The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), Iran has a population ofaround 78 million. It is a country ofparticular geopolitical significance owing to its location inthe Middle East and central Eurasia. Iran is a regionalpower, and holds an important position in internationalenergy security and world economy as a result of its largereserves of petroleum and natural gas.Iran is home to one of the worlds oldest civilizations.
Iran is an example of a country that has madeconsiderable advances through education andtraining, despite international sanctions in almostall aspects of research during the past 30years. Irans university population swelled from100,000 in 1979 to 2 million in 2006. Seventypercent of its science and engineering students arewomen. Irans scientific progress is reported to bethe fastest in the world. Iran has made great stridesin different sectors, including aerospace, nuclearscience, medical development, as well as stemcell and cloning research.
Ancient and modern technology in Persia Many of todays concepts in science including the Helio-Centric model of solar system, finite speed of light, and gravity were first proposed by Persian scientists. Ancient Iranians built Qanats and Yakhchal to provide and keep water. The first windmill appeared in Iran in the 9th century. The oldest and largest known qanat is in the Iranian city ofGonabad which, after 2,700 years, still provides drinking and agricultural water to nearly 40,000 people. Iranians contributed significantly to the current understanding of astronomy, natural science, medicine,mathematics, and philosophy. Khwarizmi is widely hailed as the father of algebra. Ethanol (alcohol) was first identified by Persian alchemists such as Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi. ThroughoutManuscript of Abdolrahman the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of the AncientSufisDepiction of CelestialConstellations Greeks and Persians were furthered and preserved within Persia. The Academy of Gundishapur was a renowned centre of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity and was the most important medical centre of the ancient world during the 6th and 7th centuries. During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.
Ancient and modern technology in Persia Iran strives to revive the golden age of Persian science. The country has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate followed by China Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists remain highly productive in several experimental fields, such as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, and polymer chemistry. Iranian scientists are also helping construct the Compact Muon Solenoid , one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors. In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system (High Performance Computing Systems) made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores and now runs 96 cores. In the biomedical sciences, Irans Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics is a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Rouyan research centre in Tehran. According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khademhosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.
Ancient and modern technology in Persia The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s. Iran is the 7th country in production of uranium hexafluoride. Iran now controls the entire cycle for producing nuclear fuel. Irans current facilities includes several research reactors, a uranium mine, an almost complete commercial nuclear reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include a uranium enrichment plant.
Ancient and modern technology in PersiaThe Iranian Space Agency launched itsfirst reconnaissancesatellite named Sina-1 in 2006, and aspace rocket in 2007, which aimed atimproving science and research foruniversity students. Iran placed itsdomestically built satellite, Omid intoorbit on the 30th anniversary of theIranian Revolution, on 2 February2009, through Safir rocket, becomingthe ninth country in the world capableof both producing a satellite andsending it into space from adomestically made launcher.
Ancient and modern technology in Persia Windwheels were developed by the Babylonians ca. 1700 BC to pump water for irrigation. In the 7th century, Persian engineers in Greater Iran developed a more advanced wind- power machine, the windmill, building upon the basic model developed by the Babylonians. Mathematics: The 12th century mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa-al-Kharazmi created the Logarithm table, developed algebra and expanded upon Persian and Indian arithmetic systems. The works of Kharazmi "exercised a profound influence on the development of mathematical thought in the medieval West". The first five rows of Khayam-Pascals triangle
Persian philosophers and inventors may have created the first batteries (sometimes known as the Baghdad Battery). Some have suggested that the batteries may have been used medicinally. Other scientists believe the batteries were used for electroplating—transferring a thin layer of metal to another metal surface—a technique still used today and the focus of a common classroom experiment.
Medicine: The practice and study of medicine in Iran has a long and prolific history. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Persia was often involved in developments in ancient Greek and Indian medicine; pre- and post- Islamic Iran have been involved in medicine as well. For example, the first teaching hospital where medical students methodically practiced on patients under the supervision of physicians was the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire. Some experts go so far as to claim that: "to a very large extent, the credit forFrom: Mansur ibn Ilyas: Tashrīḥ-e badan-e the whole hospital system must be given to Persia―.. Manuscript, ca. 1450, U.S. ensān.National Library of Medicine. The idea of xenotransplantation ( the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another) dates to the days of first Persian empire as evidenced by engravings still present in Persepolis.
Several documents still exist from which the definitions and treatments of the headache in medieval Persia can be ascertained. These documents give detailed and precise clinical information on the different types of headaches. The medieval physicians listed various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of headaches. The medieval writings are both accurate and vivid, and they provide long lists of substances used in the treatment of headaches. Many of the approaches of physicians inA 500-year-old Latin translation of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna. medieval Persia are accepted today; however, still more of them could be of use to modern medicine. In the 10th century work of Shahnameh, Ferdowsi describes a Caesarean section performed on Rudabeh, during which a special wine agent was prepared by a Zoroastrian priest and used to produce unconsciousness for the operation. Although largely mythical in content, the passage illustrates working knowledge of anesthesia in ancient Persia. Later in the 10th century, Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi is considered the founder of practical physics and the inventor of the special or net weight of matter. His student, Abu Bakr Joveini, wrote the first comprehensive medical book in the Persian language.
Astronomy In 1000 AD, Biruni wrote an astronomical encyclopaedia which discussed the possibility that the earth might rotate around the sun. This was before Tycho Brahe drew the first maps of the sky, using stylized animals to depict the constellations. In the tenth century, the Persian astronomer Abd al- Rahman al-Sufi cast his eyes upwards to the awning of stars overhead and was the first to record a galaxy outside our own. Gazing at the Andromeda galaxy he called it a "little cloud" – an apt description of theAn 18th century Persian astrolabe slightly wispy appearance of our galactic neighbour.
Chemistry Tusi believed that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear entirely. He wrote "a body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color, and other properties, and turns into a different complex or elementary matter". Five hundred years later, Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) created the law of conservation of mass, setting down this same idea. However, it should be noted that Tusi argued for evolution within a firmly Islamic context—he did not, like Darwin, draw materialist conclusions from his theories. Moreover, unlike Darwin, he was arguing hypothetically: he did not attempt to provide empirical data for his theories. Nonetheless his arguments, which in some ways prefigure natural selection, are still considered remarkably advanced for their time. Jaber Ibn Hayyan, the famous Iranian chemist who died in 804 at Tous in Khorasan, was the father of a number of discoveries recorded in an encyclopaedia and of many treatises covering two thousand topics, and these became the bible of European chemists of the 18th century, particularly of Lavoisier. These works had a variety of uses including tinctures and their applications in tanning and textiles; distillations of plants and flowers; the origin of perfumes; therapeutic pharmacy, and gunpowder, a powerful military instrument possessed by Islam long before the West. Jabir ibn Hayyan, is widely regarded as the founder of chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and equipment still used by chemists today such as distillation.
Physics Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham is known in the West as Alhazen, born in 965 in Persia and dying in 1039 in Egypt. He is known as the father of optics for his writings on, and experiments with, lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection. He correctly stated that vision results from light that is reflected into the eye by an object, not emitted by the eye itself and reflected back, as Aristotle believed. He solved the problem of finding the locus of points on a spherical mirror from which light will be reflected to an observer. From his studies of refraction, he determined that the atmosphere has a definite height and that twilight is caused by refraction of solar radiation from beneath the horizon. Biruni was the first scientist to formally propose that the speed of light is finite, before Galileo tried to experimentally prove this. Kamal al-Din Al-Farisi (1267–1318) born in Tabriz, Iran, is known for giving the first mathematically satisfactory explanation of the rainbow, and an Kamal al-Din al-Farisis autograph explication of the nature of colours that reformed the theory of Ibn al- manuscript in Optics, Tanqih al- Haytham. Al-Farisi also "proposed a model where the ray of light from theManazir, 1309 A.D., Adilnors Collection. sun was refracted twice by a water droplet, one or more reflections occurring between the two refractions." He verified this through extensive experimentation using a transparent sphere filled with water and a camera obscura. He is also the first who scientifically explains the rainbow.
Iranian Philosophy Iranian philosophy or Persian philosophycan be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the choronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtras philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism." Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist, Tofy Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart. Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran. Iranian-American string theorist Cumrun Vafa proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. Currently Iran aims for a national goal of self sustainment in all scientific arenas. The Comprehensive Scientific Plan has been devised based on about 51,000 pages of documents and includes 224 scientific projects which must be implemented by the year 2025.
First Human Rights’ CharterCyrus Cylinder: Considered as Historys FirstDeclaration of Human Rightsin Ancient Times is today displayed at the BritishMuseumIn the 1970s, the Cyrus Cylinder has been described asthe worlds first charter of human rights. It wastranslated into all six official U.N. languages in 1971. Areplica of the cylinder is kept at the United Nations Cyrus the GreatHeadquarters in New York City in the second floorhallway, between the Security Council and theEconomic and Social Council chambers.
Cyrus Cylinder (The Official Text) :I am Cyrus, King of the globe, great king, mighty king, King of Babylon, kingof the land of Sumer and Akad, King of ......, king of the four quarters of Earth, son of Cambysis (Kambujiye), greatking, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus (Kurosh), great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes (ChaishPish), great king, king of Anshan, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule, The Gods, Bel and Nabucherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts and pleasures.When I well disposed, entered Babylon, I had established the seat of government in the royal palace of theruler, amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk the great god, induced the magnanimous inhabitants of Babylon tolove me, and I sought daily to worship him when my numerous soldiers in great numbers peacefully entered Babylonand moved about undisturbed in the midst of the Babylon, I did not allow anyone to terrorize the people of the landsof Sumer and Akad and ...... I kept in view, the needs of the people and all their sanctuaries to promote their wellbeing. I strove for peace in Babylon and in all his other sacred cities. As to the inhabitants of Babylon who againstthe will of the gods were enslaved, I abolished the corvee which was against their social standing, I freed all slaves. Ibrought relief to their dilapidated housing, putting thus an end to their misfortunes and slavery Marduk, the greatlord, was well pleased with my deeds, rejoiced and to me, Cyrus, the king who worshipped him, and toCambysis, my son, the offspring of my loins, and to all my troops he graciously gave his blessing, and in goodsprit, before him we stood peacefully and praised himAll the kings who sat in throne rooms, throughout the four quarters, from the Upper Sea (Mediterranean Sea) to theLower Sea (Persian Gulf), those who dwelt in ...... and all those who live in other types of buildings as well as all thekings of the West Land, who dwelt in tents, brought me their heavy tribute and kissed my feet in The Babylon. As tothe region, from ...... to the cities of Ashur, Susa (Shoosh), Agade and Eshnuna, the cities of Zamban, Me-Turnu, Deras far as the region of the land of Gutium, the holy cities beyond the Tigris River, whose sanctuaries had been inruins over a long period, the gods whose abode is in the midst of them, I returned to their places and housed them inlasting abodes.I also gathered all their former inhabitants and returned to them their habitations. Furthermore, I resettled upon thecommand of Marduk, the great lord, all the gods of Sumer and Akad whom Nabonid had brought into Babylon to theanger of the lord of the gods, unharmed, in their former chapels, the places which makes them happy.May all the gods whom I have placed within their sanctuaries and resettled in their sacred cities, address a dailyprayer in my favor before Bel and Nabu, that my days may be long, and may they recommend me to him, to Mardukmy lord, they may say: "May Cyrus the King, who worships thee, and Cambysis his son ...... all gods I settled in apeaceful place, I sacrificed ducks and doves, I endeavored to repair their dwelling places ...... "joyously.
WarThe Iran–Iraq War (also known asthe First Persian Gulf War and byvarious other names) was an armedconflict between the armed forces ofIraq and Iran, lasting from September1980 to August 1988, making it thelongest conventional war of the 20thcentury.It was initially referred to inEnglish as the "Persian Gulf War"prior to the "Gulf War" of 1990.
Fruit in Iran Iran ranks 1st in fruit production in the Middle East and North Africa. Iran has been ranked between 8th and 10th in global fruit production in different years. Iran produces Persian walnut, melon, tangerine, citrus fruits, Kiwifruit, dates, black cherries, pomegranates, oranges and raisins
Iranian cuisineBadenjon shekam por Gheyme nesar Kabab shishlik