I pv6 addressing-rg-animated

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I pv6 addressing-rg-animated

  1. 1. 1© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 Addressing: Learn ItOr “I was hoping to retire before I had to learn IPv6.”Rick GrazianiJob titleCabrillo College
  2. 2. IPv6 Address Notation, Structure andSubnetting
  3. 3. 3© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 addresses are 128-bit addresses represented in: Eight 16-bit segments or ―hextets‖ (not a formal term) Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF Separated by colonsOne Hex digit = 4 bits2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/642001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 010016 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits
  4. 4. 4© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada How many addresses does 128 bits give us? 340 undecillionaddesses or … 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses or … ―IPv6 could provide each and every square micrometer of the earth’s surfacewith 5,000 unique addresses. Micrometer = 0.001 mm or 0.000039 inches‖or…. ―A string of soccer balls would wrap around our universe 200 billion times!‖… in other words … I won’t be presenting at a Cisco Academy Conference on IPv7.2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/642001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 010016 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits
  5. 5. 5© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses. The first rule is:Leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written.3ffe : 0404 : 0001 : 1000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0ef0 : bc003ffe : 404 : 1 : 1000 : 0 : 0 : ef0 : bc003ffe : 0000 : 010d : 000a : 00dd : c000 : e000 : 00013ffe : 0 : 10d : a : dd : c000 : e000 : 1ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0500ff02 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 500
  6. 6. 6© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada The second rule can reduce this address even further: Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consistingof all zeroes can be represented with a double colon.ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0500ff02 : : 500ff02::500Second Rule First Rule
  7. 7. 7© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Only a single contiguous string of all-zero segments can berepresented with a double colon. Both of these are correct…2001 : 0d02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0014 : 0000 : 0000 : 00952001 : d02 :: 14 : 0 : 0 : 95OR2001 : d02 : 0 : 0 : 14 :: 95
  8. 8. 8© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Using the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address can createambiguity because of the ambiguity in the number of 0’s.2001:d02::14::952001:0d02:0000:0000:0014:0000:0000:00952001:0d02:0000:0000:0000:0014:0000:00952001:0d02:0000:0014:0000:0000:0000:0095
  9. 9. 9© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv4, the prefix—the network portion of the address—can be identifiedby a dotted decimal netmask or bitcount.255.255.255.0 or /24 IPv6 prefixes are always identified by bitcount (prefix length). Prefix length notation:3ffe:1944:100:a::/6416 32 48 64 bits
  10. 10. IPv6 Address Types
  11. 11. 11© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingIPv6 Address Types: Starting with Global UnicastMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80Note: There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6
  12. 12. 12© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixStructure of a Global Unicast Addressn bits m bits 128-n-m bits001 Range 2000::/3 to 3FFF::/312IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8thsections• Globalunicast addressesare similar to IPv4addresses.• Routable• Unique
  13. 13. 13© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Routing Prefix SizesInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing Prefix/48 /64/32/23*RIR*ISP Prefix*Site PrefixSubnet Prefix* This is a minimum allocation. The prefix-length may be less if it can be justified./56Possible Home Site Prefix
  14. 14. 14© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Unicast Addresses and the 3-1-4 ruleIPv4 Unicast Address32 bitsNetwork portion Host portionSubnet portion/?IPv6 Global Unicast Address128 bitsGlobal Routing Prefix Interface IDFixedSubnet ID/64* 16-bit Subnet ID gives us 65,536 subnets. (Yes, you can use the all 0’s and all 1’s.) * 64-bit Interface ID gives us 18 quintillion (18,446,744,073,709,551,616) devices/subnet.
  15. 15. 15© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixGlobal Unicast Addresses and the 3-1-4 rule2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 010016 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits3 1 4/48 /64
  16. 16. 16© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada 4 specific subnets to be used inside Company1:• 2340:1111:AAAA:0000::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:0001::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:0002::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:000A::/64 Note: A valid abbreviation is to remove the 3 leading 0’s from the firstshown quartet.• 2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64
  17. 17. 17© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnetting into the Interface IDPrefix64 bits48 bits 16bits/48 /1122001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0001 : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0002 : 0000thru2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFE : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA :FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : 0000Global Routing Prefix Subnet-ID Interface ID
  18. 18. 18© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSubnetting on a nibble boundaryInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnet Prefix/6860 bits48 bits 20 bits/48 /68Subnetting on a nibble (4 bit) boundary makes it easier to list the subnets:/64, /68, /72,etc.2001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/682001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:1000::/682001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:2000::/68 through2001:0DB8:AAAA:FFFF:F000::/68
  19. 19. 19© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSubnetting within a nibbleInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnet Prefix/7058 bits48 bits 22 bits/48 /702001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/70 00002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0400::/70 01002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0800::/70 10002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0C00::/701100Four Bits: The twoleftmost bits are part ofthe Subnet-ID, whereasthe two rightmost bitsbelong to the InterfaceID.bits
  20. 20. 20© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastStatic Global Unicast AddressesDynamicIPv6UnnumberedStatelessAutoconfiguration DHCPv6Static EUI-64ManualIPv6 Address
  21. 21. 21© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaRick’s CaféNetwork TopologyPC-1PC-2PC-3 PC-4R2R3 ISPR1Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/1.1Ser 0/0/1.2Ser 0/0/.1Ser 0/0/1.1Fa 0/0 Fa 0/0 Fa 0/0Fa 0/02001:0DB8:CAFE:0002::/64Rick’s Cafe2001:0DB8:CAFE::/482001:0DB8:CAFE:0001::/64 2001:0DB8:CAFE:0003::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/64 2001:0DB8:CAFE:A002::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:A003::/642001:0DB8:FEED:0001::/64Link to ISP2001:0DB8:FACE:C0DE::/64
  22. 22. 22© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# conf tR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:cafe:0001::1/64R1(config-if)# no shutdownR1(config-if)# exitR1(config)#Configuring a Static Global Unicast Address• Exactly the same as an IPv4 address only different.• No space between IPv6 address and Prefix-length.• IOS commands for IPv6 are very similar to their IPv4 counterpart.• All 0’s and all 1’s are valid IPv6 host IPv6 addresses.No space
  23. 23. 23© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada23show running-config command on router R1R1# show running-config<output omitted for brevity>interface FastEthernet0/0no ip addressduplex autospeed autoipv6 address 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/64!
  24. 24. 24© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadashow ipv6 interface brief command on router R1R1# show ipv6 interface briefFastEthernet0/0 [up/up]FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D4802001:DB8:CAFE:1::1R1#Global unicast addressLink-local unicast address24• Link-local address automatically created when (before) the globalunicast address is.• We will discuss link-local addresses next.
  25. 25. 25© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadashow ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0 command on R1R1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64Joined group address(es):FF02::1FF02::2FF02::1:FF00:1FF02::1:FFC2:828DMTU is 1500 bytes<output omitted for brevity>R1#
  26. 26. 26© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaPC-1: Static Global Unicast Address26
  27. 27. 27© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaPC1>ipconfigWindows IP ConfigurationEthernet adapter Local Area Connection:Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:cafe:1::100Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1%11Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:cafe:1::127PC-1: Static Global Unicast Address
  28. 28. 28© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastDynamicIPv6UnnumberedIPv6 AddressStatelessAutoconfiguration DHCPv6Static EUI-6428Modified EUI-64 Format: Creates a 64-bit Interface ID from a 48-bitaddressManual
  29. 29. 29© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:cafe:0001::/64 ?eui-64 Use eui-64 interface identifier<cr><<< All0’s address is okay!R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:cafe:0001::/64 eui-64R1(config-if)#• Router’s global unicastaddress can be configuredwith:• Statically configuredprefix and …• EUI-64 generatedInterface ID2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::/64Fa0/0R1Global Unicast:Prefix: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1::/64Interface ID: EUI-64
  30. 30. 30© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upHardware is AmdFE, address is 0003.6be9.d480 (bia 0003.6be9.d480)<output omitted for brevity> Ethernet MAC addressR1’s MAC Address for FastEthernet 0/0HexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bits00 03 6B E9 D4 80Binary 0000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 0000
  31. 31. 31© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bitsBinaryStep 1: Split the MAC addressBinaryStep 2: Insert FFFEBinaryStep 3: Flip the U/L bitBinaryModified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation1111 1111 1111 11101111 1111 1111 111002 03 6B E9 D4 80FF FE00 03 6B E9 D4 800000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 0110 10110000 0010 0000 0011 0110 1011Modified EUI-64 Format
  32. 32. 32© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1’s FastEthernet 0/0 48 bit MAC Address:0003.6be9.d4800 0 0 3 . 6 be 9 . D 4 8 00000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 11111111 11111110 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0010 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 11111111 11111110 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000 2 0 3 . 6 b F F F E e 9 . D 4 8 01Interface ID(EUI-64 format)Subnet Prefix(Manually configured)Global unicast address: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001:0203:6BFF:FEE9:D480R1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:aaaa:0001::/64 eui-6423
  33. 33. 33© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:aaaa:0001::/64 eui-64R1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:CAFE:1:203:6BFF:FEE9:D480,subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64<output omitted for brevity>Address using EUI-64 format
  34. 34. Dynamic Global Unicast Addresses
  35. 35. 35© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastManualIPv6UnnumberedIPv6 AddressStatelessAutoconfiguration DHCPv6Static EUI-6435Dynamic
  36. 36. 36© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadaipv6 unicast-routing2RouterADHCPv6 ServerNDP Router Solicitation ―Needinformation from the router‖1• The router’s RouterAdvertisementdetermines how the hostgets its dynamic addressconfiguration.• ipv6 unicast-routingcommand enables routerto send RouterAdvertisements.NDP Router Advertisement―I’m everything you need (Prefix,Prefix-length, Default Gateway)‖Or―Here is my information but youneed to get other informationsuch as DNS addresses from aDHCPv6 server.‖Or―I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6server for all your information.‖
  37. 37. 37© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaNDP Router AdvertisementPrefix: 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::Prefix-length: /64To: FF02::1 (All-hostsmulticast)From: FE80::1 (Link-localaddress)NDP RouterSolicitationipv6 unicast-routing123MAC: 00-19-D2-8C-E0-4CPrefix: 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::EUI-64 Interface ID: 02-19-D2-FF-FE-8C-E0-4CGlobal Unicast Address:2001:DB8:AAAA:1:0219:D2FF:FE8C:E04CPrefix-length: /64Default Gateway: FE80::1PC1>ipconfigIPv6 Address. . . . . . : 2001:DB8:AAAA:1:0219:D2FF:FE8C:E04CDefault Gateway . . . . :fe80::1RouterAEUI-64
  38. 38. 38© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaPC1>ipconfigWindows IP ConfigurationEthernet adapter Local Area Connection:IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . : 2001:DB8:AAAA:1:0219:D2FF:FE8C:E04CLink-local IPv6 Address . . . : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1%11Default Gateway . . . . . . . : fe80::1Windows Link-local address• Windows operating systems, Windows XP and Server 2003 use EUI-64.• Windows Vista and newer do not use EUI-64; hosts create a random64-bit Interface ID.The %value following the link-local address is a Windows Zone ID and not part of IPv6.
  39. 39. 39© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaNDP RouterAdvertisement―Here is myinformation but youneed to get otherinformation such asDNS addresses froma DHCPv6 server.‖Or―I can’t help you. Aska DHCPv6 server forall your information.‖NDP RouterSolicitationipv6 unicast-routing123RouterA4 DHCPv6 Advertise Message―I’m a DHCPv6 Server.‖DHCPv6 Solicit Message―I need a DHCPv6 Server.‖DHCPv6 Server5 DHCPv6 Request Message―I need addressing information.6DHCPv6 Reply Message―Here is your address andother information.‖Stateless AddressingDHCPv6 Addressing
  40. 40. 40© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastManualIPv6UnnumberedIPv6 AddressStatelessAutoconfiguration DHCPv6Static EUI-64 ―Stateful DHCPv6‖Dynamic
  41. 41. 41© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadaipv6 unicast-routing1RouterA2 DHCPv6 Advertise Message―I’m a DHCPv6 Server.‖DHCPv6 Solicit Message―I need a DHCPv6 Server.‖DHCPv6 Server3 DHCPv6 Request Message―I need addressing information.4DHCPv6 Reply Message―Here is your address andother information.‖DHCPv6 Addressing―Stateful DHCPv6‖
  42. 42. Link-local Unicast Address
  43. 43. 43© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingLink-Local UnicastMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80
  44. 44. 44© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada44Range:FE80::/10FEBF::/10Interface ID/641111 1110 10xx xxxxFE80::/10Remaining 54 bits10 bits 64 bitsEUI-64, Random or Manual ConfigurationLink-local unicast
  45. 45. 45© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada• Used to communicate with other devices on the link.• Are NOT routable off the link.• An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address.• Used by:• Hosts to communicate to the IPv6 network before it has a globalunicast address.• Used as the default gateway address by hosts.• Adjacent routers to exchange routing updatesInterface ID/641111 1110 10xx xxxxFE80::/10Remaining 54 bits10 bits 64 bitsEUI-64, Random or Manual ConfigurationLink-local unicast
  46. 46. 46© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::01002001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:1::/64Fa0/0Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2Global Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::1/64• Link-local address automaticallycreated when (before) theglobal unicast address is.• FE80 + 64-bit Interface ID• EUI-64 Format• Randomly generated• Link-local address can also becreated statically.Link-local address: ?Link-local address: ?PC-1R2R1
  47. 47. 47© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadashow ipv6 interface brief command on router R1R1# show ipv6 interface briefFastEthernet0/0 [up/up]FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D4802001:DB8:CAFE:1::1Serial0/0/0 [up/up]FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D4802001:DB8:CAFE:A001::1Serial0/0/1 [up/up]FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D4802001:DB8:CAFE:A003::1R1#• Link-local address automatically created when (before) the globalunicast address.• By default, IOS will use modified EUI-64 format.Global unicast addressLink-local unicast address
  48. 48. 48© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalR1’s MAC Address for FastEthernet 0/0OUI (Organization UniqueIdentifier)24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bits00 03 6B E9 D4 80Binary 000000000000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 000048Modified EUI-64 Format: Creates a 64-bit Interface ID from a 48-bitaddress
  49. 49. 49© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bitsBinaryStep 1: Split the MAC addressBinaryStep 2: Insert FFFEBinaryStep 3: Flip the U/L bitBinaryModified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation1111 1111 1111 11101111 1111 1111 111002 03 6B E9 D4 80FF FE00 03 6B E9 D4 800000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 0110 10110000 0010 0000 0011 0110 1011Modified EUI-64 Format
  50. 50. 50© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upHardware is AmdFE, address is 0003.6be9.d480 (bia 0003.6be9.d480)<output omitted for brevity>R1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:AAAA:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::/64<output omitted for brevity>Link-local address using EUI-64 formatEthernet MAC address
  51. 51. 51© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::01002001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:1::/64Fa0/0Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2Global Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::1/64• Dynamic link-local addresses can bedifficult to identify.• Routers use link-local addresses for:• Exchanging routing updates• Default gateway address for hosts• Static link-local addresses are easierto remember and identify.• Link-local addresses only have to beunique on the link!PC-1R2R1FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480(EUI-64)FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1FE80::1(Static)
  52. 52. 52© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address fe80::1 ?link-local Use link-local addressR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address fe80::1 link-localR1(config-if)# exitR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address fe80::1 link-localR1(config-if)# exitR1#R1# show ipv6 interface briefFastEthernet0/0 [up/up]FE80::12001:DB8:CAFE:1::1Serial0/0/0 [up/up]FE80::12001:DB8:CAFE:A001::1R1#Same link-local unicast address (best practice)Static Link-local Address
  53. 53. 53© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# ping fe80::2Output Interface: ser 0/0/0% Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1)Output Interface: serial0/0/0Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs:!!!!!Must include exit-interfaceFa0/0Global Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::1/64FE80::1 2001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/64Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2R2R1FE80::1 FE80::2Ping Link-local Address
  54. 54. 54© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadaipv6 enable commandRouter(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1Router(config-if)# ipv6 enableRouter(config-if)# endRouter# show ipv6 interface briefFastEthernet0/1 [up/up]FE80::20C:30FF:FE10:92E1Router#54• Link-local addresses are automatically created whenever a global unicastaddress is configured.• The ipv6 enable command will:• Create a link-local address when there is no global unicast address• Maintain the link-local address even when the global unicast addressis removed.Link-local unicast addressonly
  55. 55. 55© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show running-config!interface FastEthernet0/0no ip addressipv6 address FE80::1 link-localipv6 address 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/64!interface Serial0/0/0no ip addressipv6 address FE80::1 link-localipv6 address 2001:DB8:CAFE:A001::1/64!
  56. 56. 56© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaPC1>ipconfigWindows IP ConfigurationEthernet adapter Local Area Connection:Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:cafe:1::100Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1%11Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:cafe:1::1Windows Link-local address• Windows operating systems, Windows XP and Server 2003 use EUI-64.• Windows Vista and newer do not use EUI-64 create a random 64-bitInterface ID.The %value following the link-local address is a Windows Zone ID and not part of IPv6.
  57. 57. 57© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaMymac$ ifconfigen0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST>mtu 1500ether c4:2c:03:2a:b5:a2inet6 fe80::c62c:3ff:fe2a:b5a2MAC Link-local address• My MAC OS 10.6 uses EUI-64 but you check with your OS flavor andversion.• Many Linux flavors moving to random Interface IDs
  58. 58. 58© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingOther Unicast AddressesMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80
  59. 59. Multicast Addresses
  60. 60. 60© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingMulticast AddressesMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80
  61. 61. 61© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGroup IDFlag1111 1111FF00::/88 bits 112bits4 bits 4 bitsScopeFlag0 Permanent, well-known multicast address assigned by IANA1 Non-permanently-assigned, ―dynamically" assigned multicast addressScope (partial list)0 Reserved1 Interface-Local scope2 Link-Local scope5 Site-Local scope8 Organization-Local scope
  62. 62. 62© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingMulticast AddressesMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80
  63. 63. 63© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:AAAA:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::/64Joined group address(es):FF02::1FF02::2FF02::1:FF00:1FF02::1:FFE9:D480<output omitted for brevity>All-nodes on this linkAll-routers on this link: IPv6 routing enabledSolicited-node multicast address for Link-local UnicastAddressSolicited-node multicast address for Global AddressMember of these Multicast Groups• FF02 – ―2‖ means link-local scope• What is Solicited node?
  64. 64. 64© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaEnabling IPv6 RoutingR1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing• A router’s interfaces can be enabled (get an IPv6 address) for IPv6like any other device on the network.• For the router to ―act‖ as an IPv6 router it must be enabled with theipv6-unicast routing command.• This enables the router to:• Send Router Advertisement messages• Enable the forwarding of IPv6 packets.• Participate in IPv6 routing protocols (RIPng, EIGRP for IPv6,OSPFv3)
  65. 65. 65© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingMulticast AddressesMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80
  66. 66. 66© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSolicited-node multicast addresses for PC2 NIC: I will listen for my MACaddressIP: I listen for my IP addresses(Global and Link-local)Global Unicast Address:Link-local Unicast Address:MAC Unicast Address:2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001:0000:0000:0000:0200FE80::1111:2222:3333:444400-19-D2-8C-E0-4CPC-2• Devices list for their unicast addresses.• Devices also listen for their multicast addresses…MACIP: Global or Link-local
  67. 67. 67© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSolicited-node multicast addresses for PC2 NIC: I will also listen for my MACmulticast addressIP: I will also listen for my IP multicastaddresses (Global and Link-local)Global Unicast Address:Solicited Node (Global):Link-local Unicast Address:Solicited Node (Link-local):MAC Unicast Address:Solicited Node (MAC):2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001:0000:0000:0000:0200FF02::1:FF00:200FE80::1111:2222:3333:4444FF02::1:FF33:444400-19-D2-8C-E0-4C33-33-FF-00-02-0033-33-FF-33-44-44PC-2Broadcasts
  68. 68. 68© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSolicited-node multicast addressInterface IDFF0224 bits0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 FFGlobal Routing Prefix SubnetID104 bits 24 bitsUnicast/Anycast AddressSolicited-Node Multicast AddressCopy104 bitsFF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::/104• Devices create a solicited node multicast address for their unicast(and anycast) addresses including:• Global Unicast Address• Link-local Address
  69. 69. 69© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada• Used as a destination address when don’t know the unicast address.• Address Resolution (―ARP‖) and Duplicate Address Detection (―Gratuitous ARP‖)• Same intent as a broadcast but more efficient.• Devices process packets with their solicited node multicast address as thedestination address: IP and MAC.Solicited-node multicast addressInterface IDFF0224 bits0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 FFGlobal Routing Prefix SubnetID104 bits 24 bitsUnicast/Anycast AddressSolicited-Node Multicast AddressCopy104 bitsFF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::/104
  70. 70. 70© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:AAAA:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::/64Joined group address(es):FF02::1FF02::2FF02::1:FF00:1FF02::1:FFE9:D480<output omitted for brevity>Solicited-node multicast address for Link-local UnicastAddressSolicited-node multicast address for Global AddressMember of these Multicast Groups
  71. 71. 71© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaRouter(config)# interface fastethenet 0/0Router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:db8:cafe:1::/64 eui-64Router# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8No Virtual link-local address(es):Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:CAFE:1:21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [EUI]Joined group address(es):FF02::1FF02::2FF02::1:FFC2:82D8• If the Global and Link-local unicast addresses used EUI-64 the last 24 bitswould be the same and there would only be one solicited node address.Solicited-node multicast address for Global and Link-local unicast addresses
  72. 72. 72© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDFF02 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 FFGlobal Routing Prefix104 bits 24 bitsPC2’s Global Unicast AddressPC2’s IPv6 Solicited-Node Multicast AddressCopy• PC2’s IPv6 Global Unicast Address: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001::0200• PC2’s IPv6 Solicited-node multicast address: FF02::1:FF00:0200• PC2’s mapped solicited-node Ethernet multicast address : 33-33-FF-00-02-00Subnet ID2001:0DB8:AAAA 0001 0000:0000:00 00:020000:0200FF-00-02-00Copy33-33Solicited-node Multicast addressmapped to Ethernet destination MACaddress
  73. 73. 73© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaAt Layer 2 and 3 I amlistening for a lot ofaddresses.Global Unicast Address:Solicited Node (Global):MAC Unicast Address:Solicited Node (MAC):2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001:0000:0000:0000:0200FF02::1:FF00:20033-33-FF-00-02-00PC-2Why Solicited Node Addresses?• Broadcasts are sent to all devices.• Devices must process all broadcast at least to layer 3.• Solicited Node Multicasts are only processed by thosedevices with the matching last 24 bits (usually onedevice).• If I know the IPv6 address but not the MAC address Ican send it to a solicited node addresses instead of abroadcast to everyone…
  74. 74. 74© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaPC-1NDP Neighbor Solicitation MessageDestination: Solicited-node Multicast―Whoever has 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1::0200 send meyour Ethernet MAC address‖Address ResolutionPC-22001:0DB8:AAAA:1::0200FF02::1:FF00:2002001:0DB8:AAAA:1::0100MAC: 00-19-D2-8C-E0-4C33-33-FF-00-02-00NIC: That’s one of my solicitednode MAC addresses.IPv6: That’s one of my solicitednode addresses.Source MAC00-12-34-56-78-9AEthernet ICMPv6Target IPv62002:0DB8:AAAA:0001::0200Destination IPv6FF02::1FF00:200Source IPv62002:0DB8:AAAA:0001::0100Dest. MAC33-33-FF-00-02-00IPv6 Header• Possible that multiple devices may have the same last 24 bits in their IPv6address but only those devices would have to process up to the target.
  75. 75. 75© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaUse of solicited-node multicasts with addressing resolution and DADPC-BNDP Neighbor Solicitation MessageDestination: Solicited-node Multicast―Before I use this address is anyone else on thislink using this link-local address:FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1?‖PC-1Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)NDP Neighbor Solicitation MessageDestination: Solicited-node Multicast―Who ever has the IPv6 address2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001::0200 please send me yourEthernet MAC address‖Address Resolution75
  76. 76. 76© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 AddressingIPv6 Address TypesMulticastUnicast AnycastAssigned Solicited NodeGlobal Unicast UnspecifiedLoopbackEmbeddedIPv4Link-Local Unique LocalFF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104::/128::1/1282000::/33FFF::/3FE80::/10FEBF::/10FC00::/7FDFF::/7::/80Note: There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6
  77. 77. 77© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastStatic Global Unicast AddressesIPv6UnnumberedStatelessAutoconfigurationStatic EUI-64ManualIPv6 AddressDynamicDHCPv6
  78. 78. Questions?Web site: www.cabrillo.edu/~rgrazianiUsername = ciscoPassword = perlmanEmail: graziani@cabrillo.edu
  79. 79. 79© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada

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