Usage of Laser in The Medical Field


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Usage of Laser in The Medical Field

  1. 1. Laser In MedicalFieldsDone by:Eman RashadTechnology PresentationDr. Dina Abu Zaid
  2. 2. L aser s Used i n the M edi cal F i eld• E l la hae been used in avrietyof wy dica sers v a asfor m nyy rs. M l la a used for cosm a ea edica sers re eticprocedures, surg a dianostic procedures. T ery nd g hevria of frequency pow a wv a tions , er nd aem surem sepa te both the ty of la tha ea ents ra pes sers thae been dev v eloped a the mria wy in w nd y d as hichthe different la m ybe used. N ty of sers a ew pestrea ent hae been dev tm v eloped in conjunction withnewty of m l la pes edica sers.
  3. 3. -In the ea das of la it ca e a asurprise tha these tools of lig rly y sers m s t ht could be used in the science of m edicine, since no one env isioned tha they t m ht be a to hea or otherw im e peoples phy l w being ig ble l ise prov sica ell- . B doctors a m l resea ut nd edica rchers quicklybeg n to see the possibilities, a a the num of uses for m l la m nd ber edica sers ultiplied ov the y rs. er ea Aong other a tions, these include cutting into tissue in surg l m pplica ica procedures; resha the corneaof the ey to im e sig clea ping e prov ht; ning clog ed a g rteries; burning a a caities a w wy v nd hitening the teeth; rem ing ov unwnted ha w a ir, rinkles, birthm rks, a freckles; a resha the fa a nd nd ping ce in pla surg procedures. stic ery
  4. 4. T he A dvent of the " L aser Scal pel "-Erlyexperim a enters w m l la pointed out tha there a ith edica sers t re surg l opera tha a difficult to perform w the ica tions t re ith conv l sca a tha ala bea m ht be used instea entiona lpel nd t ser m ig d. Initia tria show tha afinelyfocused bea from aca l ls ed t m rbon dioxide g s la could cut throug hum n tissue ea a nea . a ser h a sily nd tly T surg could direct the bea from a a le byusing am he eon m ny ng irror m ounted on am a m l a . ovble eta rm
  5. 5.  S era a a g of la surg quicklybeca e a rent. F the lig bea is ev l dvntaes ser ery m ppa irst, ht m consistent, w m ns tha it g es off the sa e a ount of energ from n this photo hich ea t iv m m y I taken during open-heartsurgery, a doctor uses a laser probeto punch small holes in the patients heartmuscleto increasetheorgans blood flow . one second to the next. S a long a the bea is m ing a , the cut it m kes ( os s m ov long a the incision) does not vryin depth; w s w using asca adoctor ca a a herea hen lpel n ccidenta lly m ke pa of the incision too deep. A a rt second a a g of the surg l la is tha the hot dvntae ica ser t bea ca m uterizes, or sea off, the open blood v a it m es a . ( his w w ls essels s ov long T orks ell m inlyfor sm ll v such a those in the skin. T doctor still ha to sea off the a a essels, s he s l la er blood v using conv l m rg essels entiona ethods.) S a till nother a a g is tha the cells dvntae t in hum n tissue do not conduct hea v w so the skin or a other tissue nea the a t ery ell, ny r la incision does not g v hot a is not a ser et ery nd ffected bythe bea . T a a g of la m his dvntae ser surg is v helpful w adoctor m opera on atinya tha is surrounded by ery ery hen ust te rea t hea tissue or org ns. It should be pointed out tha the "la sca is not lthy a t ser lpel" necessa the best tool to use in ev opera S e doctors feel tha w the la rily ery tion. om t hile ser is useful in som situa it w nev tota repla the sca O a m e tions, ill er lly ce lpel. thers re ore optim a see ada w m a a la w m ke the sca athing of the istic nd y hen ore dvnced sers ill a lpel past.
  6. 6.  T second of these v s m yprov to be the m a te, for surg l use of he iew a e ost ccura ica la is ra a a . Afirst, la w considered m effectiv in sers pidly dvncing t sers ere ost e opera on a s tha a ea to rea rea on the body exterior, including the ting rea t re sy ch—a s s skin, m nose, ea a ey B in recent y rs doctors hae dem ted outh, rs, nd es. ut ea v onstra rem rka prog in dev a ble ress eloping la techniques for use in interna explora ser l tion a surg . O course, in order to be a to direct the la bea the doctor m nd ery f ble ser m ust be a to see inside the body In som ca this is asim m tter of m king a ble . e ses ple a a n incision a opening up the a to be opera on. B there a situa in w nd rea ted ut re tions hich this step ca be aoided. n v
  7. 7. Cl eani ng A r ter i es wi th L i ght F insta la a increa lyused to clea pla from peoples a or nce, sers re sing n que rteries. P que is atoug fa substa tha la h tty nce t ca build up on the inside wlls of the a n a rteries. Eentua the v ca g so clog ed tha blood does not flow v lly essels n et g t norm lly a the result ca be ahea a ck or stroke, both of w a serious a som es fa l. T tra l a , nd n rt tta hich re nd etim ta he ditiona m for rem ing the pla inv es opening the chest a m king sev l incisions, along a som es risky ethod ov que olv nd a era nd etim opera It is a expensiv a requires w for recov . tion. lso e nd eeks ery A effectiv a tiv is to use ala bea to burn a a the pla T keyto m king this w is the doctors n e lterna e ser m wy que. he a ork a to see inside the a a direct the bea , a bility rtery nd m nother a in w fiber optics a la a com into a rea hich nd sers re bined m w tool. A optic fiber tha ha been connected to atinytelev ca eraca be inserted into a a . odern onder n t s ision m n n rtery T elem nowbecom am ture sensor tha a s the doctor a nurses to see inside the a w asecond hese ents e inia t llow nd rtery hile fiber is inserted to ca the bursts of lig tha w burn a a the pla rry ht t ill wy que. T technique w in the follow wy T fiber- a yis inserted into ablood v in a a or leg a he orks ing a. he optic rra essel n rm nd m ed slow into the a of the hea a blocked a ov ly rea rt nd rteries. W the a yis in pla the la is fired a the hen rra ce ser nd pla destroy a then the exha vpors a sucked ba throug atinyhollowtube tha is inserted a w que ed, nd ust a re ck h t long ith the optica fibers. W the a ha been clea out the doctor rem es the fibers a tube, a the opera is l hen rtery s ned ov nd nd tion finished. T m l process is know a la a iopla . It ha sev l obv a a g F no incision is needed his edica n s ser ng sty s era ious dvntaes. irst, (except for the sm ll one in the v to insert the fibers) T is a little or no bleeding a the pa ca a essel . here lso , nd tient n enjoytota recov in ada or tw l ery y o. Lser a iopla does hae som potentia risks tha m be considered. F w the la bea fires a the pla a ng sty v e l t ust irst, hen ser m t que it m be a ed v ca ust im ery refullybeca aslig m could cut throug the wll of the a a ca serious use ht iss h a rtery nd use bleeding T pa chest w then hae to be opened up a a A problem inv es sm ll pieces of burnt . he tients ould v fter ll. nother olv a debris fromthe
  8. 8.  Surgeons use a t laser tocutaw tissue in a gallbladder operation. iny ay The laser and a tiny c era are inserted int t navel, sono abdom am o he inal incision is necessary. destroy pla If these enter the bloodstrea , theyca ca blockae in sm ller ed que. m n use g a blood v bring further com tions. F tely continuous technica essels, ing plica ortuna , l a a ents hae considera reduced these risks, a the num of successful la dvncem v bly nd ber ser a iopla perform is increa ea y r. ng sties ed sing ch ea
  9. 9. L aser s H eal and R eshape the E yes S e of the m rem rka brea om ost a ble kthroug for m l la hae been in the a hs edica sers v rea of ophtha olog , the studyof the structure a disea of the ey O rea tha lm y nd ses e. ne son t la bea s a so useful in trea the ey is tha the cornea the coa tha ser m re ting e t , ting t cov the ey ll a a its lig into the interior of the ey is tra rent. S ers eba nd dm ht e, nspa ince it is desig to a it ordina lig the cornealets in la lig just a w a ned dm ry ht, ser ht s ell nd rem ins una a ffected bythe bea . m F the la is v useful in rem ing extra blood v tha ca formon irst, ser ery ov neous essels t n the retina thin, lig sensitiv m bra a the ba of the ey ll. It is on the —the ht- e em ne t ck eba retinatha the im g of the thing the ey sees a form D m g to the retinaca t aes s e re ed. a ae n som es ca blindness, the m com on formin the U S tes resulting from etim use ost m nited ta dia ( disea cha cterized byhig lev of blood sug r) w in som betes a se ra h els a hen, e a a ca hundreds of tinyextrablood v formon the retina T block dvnced ses, essels . hese lig fromthe surfa of the m bra resulting in pa l or tota blindness. ht ce em ne, rtia l
  10. 10.  T la m often used in the trea ent of this condition is pow byam of he ser ost tm ered edium a on g s. T doctor a s the bea throug the corneaa burns a a the ta le of blood rg a he im m h nd wy ng v cov the retina T procedure ta onlyafewm a ca be done in the essels ering . he kes inutes nd n doctors office. T la ca a repa adeta retina tha ha broken loose from he ser n lso ir ched —one t s the rea pa of the ey ll. B the a ent of la deta retina ha to be r rt eba efore dv sers ched s d repa byha a beca the retinais so delica this ws av difficult opera to ired nd, nd use te a ery tion perform U the a on la the doctor ca a lly"w the torn retinaba in . sing rg ser, n ctua eld" ck pla It is perha astra e coincidence tha G G one of the orig l inv ce. ps ng t ordon ould, ina entors of the la la ha one of his ow retina repa this wy ser, ter d n s ired a. A condition tha a the ey is g ucom , w is cha cterized bythe buildup of nother t ffects e la a hich ra fluid in the ey N a the ey na l fluids dra a a alittle a atim a the ey e. orm lly es tura in wy t e, nd e stas hea . In ey im ired w g ucom the fluid does not dra properly a the y lthy es pa ith la a in , nd buildup a v blindness ca som es result. In som ca drug ca be used to ffects ision; n etim e ses s n trea g ucom . If the drug fa how er, m nydoctors nowturn to the la to aoid t la a s il, ev a ser v conv l surg . T la punches ahole in aprepla spot a the fluid dra out entiona ery he ser nned nd ins throug the hole. Aa the trea ent ca be perform in adoctors office instea of a h g in, tm n ed d hospita l.
  11. 11. Usi ng L aser s for E ye Sur ger y T la w like asew m chine to repa adeta retina the he ser orks ing a ir ched , m bra tha lines the interior of the ey T la bea is a em ne t e. he ser m djusted so tha it ca pa ha lesslythroug the lens a focus on tinyspots t n ss rm h nd a the da aed a of the retina W it is focused, the bea ha round m g rea . hen m s the intensityto "w or sea the deta a of the retinaba eld" l ched rea ck aa the wll of the ey ll. g inst a eba P ps m exciting of a the ey rela la a tions is the erha ost ll e- ted ser pplica resha of the ey cornea atechnique w know a LS ( hich ping es , idely n s A w IK sta for L a A ssisted I n S itu K era ilensis) AB H nds ser- tom . s reck itz describes it,
  12. 12.  T pa ey la prescription is litera ca ed inside the corneaw the bea of a excim he tients eg ss lly rv ith m n er la [ala dev tha produces pulses of ultraiolet, or U, lig A a fla of the cornea ser ser ice t v V ht]. sm ll p is first rem ed w aprecision knife . . . a a ov ith nd nA pa underg ey surg perform byala bea . In tient oes e ery ed ser maddition to trea deta retina la ca rem e ca ra ting ched s, sers n ov ta cts.inner portion of the corneais exposed to the excim la A er ser. fterthe prescription is ca ed, the cornea fla tha ws opened is rv l p t athen put ba into pla ov the a ted [surg llya ck ce er bla ica ltered]cornea 6 .LS does not com w risks. T cha es it m kes in the A IK e ithout he ng acorneaa perm nent, a the da er of unexpected da ae is ev re a nd ng m g erpresent. H ev the procedure ha becom increa lypopula ow er, s e sing rea y r; a am Aerica ha it done in the y r 20, ch ea bout illion m ns d ea 00a a four thousa surg in the U S tes w tra nd bout nd eons nited ta ere inedto perform it.
  13. 13. Some Cosmeti c Uses of L aser s M l la a a w used for vrious ty of cosm surg , including edica sers re lso idely a pes etic ery the rem a of certa kinds of birthm rks. P w sta reddish purple skin ovl in a ort- ine ins, blotches tha a r on a three out of ev one thousa children, a a t ppea bout ery nd re n exa ple. S sta ca m rk a pa of the bodybut a m com onlyfound on m uch ins n a ny rt re ost m the fa a neck. ce nd T m l la is a to rem e aport- ine sta for the sa e rea tha a he edica ser ble ov w in m son t m ryla is a to fla am g to asubm ed subm rine. B la ta ilita ser ble sh essae erg a oth sers ke a a g of the m dvntae onochrom tic qua of la lig tha is, its a to shine a lity ser ht, t bility in one specific color. T sta is m de up of thousa of tinym lform blood he in a nds a ed v tha hae adefinite reddish purple color. T color v strong a essels t v his ery ly bsorbs a certa sha of g lig In fa tha is w the sta looks red. It a in de reen ht. ct, t hy in bsorbs the g a other colors in w lig but reflects the red ba to peoples ey reen nd hite ht ck es.
  14. 14. S a till nother exa ple of ala a cosm procedure is the rem a of m ser-ssisted etic ovl unwnted ha "T la em ag bea of lig expla C g cosm a ir. he ser its entle m ht," ins hicao etic surg J M eon effrey elton, w onlyis a hich bsorbed in the ha follicle ( v the skin unha ed) T la ir leaing rm . he ser deliv energ w is a ers y hich bsorbed in the ha a tra ed to hea T hea ir nd nsform t. he t destroy the ha follicle w asm ll fra of asecond. . . . Lser ha s ir ithin a ction a ir rem a is g for both fa l ha rem a a for bodyha rem a . . . ovl ood cia ir ovl nd ir ovl. P ps the m com onlytrea a s a fa l ha in w en. 7 erha ost m ted rea re cia ir om
  15. 15.  T trea the sta the doctor runs aw lowpow bea of g lig a the discolored o t in, ide - er m reen ht cross a . T m ss of blood v in the sta a rea he a essels in bsorbs the energ la lig a becom so hot etic ser ht nd es tha it is a llyburned a a. T surrounding skin is adifferent color tha the sta so tha t ctua wy he n in, t skin a bsorbs onlysm ll a ounts of the bea a rem ins unburned. ( f course, the burned a m m nd a O A doctor uses an argon laser toremoveaport-w stain, akind of birthm ine ark. Unw anted tissue is burned aw w norm skin remains undamaged. ay hile al a s m hea a during this process som m sca som es occurs.) A ila m is rea ust l, nd e inor rring etim sim r ethod often successful in rem ing ta A ttoo is form w v strong dy a injected w ov ttoos. ta ed hen ery es re ith needles into apersons skin. S eone w ha been ta om ho s ttooed m ydecide la in life tha he or she a ter t does not wnt the ta a m a in the pa the onlywyto rem e these desig inv ed a ttoo ny ore; nd st, a ov ns olv surg or burning off the ta w a L , the la offers a a tiv to such ery ttoo ith cid. uckily ser n lterna e extrem m sures. T bea blea the dy in the ta w burning the surrounding skin. e ea he m ches es ttoo ithout ( s in the ca of port- ine sta som lig sca is possible.) A se w ins, e ht rring
  16. 16. L aser -A ssi sted D enti str yD entistryis another bra of m nch edicine tha ha benefited trem t s endouslyfromla ser technolog . Indeed, la hae m de som people stop drea av to the dentist. N y sers v a e ding isit o one enjoy haing acaitydrilled, of course. It usua requires a a s v v lly n nesthetic ( pa a inkiller like nov ine) tha ca uncom ble num in the m a the sound of the oca t uses forta bness outh; lso, drill ca be irrita or ev sickening to som people. n ting en e Mnydentists nowem a N YGla ( hich uses acry l for its la m ) a ploy n d-A ser w sta sing edium instea of adrill for m caities. T la trea ent ta a a g of the sim fa d ost v he ser tm kes dvntae ple ct tha the m teria tha form in acaityis m softer tha the ena el ( ha pa of a t a l t s v uch n m the rd rt tooth) T la is set a apow tha is just strong enoug to elim te the decaed . he ser t er t h ina y tissue but not strong enoug to ha the ena el. W trea av deep caitybleeding h rm m hen ting ery v som es occurs, a the la bea often sea off blood v a stops the bleeding etim nd ser m ls essels nd .
  17. 17.  T m often a question a trea caities w la is: D it hurt?T he ost sked bout ting v ith sers oes he a er is no. Ech burst of la lig fromadenta la la onlythirty nsw a ser ht l ser sts - trillionths of asecond, m fa tha the a ount of tim anerv ta to trig er uch ster n m e e kes g pa In other w the bea w hae to la 10 m tim long in order in. ords, m ould v st 0 illion es er to ca a discom S this sort of trea ent requires no a use ny fort. o tm nesthetic. T a litera hundreds of other m l uses for the la S num here re lly edica ser. till, erous m l conditions ca be helped byla lig A ev in those tha do respond edica nnot ser ht. nd en t to la trea ents, adoctor m yhae ag rea for choosing adifferent m ser tm a v ood son ethod in aspecific ca T pla fa is tha w the la is am rv m l tool, se. he in ct t, hile ser a elous edica it ca cure ev ill. Y the w ha seen proba onlyasm ll fra of the nnot ery et orld s bly a ction la potentia A a this supertool ha onlyexisted since 190 a considering sers l. fter ll, s 6, nd, the m l a a it a dyha crea the future a rs prom indeed. edica dvnces lrea s ted, ppea ising
  18. 18. A a g of Lsers for D l S ery dvntaes a enta urg In this excerpt froma a in The Dental Clinics of N ort A m n rticle h erica R AS uss of the M l C e of V iniam obert . tra edica olleg irg entions som of the a a g e dvntaes of using la for ora surg . sers l ery D sed post- tiv sw is cha cteristic of la use [for ora surg ]. ecrea opera e elling ra ser l ery D sed sw a s for increa sa w perform surg w the ecrea elling llow sed fety hen ing ery ithin a a [the m . . . a increa the ra e of surg tha ora surg ca irwy outh] nd ses ng ery t l eons n performsa w fea of a a com ise. T effect a s the surg to fely ithout r irwy prom his llow eon performm nyprocedures in a office or outpa fa tha prev w a n tient cility t iously ould hae required hospita tion. . . . T hea a sca a a im ed v liza issue ling nd rring re lso prov w the use of the la . . . Lser w g llyhea w m a sca ith ser. a ounds enera l ith inim l r form tion a . . . often ca be left unsutured [w stitches], a a nd n ithout nother distinct aa g dvntae