The Mongol Empire
a. China had to protect borders from nomads, people who moved from
place to place during the year, becau...
a. in order to rule China Genghis’ grandson (Kublai Khan) had to conquer
the Song Dynasty
A. Completing the Conquest of Ch...
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Chapter 17 section 2

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Chapter 17 section 2

  1. 1. The Mongol Empire a. China had to protect borders from nomads, people who moved from place to place during the year, because they raided their land b. 1200s Mongols conquered China I. The Mongol Conquests a. Mongolian - nomads who came from the steppes NW of China b. steppe - large dry grassland where climates were harsh and resources were limited A. Genghis Khan a. 1206 Genghis Khan (ruler of the universe) had the Mongol clans under his rule b. led his armies into east China having them break through the Great Wall and destroy many cities c. by 1215,took over most of the Jin Kingdom which ruled North China d. then took over Central Asia and Russia B. Military Victories a. Genghis organized troops in groups of 10,100,1000, and 10,000 men, with an expert horseman for a leader b. used Chinese weapons to take down city walls c. Genghis banned theft, feuding and had harsh punishments for crimes C. Mongolians Build an Empire a. Genghis Khan died in 1227 b. empire continued expanding, took over rest of Jin Kingdom in 1234, expanded to west c. Golden Horde - Genghis’ grandson (Batu) ruled Russia for more than a century d. took Persia, Mesopotamia, and Syria and in 1258 sacked Baghdad and killed Muslim caliph e. controlled largest empire ever known d. Genghis Khan was the ruler of the Mongolians. His greatest achievements were expanding the empire and keeping control of the Mongolians. II. Ruling the Empire a. Mongolians separated empire in four parts called khanates, a descendant ruled each one b. 1. South Central Asia 2. North Central Asia and Russia 3. land of the I1-Khans,Modern Pakistan and Turkey 4. China and Mongolia, was the largest c. Mongolians ruled outside of China through local officials d. local princes in Russia carried out Mongolian laws, who later became rulers after Mongolians left e. the I1-Khan who ruled Muslim lands adopted the religion of Islam f. It was similar because they had a leader for every province III. The Yuan Dynasty
  2. 2. a. in order to rule China Genghis’ grandson (Kublai Khan) had to conquer the Song Dynasty A. Completing the Conquest of China a. rivers and canals slowed Mongolians down from invading quickly b. Kublai Khan built a fleet and capture cities along southern rivers c.1279 he took over all of China made himself ruler of the Yuan dynasty (the beginning) B. Mongol rule in China a. By honoring Chinese traditions, Kublai kept most of the Song bureaucracy and Chinese court b. he reduced scholar officials’ power, giving it to regional officials and suspended civil service exams to choose his own followers C. Society in Yuan China a. the greatest change was the society being split in 4: 1. Mongolians 2. foreigners 3. N. Chinese 4. S. Chinese b. this allowed Mongolians to keep separate from China, and only giving them few rights c. Mongolians welcomed foreigners, allowed them to preach and spread faith d. Yuan means the beginning. Kublai kept Chinese traditions to keep symbols of Chinese royal power. He changed the power to the regional officials and chose his followers. The main purpose was to give China very few rights and to be favored by the foreigners. IV. Life in Yuan Trade A. Revival of Trade a. Mongolians encouraged trading b. kept traditions of ‘sea trade’ started by the Song c. reopened Silk Road that linked China to Europe and closed because of disorder and warfare d. used caravans traded goods and inventions. B. Foreign visitors

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