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Mental training

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La preparazione mentale per il miglioramento della prestazione sportiva: come allenare la mente ed esprimere al meglio il potenziale agonistico

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Mental training

  1. 1. La preparazione mentale per il miglioramento della prestazione sportiva Dott. Massimiliano Cianci 10/03/2019 Mental Training
  2. 2. Argomenti La preparazione mentale • Che cos’è il Mental Training • Abilità mentali oggetto di intervento • Effetti del Mental Training sul potenziale agonistico • Il programma di Mental Training Uno strumento per allenatori ed istruttori • Il Profilo di prestazione
  3. 3. Che cos’è il Mental Training
  4. 4. in sintesi IL MENTAL TRAINING E’ LA PARTE MENTALE DELL’ALLENAMENTO SPORTIVO
  5. 5. I 4 pilastri della preparazione sportiva Preparazione mentale Preparazione tattica Preparazione tecnica Preparazione atletica Preparazione sportiva
  6. 6. Definizione di Mental Training Il Mental Training è l’allenamento delle abilità psico-fisiologiche utili al miglioramento delle prestazioni, sia in allenamento che in gara. Un programma di Mental Training si concentra sul potenziamento delle abilità mentali dell’atleta. L’intervento consiste in una serie di tecniche e metodologie messe in atto da un operatore qualificato di psicologia applicata allo sport.
  7. 7. Abilità mentali oggetto di intervento
  8. 8. Goal-setting (perseguire gli obiettivi) Un obiettivo può inteso come il risultato che vogliamo ottenere in un certo compito, considerando anche un limite di tempo. Per sua natura lo sport è fatto di obiettivi! Nel Mental Training un obiettivo deve essere ben formato: • Focus sulla prestazione (vs risultato) • Definito in modo chiaro e preciso • Significativo e importante per l’atleta • Specifico e misurabile • Orizzonte temporale (breve, medio e lungo periodo) • Formulato in termini positivi • Analisi dell’impatto ecologico • Piano d’azione • Monitoraggio e valutazione Locke Edwin A., Latham Gary P.,(1981) Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin (American Psychological Association) 90 (1), 125-152
  9. 9. Allenamento ideomotorio Visualizzazione Stimolazioni nervose Sistema muscolare Attività muscolare L’allenamento ideomotorio è una tecnica che impiega la visualizzazione per facilitare l’apprendimento del movimento ed ottimizzare l’esecuzione motoria. Teoria psiconeuromuscolare (Jacobson, 1934; Zecker, 1982; Jowdy e Harris, 1990); Apprendimento simbolico (Fitts, 1964; Feltz & Landers, 1983; Hall & Erffmeyer, 1983); Teoria bioinformazionale (Lang, 1977, 1979) Questa tecnica si esegue con profitto tramite la visualizzazione oppure utilizzando tecnologie come la Realtà Virtuale.
  10. 10. Regolazione dell’energia L’arousal è una condizione temporanea del sistema nervoso che produce maggiore allerta sensoriale, mobilità e prontezza di riflessi. Tra i cambiamenti prodotti dall’arousal troviamo:  Ipervigilanza ed attivazione generalizzata del SNC  Aumento della frequenza cardiaca e della pressione arteriosa  Maggior apporto sanguigno ed ossigenazione dei tessuti Prestazione ottimale Modello di R. Martens (zona di «Energia Ottimale», 1987) Livello di attivazione Livello di prestazione
  11. 11. Attenzione e concentrazione L’attenzione è il processo mentale con il quale gli atleti dirigono e mantengono la consapevolezza degli stimoli individuati dai loro organi di senso. Le tre maggiori abilità attentive sono:  Selezionare gli stimoli giusti dall’ambiente  Spostare l’attenzione da un insieme di stimoli ad un altro  Sostenere nel tempo il focus attentivo Pianificazione Obiettivi da raggiungere Lo stile attentivo (N. Nideffer, 1976-1993) Ristretto Interno Ampio Esterno Stimoli ambientali Gesti atletici degli avversari Movimento accurato Movimenti fini Cambio di ritmo
  12. 12. Gestione dell’ansia Lo stress è definito come la risposta omeostatica dell’organismo ad ogni richiesta effettuata ad esso dall’ambiente esterno (Hans Selye, 1936). Una risposta inadeguata allo stress, come l’ansia pre- agonistica, può produrre effetti negativi sulla prestazione sportiva e consumare risorse preziose. Per aiutare gli atleti a gestire lo stress e l’ansia si parte dall’individuazione dei loro sintomi e dalle probabili fonti (i cosiddetti stressors). In un programma di Mental Training l’atleta è guidato a:  Individuare gli stimoli ansiogeni  Formare di una gerarchia degli stimoli  Applicare una risposta antagonista a quella dell’ansia Mobilitazione risorse Allarme Utilizzo risorseResistenza Scarsezza risorse Esaurimento Durata dello stress
  13. 13. Altre aree di intervento • Motivazione • Autostima • Controllo emotivo • Gestione psicologica dell’infortunio • Dialogo interno (self-talk) • Pensieri e percezioni dell’atleta (es. gestione del pre-gara, elaborazione della routine, ecc.)
  14. 14. Effetti del Mental Training sul potenziale agonistico
  15. 15. Effetti del MT sul potenziale agonistico Aumento del potenziale • Forza esplosiva • Resistenza • Equilibrio • Visione periferica • Tecniche • ecc. Preparazione tattica Preparazione tecnica Preparazione atletica L’allenamento tecnico-tattico aumenta il potenziale agonistico a disposizione dell’atleta
  16. 16. Preparazione mentale Espressione del potenziale • Gestione dell’ansia • Motivazione • Concentrazione • Controllo emotivo • Regolazione dell’energia • ecc. Effetti sul potenziale agonistico Una buona preparazione mentale consente di «esprimere» il potenziale agonistico
  17. 17. Il programma di Mental Training
  18. 18. Conoscenza degli atleti (colloquio conoscitivo, dati anamnestici, ecc.) Programma di allenamento Come si svolge il Mental Training • Durata media 10 sessioni (atleti top seguiti tutta la stagione) • Sessioni da 1h circa
  19. 19. Uno strumento per allenatori ed istruttori: Il Profilo di prestazione
  20. 20. Tramite il Profilo di prestazione è possibile: Il Profilo di prestazione • Ottenere una rappresentazione immediata della prestazione attuale e di quella desiderata • Definire le aree di allenamento più importanti • Pianificare le azioni necessarie • Monitorare i cambiamenti nel tempo Il Profilo di Prestazione (Butler e Hardy, 1992), è uno strumento psicologico volto ad incrementare la consapevolezza sui punti di forza e le aree di miglioramento dell’atleta.
  21. 21. Dott. Massimiliano Cianci mcsportplus@gmail.com Psicologo Sport e Coaching

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