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Il Milan Approach: premesse, sviluppi e influenze 2. Verso il post-moderno

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Seconda parte del modulo sul Milan Approach. Lezione tenuta per il primo anno della Scuola di Specializzazione del Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia (4 settembre 2010)

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Il Milan Approach: premesse, sviluppi e influenze 2. Verso il post-moderno

  1. 1. Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia 4 settembre 2010 Massimo Giuliani Il Milan Approach: premesse, sviluppi e influenze 2: Verso il post-moderno
  2. 2. Ludwig Van Beethoven: “ Allegra riunione di contadini” dalla Sinfonia n. 6, “Pastorale” [clicca]
  3. 3. Dizzy Gillespie: “ My Heart Belongs to Daddy” (Cole Porter) [clicca]
  4. 4. Bill Frisell e John Zorn: “ Hard Plains Drifter” [clicca]
  5. 5. Come la psicoterapia, la creazione artistica è percorsa, da qualche decennio, da preoccupazioni e questioni nuove rispetto al passato. L’arte diventa autoreferenziale: ciò è evidente in molta letteratura degli ultimi decenni, che non si limita più a narrare ingenuamente e che sceglie di riflettere sui procedimenti poetici e sul processo stesso del creare quella “finzione nella finzione” che è l’arte (v. Breuer, 1981) . Il procedimento poetico sempre piu spesso, da qualche tempo in qua, ha come oggetto non persone, macchine, alberi o sentimenti, ma sé stesso .
  6. 6. Il Milan Approach verso il postmoderno - Il costruttivismo - Il costruzionismo sociale - L’approccio narrativo
  7. 7. Nella “Cibernetica del I Ordine” Ogni sistema di relazioni è una “cosa” che esiste e può essere descritta oggettivamente, ed è dotata di una “struttura” che l'esperto sa riconoscere.
  8. 8. La premessa “realista” in Terapia della Famiglia ha dato frutti importanti... “ ...La famiglia è un sistema omeostatico...” “ ...La famiglia è un sistema caratterizzato da gerarchie, ruoli e confini...” “ ...La famiglia coltiva la fiducia di base dei propri membri attraverso adeguati legami di attaccamento...”
  9. 9. Nella “Cibernetica del II Ordine” L’osservatore è connesso ricorsivamente al sistema osservato e i suoi pregiudizi entrano nelle sue descrizioni: non è possibile essere “oggettivi”. La mappa è il territorio (abbiamo solo mappe!) (cfr. Bertrando e Toffanetti, 2000)
  10. 10. La rinuncia all’obiettività scientifica ha avvicinato la Terapia a una forma d’arte... Il terapeuta partecipa al/del cambiamento... La terapia si affida sempre meno all’identificazione di “cause” e diventa sempre più una ricerca creativa di nuove soluzioni... La famiglia è auto-organizzata, e pertanto il cambiamento è relativamente imprevedibile...
  11. 11. La cibernetica del secondo ordine è la "cibernetica dei sistemi osservanti", cioè dei sistemi viventi capaci di autoosservazione. Heinz von Foerster e il costruttivismo si servono di concetti che si stavano sviluppando in biologia, in matematica, in fisica: - "auto-poiesi" , ideato da Humberto Maturana e Francisco Varela per distinguere i viventi dai non viventi; - "auto-organizzazione" , tipica di sistemi complessi nei quali alcuni fenomeni "emergenti" non possono essere previsti, in maniera riduzionistica, partendo soltanto dalla conoscenza degli elementi di base del sistema.
  12. 12. Gli oggetti che vediamo e gli eventi che viviamo non sono in realtà esperienze primarie, fatti oggettivi, ma mere rappresentazioni di relazioni. "Il mondo come le percepiamo è una nostra invenzione". Ma se l’osservatore entra nel campo osservato, e “inventa” la realtà intorno a sé... Che fine fa l’oggettività? Heinz von Foerster
  13. 13. I sistemi oltre la cibernetica del I ordine Per Maturana e Varela i sistemi viventi sono “autopoietici”, cioè in grado di auto-organizzarsi, autoriprodursi ed evolvere. Questo vuol dire che in nessun modo è possibile modificare intenzionalmente lo stato di un sistema: il suo cambiamento non dipende da un intervento esterno.
  14. 14. Umberta Telfener : “Allora che cos’è la realtà?” Heinz von Foerster : “Ti racconterò una storia. Un prete islamico, un mullah, sta cavalcando sul suo cammello nel deserto quando vede tre uomini e dei cammelli in lontananza. Li raggiunge e li saluta, chiedendo loro la ragione di tanta tristezza. «Nostro padre è morto». «Questo è molto triste ma sicuramente Allah lo ha accettato. Vi deve aver lasciato qualcosa». «Ci ha lasciato quello che possedeva, questi diciassette cammelli e ci ha chiesto di spartirli tra noi. Il fratello più vecchio dovrebbe avere metà dei cammelli, il secondo un terzo e l’ultimo un nono. Abbiamo provato a dividerli tra noi ma ci è risultato impossibile con diciassette cammelli». Il prete comprende il problema, aggiunge il suo cammello e comincia a dividere: la metà di diciotto è nove; un terzo è sei; un nono è due. Nove più sei più due uguale a diciassette. A questo punto salta in groppa al suo cammello e si allontana”. Heinz von Foerster, in "Tra fisica e magia: il cammino di un epistemologo". Intervista a Umberta Telfner in "Sistemi che osservano", a cura di Umberta Telfner, Astrolabio Editore.
  15. 15. I costruzionisti sociali negano il Sé come “realtà interna” rappresentata da cognizioni ed emozioni; contro le teorie evolutive, sostengono che non si possano dare per scontati standard universali in base ai quali valutare l’adeguatezza di un essere umano. La “realtà” è il prodotto – realizzato nel dominio del linguaggio – di un consenso fra comunicanti. “ I circuiti a feedback dei sistemi cibernetici vengono sostituiti dai circuiti intersoggettivi del dialogo. La metafora centrale della terapia diventa dunque la conversazione” (Lynn Hoffman). (Ma se è così... che fine fa l’ esperto ? Quale è la sua funzione?)
  16. 17. Già dalla questione dell’“esperto” si capisce che il Costruzionismo Sociale è, a suo modo, una posizione “politica” che mette in discussione i rapporti di potere nel contesto della cura. Esso riceve forti influenze da: - il pensiero femminista e della differenza di genere; - l’opera di Michel Foucault sul potere; - la nuova sensibilità alla comunicazione interculturale .
  17. 18. Il Milan Approach sembra da sempre predisposto ad assumere un punto di vista postmoderno e narrativo , con le sue tecniche tese a valorizzare “punti di vista” , l’attenzione alle storie familiari , l’interesse per il tempo (Boscolo, Bertrando), la “curiosità” (Cecchin)...
  18. 19. “ La comprensione che ognuno ha di sé stesso è narrativa: non posso cogliere me stesso al di fuori del tempo e dunque al di fuori del racconto” (Paul Ricoeur) “Questo mi fa venire in mente una storia...” (Gregory Bateson) Accanto al pensiero paradigmatico che persegue l’ideale di un sistema descrittivo ed esplicativo formale e matematico, esiste un pensiero narrativo. (v. Jerome Bruner)‏
  19. 20. “ È noto che una goccia sola di acido prussico, lasciata cadere sopra una mucosa, può determinare una morte fulminea; questo stesso acido, opportunamente diluito, diventerà un farmaco prezioso. Per altra parte quasi tutte le sostanze che vengono adoperate come medicamenti possono, se assorbite in grande quantità, agire come veleni. Ma, nel valutare la tossicità d'una data sostanza, si deve pure tener calcolo dell'età dell'individuo a cui viene somministrata; la dose che per un adulto è medicamentosa, diviene tossica per un fanciullo.” (Dr. Costante Ferraris, “Veleni ed avvelenamenti”, Hoepli, 1897) “ Vedo mio padre come un veleno. Da alcuni anni ci sentiamo due o tre volte all'anno, solo per telefono. Sento che tenendo le distanze riesco a stare meglio. Non so se dipenda da lui, ma da qualche tempo ho la grande paura che non riuscirei ad essere un buon padre... Ho paura di aver ereditato la sua incapacità di amare.” (Luigi) ‏ Pensiero paradigmatico e pensiero narrativo
  20. 21. Il postmoderno Lyotard identifica il senso del postmoderno nella "incredulità verso le metanarrative" e verso i grandi sistemi interpretativi. Non esisterebbero più delle grandi verità, ma solo molteplici visioni della realtà, utili da un punto di vista essenzialmente pragmatico. Il postmoderno è dunque un modo di guardare alla realtà che si apre alle differenze, a tutto ciò che non è più riconducibile ad un unico elemento legittimante. La scienza può avanzare solo delle opinioni, non affermazioni definitive in grado di rispecchiare l'unica verità. La condition postmoderne (1979) di Jean-Francois Lyotard
  21. 22. L’architettura classica... Il Partenone ad Atene
  22. 23. John Portman: Horton Plaza, San Diego … e l’architettura postmoderna

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