Research Paper
by Mr. Masenhimer
Mountain View Middle School
Purpose:
* Your own thinking accompanied by
scholars 
Purpose:
* Your own thinking accompanied by
scholars 
* The use of books, articles, observations,
experiments, and credibl...
Purpose:
* Your own thinking accompanied by
scholars 
* The use of books, articles, observations,
experiments, and credibl...
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
 
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
    Example: The psychological effects of playing violent
video     games (The ...
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
    Example: The psychological effects of playing violent
video     games (the ...
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
    Example: The psychological effects of playing violent
video     games (the ...
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
    Example: The psychological effects of playing violent
video     games (the ...
Choosing a Topic
* Have a specific purpose
    Example: The psychological effects of playing violent
video     games (the ...
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or
oppose
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
    
    Example: Jackie Robinson, the grea...
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
    
    Example: Jackie Robinson, the grea...
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
    
    Example: Jackie Robinson, the grea...
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
    
    Example: Jackie Robinson, the grea...
Choosing a Topic Cont.
* Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
    
    Example: Jackie Robinson, the grea...
Creating Questions
* Equivalent to "categories" 
Creating Questions
* Equivalent to "categories" 
 
*Focus research to specific details instead of random facts
Creating Questions
* Equivalent to "categories" 
 
* Focus research to specific details instead of random facts
* Often th...
Creating Questions
* Equivalent to "categories" 
 
* Focus research to specific details instead of random
facts 
* Often t...
Creating Questions
* Example: 
   Topic: The psychological effects of playing violent video   
        games.
    Question...
Creating Questions
* Example: 
   Topic: The psychological effects of playing violent video   
        games.
    Question...
Gathering Evidence/Research
* Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and
your information in one place
Gathering Evidence/Research
* Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and
your information in one place
   
   ...
Gathering Evidence/Research
* Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and
your information in one place
   
   ...
Gathering Evidence/Research
* Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and
your information in one place
   
   ...
Types of Sources
* Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual
document itself. 
Types of Sources
* Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual
document itself. 
    Example: a movie, an i...
Types of Sources
* Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual
document itself. 
    Example: a movie, an i...
Types of Sources
* Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual
document itself. 
    Example: a movie, an i...
Finding Sources
* Print and Electronic Sources:
 
    Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,               
    m...
Finding Sources
* Print and Electronic Sources:
 
    Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,               
    m...
Finding Sources
* Print and Electronic Sources:
 
    Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,               
    m...
Finding Sources Cont.
*Surveys:
 
    Example: allow you to see people's opinions and can be   
    used as a great source...
Finding Sources Cont.
*Surveys:
 
    Example: allow you to see people's opinions and can be   
    used as a great source...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title
(italicized).  City where the book was publis...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title
(italicized).  City where the book was publis...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title
(italicized).  City where the book was publis...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in
quotation marks).  Title of encycloped...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in
quotation marks).  Title of encycloped...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in
quotation marks).  Title of encycloped...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in
quotation marks).  Title of encycloped...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Newspaper: Author (if available, last name first). Article
title (in quotation marks). Title of...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Newspaper: Author (if available, last name first). Article
title (in quotation marks). Title of...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Website: Author (if available). Page title (if available, in
quotation marks). Site title (unde...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Website: Author (if available). Page title (if available, in
quotation marks). Site title (ital...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS,
DVD, etc.). Distributor, date relea...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS,
DVD, etc.). Distributor, date relea...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS,
DVD, etc.). Distributor, date relea...
Citing Sources Correctly
* Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS,
DVD, etc.). Distributor, date relea...
Avoiding Plagiarism
* defined: using other people's words and ideas without
giving them credit.
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting
*  Quote exact words: taking the exact words
and punctuation from a source and putting it int...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting
*  Quote exact words: taking the exact words
and punctuation from a source and putting it int...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting
*  Quote exact words: taking the exact words
and punctuation from a source and putting it int...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting
*  Quote exact words: taking the exact words
and punctuation from a source and putting it int...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing
* Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.
 Your paper should have mor...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing
* Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.
 Your paper should have mor...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing
* Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.
 Your paper should have mor...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing
* Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.
 Your paper should have mor...
Avoiding Plagiarism
* the difference between the two:
* Exact Quote: "The mine, which consists of 100 miles of
tunnels, ha...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing
* Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or
opinion into your own words ...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing
* Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or
opinion into your own words ...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing
* Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or
opinion into your own words ...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Visuals
* Visuals: such as statistics, data, graphs, charts, photos, or
illustrations are often more ...
Avoiding Plagiarism: Visuals
* Visuals: such as statistics, data, graphs, charts, photos, or
illustrations are often more ...
Avoiding Plagiarism
* No matter how you use your information, you must cite
each and every source appropriately.  
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Research paper

  1. 1. Research Paper by Mr. Masenhimer Mountain View Middle School
  2. 2. Purpose: * Your own thinking accompanied by scholars 
  3. 3. Purpose: * Your own thinking accompanied by scholars  * The use of books, articles, observations, experiments, and credible websites
  4. 4. Purpose: * Your own thinking accompanied by scholars  * The use of books, articles, observations, experiments, and credible websites * Backing your knowledge with the knowledge of the professionals in the field of your subject
  5. 5. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose  
  6. 6. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose     Example: The psychological effects of playing violent video     games (The topic is not "violent video games").  
  7. 7. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose     Example: The psychological effects of playing violent video     games (the topic is not "violent video games").   * Take a particular angle on events, a person, or place    
  8. 8. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose     Example: The psychological effects of playing violent video     games (the topic is not "violent video games").   * Take a particular angle on events, a person, or place         Example: Pearl Harbor: The beginning of the United States'     involvement in WWII (the topic is not "Pearl Harbor").
  9. 9. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose     Example: The psychological effects of playing violent video     games (the topic is not "violent video games").   * Take a particular angle on events, a person, or place         Example: Pearl Harbor: The beginning of the United States'     involvement in WWII (the topic is not "Pearl Harbor"). * A topic that created change/effect       
  10. 10. Choosing a Topic * Have a specific purpose     Example: The psychological effects of playing violent video     games (the topic is not "violent video games").   * Take a particular angle on events, a person, or place         Example: Pearl Harbor: The beginning of the United States'     involvement in WWII (the topic is not "Pearl Harbor").   * A topic that created change/effect          Example: Clara Barton: helped promote equal rights for            women in the 19th century through progressive civil rights        work
  11. 11. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose
  12. 12. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose          Example: Jackie Robinson, the great African American     baseball player, was the original pioneer to ending            racial segregation in America.     
  13. 13. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose          Example: Jackie Robinson, the great African American     baseball player, was the original pioneer to ending            racial segregation in America.      * Must pass a "so what?" test
  14. 14. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose          Example: Jackie Robinson, the great African American     baseball player, was the original pioneer to ending            racial segregation in America.      * Must pass a "so what?" test     Example: The history of bicycles. 
  15. 15. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose          Example: Jackie Robinson, the great African American     baseball player, was the original pioneer to ending            racial segregation in America.      * Must pass a "so what?" test     Example: The history of bicycles.      Pass?
  16. 16. Choosing a Topic Cont. * Take a position that others might challenge or oppose          Example: Jackie Robinson, the great African American     baseball player, was the original pioneer to ending            racial segregation in America.      * Must pass a "so what?" test     Example: The history of bicycles.      Pass? No.  How about this?          Individuals are increasingly using bicycles as means to     commute in order to reduce pollution. 
  17. 17. Creating Questions * Equivalent to "categories" 
  18. 18. Creating Questions * Equivalent to "categories"    *Focus research to specific details instead of random facts
  19. 19. Creating Questions * Equivalent to "categories"    * Focus research to specific details instead of random facts * Often the importance, your topics past, its present, and its     future.
  20. 20. Creating Questions * Equivalent to "categories"    * Focus research to specific details instead of random facts  * Often the importance, your topics past, its present, and its     future. * Example:     Topic: The psychological effects of playing violent video            games.     Question #1: How do people that play violent video games     respond to violence that aren't in the games? 
  21. 21. Creating Questions * Example:     Topic: The psychological effects of playing violent video            games.     Question #1: How do people that play violent video games     respond to violence that isn't in the games?   Note: The questions allow for your research to answer by paraphrasing, listing, or quoting your sources.   
  22. 22. Creating Questions * Example:     Topic: The psychological effects of playing violent video            games.     Question #1: How do people that play violent video games     respond to violence that isn't in the games?   Note: The questions allow for your research to answer by paraphrasing, listing, or quoting your sources.   What would be another good question for this topic?    
  23. 23. Gathering Evidence/Research * Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and your information in one place
  24. 24. Gathering Evidence/Research * Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and your information in one place         Example: Note cards.  Place your question at the top of the     note card, answer by paraphrasing, quoting, or listing,           and then write down all information and where it was found     on the other side of the card. 
  25. 25. Gathering Evidence/Research * Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and your information in one place         Example: Note cards.  Place your question at the top of the     note card, answer by paraphrasing, quoting, or listing,           and then write down all information and where it was found     on the other side of the card.  * An outline in a Google doc
  26. 26. Gathering Evidence/Research * Use some form of organization to keep you focused, and your information in one place         Example: Note cards.  Place your question at the top of the     note card, answer by paraphrasing, quoting, or listing,           and then write down all information and where it was found     on the other side of the card.  * An outline in a Google doc     Example: Have your questions listed, and place the info into     that category along with the source in which it was found
  27. 27. Types of Sources * Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual document itself. 
  28. 28. Types of Sources * Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual document itself.      Example: a movie, an interview, a photograph, etc.
  29. 29. Types of Sources * Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual document itself.      Example: a movie, an interview, a photograph, etc. * Secondary Sources: information that has been processed by somebody else. 
  30. 30. Types of Sources * Primary Sources: "first" or, "original."  Think the actual document itself.      Example: a movie, an interview, a photograph, etc. * Secondary Sources: information that has been processed by somebody else.      Example: An article about an experience, a commentary, a        critique, etc.
  31. 31. Finding Sources * Print and Electronic Sources:       Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,                    magazines, etc.  
  32. 32. Finding Sources * Print and Electronic Sources:       Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,                    magazines, etc.   * Observations:     Example: watching, listening, and using your senses.
  33. 33. Finding Sources * Print and Electronic Sources:       Example: books, journals, websites, newspapers,                    magazines, etc.   * Observations:     Example: watching, listening, and using your senses. * Interviews:     Example: allows to get the answers you are really looking        for.
  34. 34. Finding Sources Cont. *Surveys:       Example: allow you to see people's opinions and can be        used as a great source in a research paper
  35. 35. Finding Sources Cont. *Surveys:       Example: allow you to see people's opinions and can be        used as a great source in a research paper * Experiments:       Example: a primary source
  36. 36. Citing Sources Correctly * Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title (italicized).  City where the book was published: (colon) Publisher, copyright date.
  37. 37. Citing Sources Correctly * Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title (italicized).  City where the book was published: (colon) Publisher, copyright date. Example: Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. East              Rutherford, NJ: Penguin USA, 2003.    
  38. 38. Citing Sources Correctly * Books: Author or editor (last name first).  Title (italicized).  City where the book was published: (colon) Publisher, copyright date. Example: Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. East              Rutherford, NJ: Penguin USA, 2003. The majority of this information is found on the second page (look for the copyright "c" with a circle). 
  39. 39. Citing Sources Correctly * Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in quotation marks).  Title of encyclopedia (italicized). Edition (if available).  Date published.  
  40. 40. Citing Sources Correctly * Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in quotation marks).  Title of encyclopedia (underlined). Edition (if available).  Date published. Example: "Sodium Chloride." Columbia Encyclopedia. 2000.    
  41. 41. Citing Sources Correctly * Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in quotation marks).  Title of encyclopedia (underlined). Edition (if available).  Date published. Example: "Sodium Chloride." Columbia Encyclopedia. 2000.  * Magazines: Author (last name first). Article title (in quotation marks). Title of the magazine (italicized) Date (day/month/year): Page numbers of articles.    
  42. 42. Citing Sources Correctly * Encyclopedias: Author (if available).  Article title (in quotation marks).  Title of encyclopedia (underlined). Edition (if available).  Date published. Example: "Sodium Chloride." Columbia Encyclopedia. 2000.  * Magazines: Author (last name first). Article title (in quotation marks). Title of the magazine (italicized) Date (day/month/year): Page numbers of articles.   Example: Hallett, Don. "THe Wieliczka Salt Mine." Geology Today Sept./Oct. 2002: 182-185.    
  43. 43. Citing Sources Correctly * Newspaper: Author (if available, last name first). Article title (in quotation marks). Title of the newspaper (italicized) Date (day/month/year), edition (if listed): Section letter and page numbers of the article.  
  44. 44. Citing Sources Correctly * Newspaper: Author (if available, last name first). Article title (in quotation marks). Title of the newspaper (italicized) Date (day/month/year), edition (if listed): Section letter and page numbers of the article. Example: Tanner, Beccy. "Salt Mine Museum Could Spark Tourist Trade." Wichita Eagle 8 ay 2000: A9.   
  45. 45. Citing Sources Correctly * Website: Author (if available). Page title (if available, in quotation marks). Site title (underlined). Date posted (day/month/year, if available). Name of the sponsor (if available. Date found <url>     
  46. 46. Citing Sources Correctly * Website: Author (if available). Page title (if available, in quotation marks). Site title (italicized). Date posted (day/month/year, if available). Name of the sponsor (if available. Date found <url>    Example: "Dry (Rock Salt) Mining." Salt Institute. Salt Institute. 10 May 2004. 31 Jan. 2012 <http://www.saltinstitute.org/mich-1.html>.  
  47. 47. Citing Sources Correctly * Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS, DVD, etc.). Distributor, date released.    
  48. 48. Citing Sources Correctly * Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS, DVD, etc.). Distributor, date released.   Example: Modern Marvels: Salt Mines. VHS. A&E Television Networks, 1999. 
  49. 49. Citing Sources Correctly * Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS, DVD, etc.). Distributor, date released.   Example: Modern Marvels: Salt Mines. VHS. A&E Television Networks, 1999.  * Interview: Name of Interviewee (Last name first). Personal Interview (if you conducted the interview). Date (day/month/year).  
  50. 50. Citing Sources Correctly * Film, Video, etc.: Title (italicized). Type of medium (VHS, DVD, etc.). Distributor, date released.   Example: Modern Marvels: Salt Mines. VHS. A&E Television Networks, 1999.  * Interview: Name of Interviewee (Last name first). Personal Interview (if you conducted the interview). Date (day/month/year).   Example: Strong, Wayne. Personal Interview. 31 Jan. 2012.
  51. 51. Avoiding Plagiarism * defined: using other people's words and ideas without giving them credit.
  52. 52. Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting *  Quote exact words: taking the exact words and punctuation from a source and putting it into your paper with quotation marks. 
  53. 53. Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting *  Quote exact words: taking the exact words and punctuation from a source and putting it into your paper with quotation marks.  * Use quotes: a) if you can't say it any better and the author's words are particularly powerful for your paper
  54. 54. Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting *  Quote exact words: taking the exact words and punctuation from a source and putting it into your paper with quotation marks.  * Use quotes: a) if you can't say it any better and the author's words are particularly powerful for your paper b) if your source is well-know and authoritative in making the point 
  55. 55. Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting *  Quote exact words: taking the exact words and punctuation from a source and putting it into your paper with quotation marks.  * Use quotes: a) if you can't say it any better and the author's words are particularly powerful for your paper b) if your source is well-know and authoritative in making the point  c) if your position requires the reader to understand exactly what another writer said
  56. 56. Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing * Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.  Your paper should have more paraphrasing of sources than actual quotes.
  57. 57. Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing * Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.  Your paper should have more paraphrasing of sources than actual quotes. * Paraphrase if: a) when introducing a writer's position
  58. 58. Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing * Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.  Your paper should have more paraphrasing of sources than actual quotes. * Paraphrase if: a) when introducing a writer's position b) your position needs to draw on a scholarly source as a means of support
  59. 59. Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing * Paraphrasing: putting ideas of others into your own words.  Your paper should have more paraphrasing of sources than actual quotes. * Paraphrase if: a) when introducing a writer's position b) your position needs to draw on a scholarly source as a means of support c) when showing a brief example
  60. 60. Avoiding Plagiarism * the difference between the two: * Exact Quote: "The mine, which consists of 100 miles of tunnels, has never experienced a collapse or mine fatality" ("Dry"). * Paraphrased: The Detroit salt mine has never had a cave- in, and no one has ever died in a mining accident ("Dry").  
  61. 61. Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing * Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or opinion into your own words without restating them directly. 
  62. 62. Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing * Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or opinion into your own words without restating them directly.  * Summarize if: a) you want background information without using so much space
  63. 63. Avoiding Plagiarism: Summarizing * Summarizing: putting an entire position, article, text, or opinion into your own words without restating them directly.  * Summarize if: a) you want background information without using so much space b) you want to name/source drop
  64. 64. Avoiding Plagiarism: Visuals * Visuals: such as statistics, data, graphs, charts, photos, or illustrations are often more effective than trying to describe what it is that you are claiming.  
  65. 65. Avoiding Plagiarism: Visuals * Visuals: such as statistics, data, graphs, charts, photos, or illustrations are often more effective than trying to describe what it is that you are claiming.   * However, you must tell the reader what it is they are looking at. 
  66. 66. Avoiding Plagiarism * No matter how you use your information, you must cite each and every source appropriately.  

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