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# Statistics[1] Doc2

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### Statistics[1] Doc2

1. 1. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 1) ABOUT WORD OF STATISTICS The word statistics seems to have been derived from the Latin word “Status” or the Italian word “Statista”. Both the words mean a political state. 2) STATISTICS Statistics is defined as the science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data. 3) DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS The branch of statistics that deals with collection, presentation and analysis of data is called descriptive statistics. 4) INFERENTIAL STATISTICS The branch of statistics that deals with the methods that use sample results to help make decisions about a population. 5) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION A tabular arrangement of data that shows the distribution of observations among different classes is called frequency distribution. Data presented in the form of a frequency distribution is also called group data. 6) PRIMARY DATA: It is the data which is collected for first time for first time and has not undergone any statistical treatment. e.g. Population census reports are primary data. 7) SECONDARY DATA: It is the data which is not collected for first time and has gone through the statistical treatment at least once. e.g. The data of economic survey of Pakistan.
2. 2. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 8) PARAMETERS Any calculation which is measured from population is called parameter. 9) STATISTIC Any calculation which is measured from sample is called statistic. 10)POPULATION The totality of observation with which we are concerned is called Population. 11)SAMPLE A representative part of population is called Sample. 12)CONSTANT A quantity which can assume only one value is called constant. e.g. e 13)VARIABLE A quantity which can varies from one individual or object to another is called variable. e.g. height of students, number of leaves on a tree. 14)DISCRETE VARIABLE A variable which can assume some specific values of data with in a given range is called discrete variable. e.g. No. of persons in a family, No. students in classes etc. 15)CONTINUOUS VARIABLE A variable which can assume all values of the data within a given range is called continuous variable. e.g. Height, Weight etc. 16)QUANTITATIVE VARIABLE A variable which can be measured numerically is called quantitative variable. e.g. blood pressure, temperature, height etc.
3. 3. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 17) QUALITATIVE VARIABLE (ATTRITBTE) A characteristic which can not be measured numerically is called qualitative variable, e.g. religion beauty, eye of colour etc. 18)CLASSIFICATION Classification is grouping of related facts into different classes is called classification. 19) ONE WAY CLASSIFICATION When Classification is done considering only one, variable, it is called one way classification. 20)TWO WAY CLASSIFICATION When classification is done according to two variables, it is called two way classification. 21)CLASS LIMITS Values of variable which explain the classes are called class limits. 22)CLASS BOUNDRIES The Class boundaries are real values, which break up one class from another class. 23)CLASS INTERVAL OR CLASS WIDTH The difference between the upper and lower class boundaries, or the difference between two successive class marks is called class interval or class width.
4. 4. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 24)CLASS MARK OR MID POINT The average value of the lower and upper class limits or class boundaries is called class mark or mid point. 25)TABULATION The systematic arrangement of data in the form of rows and columns for some particular purpose is called tabulation. 26)WRITE THE NAME OF DIAGRAMS Simple bar diagram Multiple bar diagram Subdivided bar diagram Pie Chart 27)SIMPLE BAR CHART A simple bar chart consists of equally spaced vertical or horizontal bars of the same width having heights proportional to the corresponding numerical values. 28)MULTIPLE BAR CHART Multiple bar chart is used to represent two or more related sets of the data having some common characteristics in a variable value. 29)SUBDIVIDED BAR CHART The charts used to present the data which are to be shown in the parts are called subdivided or component bar charts.
5. 5. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 30)PIE DIAGRAM OR CHART Pie chart consists of a circle divided into sectors whose area are proportional to the various parts into which the total quantity is divided. 31)WRITE THE NAME OF GRAPH OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. Histogram Frequency polygon Cumulative frequency polygon / Ogive 32)HISTOGRAM A Histogram consists of a set of adjacent rectangles having bases along x- axis with centers at mid points and areas proportional to class frequencies. 33)FREQUENCY POLYGON Frequency polygon is a graph that represent the data by using lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies at the mid points of the classes. 34) CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY POLYGON An Ogive is a graph drawn for the cumulative frequency distribution by joining with straight lines the dots marked above the upper boundaries of classes at heights equal to the cumulative frequencies of respective classes. 35)AVERAGE A Single Value which represents whole the data is called Average. 36)WRITE THE OTHER TWO NAMES OF THE AVERAGE. Other two names of Average are Measure of Central Tendency and Measure of Location.
6. 6. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 37)TYPES OF AVERAGE Arithmetic Mean Median Mode Geometric Mean Harmonic Mean 38)ARITHMETIC MEAN The value obtained by Sum of the values dividing by their number of values is called Arithmetic Mean. 39)MEDIAN Central Value of the arranged data is called Median. OR A value which divides the arranged data into two equal parts is called Median. 40)MODE Most common value in a data is called Mode. OR Most frequent value in a data is called Mode. 41)DEFINE THE RELATION SHIP AMONG MEAN MEDIAN AND MODE For Skewed distribution Mode = 3Median – 2Mean. It is also called empirical relation. For Symmetrical Distribution Mean = Median = Mode 42)INDEX NUMBER A device that measures the changes in variable or group of related variables with respect to time or space is called an index number. 43)PRICE INDEX NUMBER
7. 7. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 An index number which measures the changes in the wholesale or retail prices of one or more commodities according to base is called price index number. 44)QUANTITY INDEX NUMBER An index number which measure the changes in the quantity or volume of goods produced or consumed is called quantity index number. 45)SIMPLE INDEX NUMBER An Index number which measures a relative change in a single variable according to base is called simple Index number. 46)COMPOSITE INDEX NUMBER An Index number which measures a relative change in a group of related variables according to base is called composite Index number. 47)PRICE RELATIVE The percentage ratio of the price in current year and price in base year is called price relative. 48)LINK RELATIVE The percentage ratio of the price in current year and price in previous year is called Link relative. 49)WEIGHTED INDEX NUMBER An index number which measures the changes in the process or group of commodities with respect to relative importance of commodities is called weighted index number.
8. 8. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 50)WHOLE SALE PRICE INDEX An index number which observed the price quotations of whole sale market is called whole sale price index number. 51)USES OF INDEX NUMBER Forecast business activities Make policies for the future. Measuring purchasing power of money. 52)RANDOM EXPERIMENT An experiment is said to be random, if it provides different results, if it is repeated a large number of times under identical conditions. 53)SAMPLE SPACE A set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called a sample space. It is donated by S. 54)EVENT Any subset of the sample space is called event. 55)SIMPLE EVENT An event which contains only one sample point of the sample space is called simple event. 56) COMPOUND EVENT An event which contains only two or more sample point of the sample space is called compound event. 57)MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS
9. 9. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 When two or more events cannot occur together, these are called mutually exclusive events. e.g. Walk and drive , Married and Single 58)EQUALLY LIKELY EVENTS If two or more events have same chance to occur, these are called equally likely events. 59)INDEPENDENT EVENT If two or more events have no effect on happening and not happening of each other are independent events. 60)DEPENDENT EVENT If two or more events have effect on happening and not happening of each other are called dependent events. 61)SAMPLE POINT The elements of sample space are called sample points. 62) RANDOM VARIABLE A variable whose values are determined by the outcomes of a random experiment is called a random variable. Properties of Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean of a constant is constant itself.
10. 10. ACADEMEY OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Coaching Classes for I. Com, D. Com, D.B.A, B. Com, M. Com in Dihlon Plaza Near Ali Childern Hospital Jinnah Road. Gujrat Ph. 03009628578, 03216237730 Sum of deviations from arithmetic mean is always equal to zero. Sum of the square deviation from arithmetic mean is always minimum. Arithmetic mean depends on change of origin and scale/unit.