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Visible confrontations and marketable solution

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Visible confrontations and marketable solution: Environmental conflicts as learning environments

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Visible confrontations and marketable solution

  1. 1. Visible confrontations and marketable solution: Environmental conflicts as learning environments Massimo De Marchi Department of geography University of Padova
  2. 2. <ul><li>SINDROMES OF LOCALISATION… </li></ul><ul><li>LULU (Locally Unwanted Land Uses) </li></ul><ul><li>NINBY (Not In My Back Yard) </li></ul><ul><li>NIABY (Not In Anyone Back Yard) </li></ul><ul><li>NOPE (NOwhere in Planet Earth) </li></ul><ul><li>… DESTRUCTION OR POTENTIALLY DAMAGING </li></ul><ul><li>… BUT ALSO CONSERVATION… </li></ul><ul><li>… against nuclear power farm, wind power farm or road … nearby house </li></ul><ul><li>… against global environmental issues: whales, tropical forests, nuclear energy… </li></ul><ul><li>… against protected areas </li></ul>What is happening?
  3. 3. <ul><li>ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict represents the possibility of recovering position by actors in decisions related to territory </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict is the opportunity for “experts in conflicts” </li></ul><ul><li>ACTORS OF META-CONFLICT … CONFLICT HUNTING </li></ul><ul><li>… economy of entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>… consulting market </li></ul><ul><li>… political marketing </li></ul><ul><li>… organization exhibition </li></ul>Focus on:
  4. 4. <ul><li>The conflict exists when it becomes visible… </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of television markets, costs and NEWS </li></ul><ul><li>… to combine conflicts with strong images </li></ul><ul><li>… re-codify the conflict: simplification “sport news” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict actors become audiences of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Actors of meta-conflicts are looking for evidences of their commitment </li></ul><ul><li>The “Local” becomes theatre for an organisation </li></ul>Visibility: the second phase
  5. 5. <ul><li>To investigate the symmetry and and asymmetry of the relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Pertinence of the orders among population-territory-resources </li></ul><ul><li>To explicit knowledge and practices circulating in the relationships (Raffestin) </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility = edge action (Freire) </li></ul><ul><li>AS TERRITORIAL OPERATORS … </li></ul><ul><li>What happened till now? Why the alliance broke up? </li></ul><ul><li>How to go out? and … it is right go out? … to resolve or to transform? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we perceive before? </li></ul>Visibility: what about latency?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Rapid evolution of services related with environmental conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Missions, Customers, Services </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict = lack of information Vs Conflict = lack of participation </li></ul><ul><li>ALLEA </li></ul><ul><li>AS TERRITORIAL OPERATORS… </li></ul><ul><li>There is a market, there is space to work </li></ul><ul><li>… but do we sell the service to anyone? </li></ul><ul><li>… when the purchaser is the promoter …how to behave? </li></ul><ul><li>… just working for the opponents? </li></ul>Conflict attractive to market
  7. 7. <ul><li>Environmental conflict = distributive dimension of territorial and sector policies </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-spatial justice </li></ul><ul><li>DAD (Decide Announce Defend), goods and “bads” </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis in decision making processes </li></ul><ul><li>Management of power and counter-power (Floc’Hay, Plottu) </li></ul><ul><li>AS TERRITORIAL OPERATORS… </li></ul><ul><li>… how to manage a decision about a project? </li></ul>NIMBY: reason or effect?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Democratic planning and evaluation is based on: (Floc’Hlay, Plottu, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>empowerment planning and evaluation: emergence and the structuring of actors (the counter-power) in order to achieve the balance of powers </li></ul><ul><li>participatory planning and evaluation: actors with a balanced power can really practice the power of balance (Torbert, 1991) through a real negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>multicriteria evaluation planning and evaluation: definition of a scale of social preference or social priorities should be defined </li></ul>Democratic decision making
  9. 9. Ladder of citizen participation Citizen control Delegated power Partnership Placation Consultation Informing Therapy Manipulation TRUE PARTICIPATION TOKENISM NON PARTICIPATION Citizens can control totally or partially important decisions Citizens supply point of views, but no control on decisions Management of of disagreement and manipulation of agreement S. Arnstein, 1969 Level of participation
  10. 10. <ul><li>… invisible conflict… solved conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Rischio di espropriare 2 volte i cittadini… prima sulla decisione poi sull’opposizione </li></ul><ul><li>From DAD to DIC </li></ul><ul><li>… Decide Inform Convict </li></ul><ul><li>… do not forget complexity… </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants should cohabit with “solutions” … better self made solutions </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH THE ROLE OF THE OPERATOR? </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator, arbitrator, expert on solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy science ambiguity between the double fidelity: the customer and the society </li></ul><ul><li>Are able local actors to manage their conflicts? </li></ul><ul><li>How to promote multi-track diplomacy? </li></ul>Regain possession of conflict

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