Curriculum Change and Innovation

Bahagian Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Jul. 4, 2018

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Curriculum Change and Innovation

  1. Topic 8: Curriculum Change and Innovation NAZIHAH HISHAM SYAFIQAH ZAKARIA MASITAH ZULKIFLY
  2. Overview  Contexts of Curriculum Change  Strategies of Evaluation  Planning and Implementation  Factors Affecting Change in ELT in Malaysia  The Teacher as Agent of Change
  3. Definition of Change  Embracing the concepts of innovation, development, renewal and improvement in curriculum.  A process not an event; requires time, energy and resources.  Achieved incrementally and entails development in feelings and skills in using new programmes.  Lead to improvement.  Making the different in some way, to give it a new position or direction. Often means alteration to its philosophy by way of its aims and objectives, reviewing the content included, revising its methods and re-thinking its evaluatory procedures.
  4. Definition of Innovation  An intentional and deliberate process to bring out desired effects and change. (Harris et al., 1995)  Any improvement that is deliberate, measurable, durable and unlikely to occur frequently.
  5. Curriculum Innovation and Change  Curriculum innovation is defined as deliberate actions to improve a learning environment by adapting a method of presenting material to students that involves human interaction, hands-on activities and student feedback, according to the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics.  Changes in curriculum may involve innovation, but in general, change in terms of curriculum involves adapting a new educational method and not necessarily a method with human interaction.
  6. Curriculum Change and Innovation Curriculum Change Curriculum Innovation Dictated by the changes in the economic, social and technological aspects of a society. Ideas or practices that are new and different from those that exist in the formal prescribed curriculum. Has magnitude and direction and takes place within a definite time frame. Occurs when human and material resources are created, selected, organised and used in ways where the outcomes are higher achievement of curriculum goals and objectives. May occur in response to external events Always planned. Become meaningful and effective if they are planned and organised.
  7. Sources of Change and Innovation  National imposition  Societal needs  Technology  Stake- holder views
  8. Contexts of Curriculum Change  Occur when the central authority decides to adopt a new idea.  Usually made known through a circular.  Example: Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR).  The desire of authorities at various levels to deliberately change established practices.  To tackle existing problems  Identify new problems  Seek ways in dealing with those problems
  9.  Due to development of technology.  Adaption on the use of computers in education.  Using online technology in lessons.
  10. Types of Curriculum Change  Hardware change  New classrooms  Equipment  Books  Playgrounds  Software change  Affect the content of the curriculum  Related to the methods of delivery of curriculum
  11. Forms of Changes  Substitution  Alteration  Addition  Restructuring
  12.  Substitution.  new textbooks, new equipment, replacement of teachers and administrators.  Alteration.  Change in existing structures rather than a complete replacement of the whole curriculum, syllabus or course of study.  Addition.  Introduction of a new component without changing old elements or patterns.  Ex: audio- visual aids, workshops and equipment.
  13.  Restructuring.  Rearrangement of the curriculum to implement desired changes.  Sharing of resources among a group of schools or institutions.
  14. Strategies of Evaluation  A strategy of innovation refers to the planned procedures and techniques used in the desire for change.  Participative Problem- Solving  Planned Linkage  Coercive Strategies
  15. Participative Problem- Solving  This strategy focuses on the users, their needs and how they satisfy these needs.  The system identifies and diagnoses its own needs, finds its own solution, tries out and evaluates the solution and implements the solution if it is satisfactory.  The emphasis is on local initiative.
  16. Planned Linkage  The intermediate agencies, such as schools, bring together the users of the innovation in this model.  Hoyle (1993), linkage process is based on the link between the school and the various specialized/ centralized agencies linkage centres may be in form of Professional Centres, Resource Centres, ICT Centres, ect.  These agencies are the linkage point between the national agencies of curriculum development, change and innovating schools, to provide consultancy services and to offer in- service training for teachers and users.
  17. Coercive Strategies  Work on the bases of power and coercion by those in authority, using laws directories, circulars and others.  Change is accomplished through application of power with those holding greater power enforcing compliance by those with less power.  An already- prepared curriculum, developed by government educational sectors such as National Curriculum Development Centre in the form of a syllabus document, was given to teachers to implement.  MOE generally used these strategies.
  18. Models of Curriculum Change and Innovation  Tanner and Tanner (1980), suggest 3 principal models which demonstrates how change takes place.  The research, Development and Diffusion Process Approach or Model  Problem- Solving Model  The Social Interaction Approach
  19. The Research, Development and Diffusion Model  Innovation is thought out at the head or centre and then fed into the system.  The processes of change as a logical sequence of phases in which an innovation is;  Invented or discovered  Developed  Diffused  Disseminated to the user
  20. Problem- Solving Model  Also called problem reduction model.  Built with the user of the innovation in mind.  The user of the innovation will follow the steps below: 1. Determine the problem 2. Search for an innovation 3. Evaluate the trials 4. Implement the innovation
  21. Social Interaction Model  Involves the transmission of knowledge by social group of school.  Change proceeds or diffuses of new ideas, practices or products through formal or informal contacts between interacting social groups.  Stresses the importance of interpersonal networks of information, opinion, leadership and personal contact.
  22.  The spread of new ideas or practices through contacts between and among teachers within a school, among schools, between teachers and supervisors, among all others (education bodies)  Based on:  Awareness of innovation  Interest in the innovation  Trial  Adoption for permanent use
  23. Factors Affecting Change in ELT in Malaysia  Poor results of the national English exam.  Malaysia might ‘lose its economic competitiveness and find it hard to progress in the industrial and technical fields’.  English education benefited a selected few who were referred to as the ‘elitist class of Malayan’ and side-lined the others especially the Malays from the rural areas.  A major agenda on a national unity.  Old curriculum was thought to be too subject content- biased, too much emphasis on rote- learning, too exam oriented, and excessive dependence on textbooks.
  24.  Globalization  Major role in determining the educational as well as curriculum reforms in Malaysia and other countries around the globe.  Revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT) made globalization possible and knowledge became highly portable.  The need for skills like languages, mathematical reasoning, scientific logic and programming has emerged as the front runners of a nation’s development and English is the language of globalization, internet, trade and science  Education Ministry inline with Malaysia’s aspiration to produce knowledge workers and to compete with other developing countries.
  25. Planning and Implementation According to Bishop 1986 there are 4 factors; 1. The change agent - teachers, school heads, local authorities or the ministry of education 2. The innovation - executing the change itself; put it into use/operation 3. The system users– relates to the person or group of people at which the innovation is directed 4. Time – innovation is a social process which takes place over a period of time.
  26. The Innovation Process 1. Identify a problem dissatisfaction / need that requires attention 5. Evaluate the proposed solution 2. Generate possible solution 6. Review the evaluation 3. Select a particular and appropriate solution or innovation 7. If the innovation has solve the identified problem, implement it on a wide scale 4. Conduct a trial 8. Adopt the innovation or search for another solution
  27. Innovation Planning Elements to be considered 1. Personnel to be employed 2. Specification of the actual task 3. Strategy or procedure to be used 4. Equipment needed 5. Conducive environment 6. Cost and time involve 7. Social context 8. Sequencing of activity 9. Rational for undertaking the innovation 10. Evaluation of the consequences of the innovation
  28. Teacher as Agent of Change  Use various pieces of technology by learning to be constructivist that can incorporates technology into their curriculum  Develop own professional learning, encompass strategies and interpersonal skill  Update and improves the culture of the school  Becomes more collaborative, reflective, flexible, and more responsive to the development of their own professional learning
  29. Conclusion  When curriculum innovation or change is made in the classroom;  It can enhance the social skills of students and focus on unique methods for teaching historical, technological, organizational or political lessons.  May encourage students to use online tools, multimedia software applications or hands-on lab experiments and outdoor archaeology adventures.  Encourages educators to defy the norm and think outside of the box to reach all types of learners with individualized styles instead of focusing on lessons that are effective for just a few average students in a classroom.