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Landscape ecology

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Using abstract diagrams and simple text, this slide show teaches the basic principles of landscape ecology patterns in natural and built environments, and how they support process.

Published in: Environment
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Landscape ecology

  1. 1. Landscape Ecology: Sustainable Urban Landscape Patterns
  2. 2. The Language of Landscape Ecology Elements and anatomy • Patches • Edges • Corridors • Mosaics spatial theory with no distinction between built and natural environments
  3. 3. Patches origins of patches: • remnant • introduced • disturbance • resource protection
  4. 4. Patch dynamics large patches have more core dividing a patch creates more edge
  5. 5. Patch dynamics large patches have more core dividing a patch creates more edge
  6. 6. Patch dynamics a critical mass of interdependent activity is lost when urban cores are segmented
  7. 7. Patch dynamics a critical mass of interdependent activity is lost when urban cores are segmented
  8. 8. Patch dynamics
  9. 9. Patch dynamics large patches have higher population and less likelihood of extinction over time time
  10. 10. Patch dynamics large patches have higher population and less likelihood of extinction over time
  11. 11. Patch dynamics smaller, under-populated neighborhoods may be lost over time time
  12. 12. Patch dynamics smaller, isolated elements may be lost over time
  13. 13. Patch dynamics large patches have more habitat diversity and greater population diversity
  14. 14. Patch dynamics large urban areas have more settings, encouraging more diverse populations and activities
  15. 15. Patch dynamics large urban areas have more diverse populations
  16. 16. Patch dynamics a system of small patches may support a comparable amount of activity, though diverse in type
  17. 17. Patch dynamics
  18. 18. Patch dynamics a network of districts or activities in an urban area may perform competitively with larger ones
  19. 19. Patch dynamics
  20. 20. Patch dynamics
  21. 21. Patch dynamics Portland, Oregon grid of patches
  22. 22. Patch dynamics Portland, Oregon
  23. 23. Patch dynamics patches closer to a larger patch will be more likely to maintain their populations; farther patches risk extinction
  24. 24. Patch dynamics
  25. 25. Patch dynamics villages closer to the urban core are more likely to have sustained occupancy and activity
  26. 26. Patch dynamics
  27. 27. Edges characteristics of edges: • cross-section • straight or convoluted • width • vulnerability • transitional • filtering/buffering
  28. 28. Edges Abrupt edges encourage parallel movement.
  29. 29. Edges Pastureland at forest edge
  30. 30. Edges Abrupt edges encourage parallel movement and discourage lateral movement.
  31. 31. Edges Ovieto
  32. 32. Edges Suburban to rural sprawl
  33. 33. Edges Convoluted edges have more length, and contain coves and lobes, encouraging movement through them.
  34. 34. Edges
  35. 35. Edges Convoluted edges have more length, and contain coves and lobes, encouraging movement through them.
  36. 36. Edges Patterns that relate to CONTACT and EXCHANGE are valid for both built and natural systems
  37. 37. Edges Hong Kong
  38. 38. Edges
  39. 39. Edges Vertical change that is less abrupt has more structural diversity.
  40. 40. Edges
  41. 41. Edges Vertical change that is less abrupt has more structural diversity.
  42. 42. Edges
  43. 43. Edges Directional forces (sun, wind) produce wider edges. r r
  44. 44. Edges
  45. 45. Edges Directional forces (microclimate, people) produce wider edges. r r
  46. 46. Edges
  47. 47. Edges Convoluted edges foster more +/- interaction.
  48. 48. Edges Convoluted edges foster more +/- interaction.
  49. 49. Corridors characteristics of corridors: • connect shrinking patches • allow continuity and movement • may dissect patches • create barriers • filter movement rivers power lines hedgerows canals roadways bikeways tunnels
  50. 50. Corridors Continuity and width influence the function of corridors.
  51. 51. Biodiversity Corridors
  52. 52. Biodiversity Corridors
  53. 53. Pedestrian Corridors Continuity and width influence the function of corridors.
  54. 54. Corridors Oxford Circus (London)
  55. 55. Corridors Continuity and width influence the function of corridors, also when they are barriers.
  56. 56. Corridors “Stepping stones” may provide most corridor functions.
  57. 57. Corridors “Stepping stones” may provide most corridor functions.
  58. 58. Parallel Corridors River corridors with vegetation corridors have mutual benefits.
  59. 59. Parallel Corridors Road corridors benefit from parallel pedestrian corridors.
  60. 60. Corridor constraints
  61. 61. Corridors (San Antonio, TX)
  62. 62. Corridors Austin, TX
  63. 63. Corridors Austin, TX
  64. 64. The case of Thorton Creek Seattle, WA
  65. 65. The case of Thorton Creek Seattle, WA
  66. 66. The case of Thorton Creek Seattle, WA
  67. 67. The case of Thorton Creek Seattle, WA
  68. 68. The case of Thorton Creek 680-acre watershed
  69. 69. The case of Thorton Creek 680-acre watershed
  70. 70. Corridors of patches Ladder patterns may be more effective than narrow parallel corridors for streams.
  71. 71. Corridors Willamette River
  72. 72. Corridors-Urban Core Parallel corridors with street trees may or may not have mutual benefits.
  73. 73. Corridors-Urban Core Ladder patterns may be more effective than narrow parallel corridors for roads.
  74. 74. Corridors-Urban Core
  75. 75. Corridors-Urban Core 30 units (sites) for buffer
  76. 76. Corridors-Urban Core 17 units (sites) for buffer
  77. 77. Ladder Pattern-Pocket Parks
  78. 78. Mosaics characteristics of mosaics: • pattern • scale • connectivity • networks • circuitry • mesh size
  79. 79. Mosaics Pattern is created by the arrangement and layering of spatial geometry.

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