow The Holy Grail for most game experiences is the creation of a state of “flow” in its users. ‘Flow’ describes the experience of full submersion in a process, which creates a sense of energized focus and 100% engagement [Csíkszentmihályi, 1991]. Being in a state of flow is often referred to as being “in the zone”, “on the ball”, “in the moment” or “in the groove”. It is the moments while performing a task where we feel totally capable and rewarded for the effort we are putting in. A state of flow can often be a reward in itself as humans find the state incredibly fulfilling and motivating. Flow is induced when performing tasks that are challenging but within our capabilities to complete. If a challenge is beyond our skill it becomes frustrating. If a challenge is too easy, it becomes boring. Inducing a state of flow is an important aspect of a successful game-like experience.
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  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • 18/12/11
  • GAME DESIGN LAB 1.0: Bucharest

    1. 1. In another time on another planet. GAME DESIGN LAB 1.0: Bucharest 12/09/2011
    2. 2. Hai frate… <ul><li>muse, dreamer & designer </li></ul><ul><li>personal game: connecting the dots </li></ul><ul><li>professional game: connecting resources 4 innovation </li></ul><ul><li>mission start up: pm i beta (seals) </li></ul><ul><li>playmates we love you </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    3. 3. passt scho <ul><li>coach & consultant </li></ul><ul><li>dreamer & player </li></ul><ul><li>personal game: up side down </li></ul><ul><li>professional game: presente! </li></ul><ul><li>mission start up: pm i beta (seals) </li></ul><ul><li>playmates we love you </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    4. 4. Our mission <ul><li>Activating #HumanCapital & #SocialCapital by playful interactions for increasing your value. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning. Social Capital is based on trust&knowledge, shared values&opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital is the only capital that is growing when shared. #Exponentially. </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    5. 5. Social Capital <ul><li>Bridging. Connecting bringing together users and stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding. Building a strong & interactive community key: #fluent. online - offline establishing a huge user participation </li></ul><ul><li>Linking. Getting financial fuel creating opportunities </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    6. 6. Game design <ul><li>Game design is a process of: </li></ul><ul><li>1Imagine a game 2Define how it works 3Describe the elements that will be part of the game 4Play your game – test and fail!!!! (pmi) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: ADAMS, Ernest; ROLLINGS, Andrew. Fundamentals of Game Design. Pearson: 2006 </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    7. 7. Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    8. 8. The magic circle of Johan Huizinga Mundo Real <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Responsbilities </li></ul>Círculo Mágico Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    9. 9. Source: Social Physicist: Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy Game mechanics Gaming dynamics Game theory Serious games Badgification Game design Social Games
    10. 10. Definition <ul><li>Gamification is: the process </li></ul><ul><li>of using game thinking and </li></ul><ul><li>game mechanics to solve </li></ul><ul><li>problems and engage users </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    11. 11. Why? <ul><li>Education, </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment, </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement, </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanging value. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: FIANDACA, Daniele e BURGOYNE, Patrick. Digital advertising: past, present, and future. UK: Creative Social, 2010 </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    12. 12. User/gamer types Achievers (10%) Killers (1%) Socializers (80%) Explorers (9%) Source: Bartle: Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    13. 13. Experience systems Short- and long-term goals Rapid, frequent feedback Other people Rewards for effort Uncertainty Source: Social Physicist: Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    14. 14. Types of rewards/incentives Status Access Power Stuff Source: Social Physicist: Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    15. 15. Flow Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    16. 16. Making the difference <ul><li>1Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>2Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>3Autonomy </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy Source Deterding, Getting gamification right.
    17. 17. Meaning <ul><li>Source Simon Sinek: ‘How leaders inspire’ </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    18. 18. Meaning <ul><li>• Tap personal goals, interests and passions </li></ul><ul><li>• Tap the existing community of interest around your core activity/content </li></ul><ul><li>• Wrap your activity in a visually supported story </li></ul><ul><li>• Beware of messing with social context meanings </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy Source Deterding, Getting gamification right.
    19. 19. Mastery <ul><li>• Provide interesting challenges </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide goals that are clear, scaffold, paced, and varied </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide juicy feedback </li></ul><ul><li>• Beware of encouraging unintended behaviors </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy Source Deterding, Getting gamification right.
    20. 20. Autonomy <ul><li>• In productivity contexts: Beware of curbing autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>• In consumer contexts: Beware of devaluing your product </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide a shared digital toy object open for exploration and expression, with starting points </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy Source Deterding, Getting gamification right.
    21. 21. Pssst <ul><li>It’s the process not the features! </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    22. 22. Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    23. 23. Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    24. 24. In another time on another planet <ul><li>Challenge. Create a new game to overcome current challenges. In Real Life. </li></ul><ul><li>Playground. A lab of funky scientists on another planet in another time. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools. Your superpower and network. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: Define it by yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward. Make it happen. </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    25. 25. Game on <ul><li>Build teams of 5 in 25 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Get your superhero pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on your power. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel the strength and support of your partners. </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy
    26. 26. Our goal <ul><li>Stop thinking!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Start playing. Now! </li></ul>Play 4 real Epic Win Strategy