“Mind is the great leveller of all
things; human thought is the
process by which human ends are
- Daniel Webster
THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence is manifested in many ways within and across cultures.
• People can behave intelligently in so many different situations.
• Satisfactory performance in school
• Knowing how to fix a car
• Being able to deliver a speech or recite poems
INTELLIGENCE CONSIDERING DIFFERENT SOCIETIES
PHILIPPINES – a person who is fluent in English
NORTH AMERICANS – one who exhibits verbal fluency
Certain AFRICAN COUNTRIES – means expert hunting
PACIFIC ISLANDERS – the ability to navigate the seas skilfully
(Mussen, Conger and Kagan 1979)
Psychologists define intelligence based on experiments and investigations:
• DAVID WECHSLER – believes that intelligence is the capacity to
understand the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its
• ALFRED BINET – defines intelligence as “a general capacity for
comprehension and reasoning that manifests itself in various ways.”
- This refers to the ability to think, to memorize, to solve problems, to
rationalize and to express oneself verbally and nonverbally.
• HILGARD, ATKINSON AND ATKINSON – described intelligence
as “an aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposely,
to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
- It is also referred to as the cognitive ability of an individual to learn
from experience, to reason well and to cope effectively with the
demands of daily living.
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
The term “intelligence” was popularized in the late 1800s to 1900s by the
1. SIR FRANCIS GALTON
– viewed intelligence as a
single general factor that
provides the basis for the
more specific abilities that
each of us possesses. (
artistic, and other kinds of
2. CHARLES SPEARMAN – used the term g to refer to
the general factors of intelligent or generally dull.
- He described g as a
wellspring of mental energy that
flows into everything an
individual does. However, there
are factors for certain functions.
These specific factors are
labelled the s factors.
Performance on a numerical
test taps a specific s, while
verbal fluency would be a
separate s. Thus, a person’s
intelligence reflects the g plus
the s factors.
– He also held the
concept of a g factor of
intelligence. He is the
author of the most
tests for children
and adults in the
3. DAVID WECHSLER
•VERBAL COMPREHENSION –
the ability to understand and
•WORD FLUENCY – the ability to
express oneself either orally or in
writing as well as the ability to
think of the proper word fast.
•NUMBER – the ability to do
arithmetic and other numerical
4. LOUIS THURSTONE – viewed intelligence as a
collection of many separate specific abilities. He developed the
Primary Mental Abilities which are:
•MEMORY – the ability to remember facts easily.
•PERCEPTUAL – the ability to group visual details
and distinguish similarities and differences between
•SPACE – the ability to visualize the figures and
objects as well as see relationships of forms.
•REASONING – the ability to formulate a general rule
based on presented data.
Primary Mental Abilities (cont’d)
He provided a three-dimensional
structure of intelligence. The
components are as follows:
OPERATION – what the individual
does or the processes involved in
knowing such as cognition, memory,
and evaluation. This refers to the style
or approach one uses.
CONTENT – what the individual
knows or the nature of the information.
PRODUCTS – the end results or the
5. J. P. GUILFORD – proposed the 150 different abilities that
make up intelligence.
Sternberg’s triarchic theory distinguishes three aspects of
•knowledge-acquisition component – learning
new information or creative intelligence.
component – solving specific problems
or analytical intelligence.
•motor component – solving problems
in general or practical intelligence.
6. ROBERT STERNBERG – proposed a tentative theory which
states that intelligence has cognitive components which a person must use in
reasoning and solving some kinds of problems.
•Musical – the ability displayed by musicians or child prodigies.
•Bodily - kinaesthetic – the ability to control body movements as shown by
dancers and athletes.
•Logico - mathematical – the ability possessed by scientists; persons with logical-
math intelligence; can connect mathematical operations to complex problem-
•Linguistics – the ability of writers or poets.
•Spatial – the ability to visualize spatial scenes as shown by
pilots and ship navigators.
•Interpersonal – the ability to infer other person’s moods,
•Intrapersonal – the ability to have insight over one’s own feelings
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE - Howard Gardner has identified seven
kinds of intelligence.
- Are tasks formulated to assess
- Designed either for individuals
- Commonly known as IQ tests
which measures our
Individual Intelligence Test
- This type of test furnishes a rich sample of an individual’s
behaviour which can be the basis of getting information about
person’s mental abilities.
- The example of this tests are the STANFORD-BINET TEST
and the WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE or
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN.
SIR FRANCIS GALTON – The first psychologist to explore the
measurement of intelligence test. His indicators are perceptual,
physical attributes, and genetic endowment. He reasoned
that if he could determine which physical measurement
correspond to intelligence, it can be affirmed that intelligence is
passed from one generation to the next.
Measurement of Intelligence
Measurement of Intelligence
ALFRED BINET – He was
interested on how mental
abilities differ from one to
another. He was
commissioned to devise a
test that would
distinguish children of
to those who were
Measurement of Intelligence
ALFRED BINET and THEODORE SIMON -
devised a 50-item test that became the forerunner of all
modern tests of intelligence. It successfully distinguished
mentally retarded from normal children, confirming the
idea that memory, reasoning, remembering,
and imagining are better indicators of
intelligence than perception and physical
attributes developed by Galton. They also
identified the average performance of children
ranging from 3 – 13 years old.
Age Level Task Performed
3 Repeat two digits
Point to nose, eyes, mouth
4 Identify own sex
Repeat three digits
5 Copy a square
Repeat a sentence with ten syllables
6 Copy a diamond
Count 13 pieces
7 Show right hand and left ear
Name four colours
8 Count backward from 20 – 0
Note omissions from pictures of familiar objects
9 Recognize nine common coins
Name the months of the year in order
10 Arrange the books in order of weight
11 Discover the meaning of a disarranged sentence
12 Define three abstract words
13 Name three rhymes for a given word in one minute
Heredity and The Environment - One extreme view of intelligence
is that it is hereditary, transmitted from parents to offspring through the
genes. Another extreme view is that intelligence is totally a function of
the environment and experience. However, it can be safely stated that
intelligence is a product of both.
Sex Differences - There are performance differences between the
sexes in certain intellectual abilities due to hormonal differences and in
the way parents treat boys and girls.
- Good in simple,
language or verbal
- Good in jobs requiring higher
cognitive processes such as
solving problems, puzzles
- Possesses numerical ability
and spatial ability
The formula for obtaining the IQ is:
× 100 Binet and Simon created the
concept of mental age (MA),
the index of the child’s problem
solving ability that is independent of
the child’s actual age or
chronological age (CA).
For example, If the 10-year-old child’s mental
age is 12 then his IQ is 120. He is above
average than other children. If this child’s
mental age is 8, then his IQ is 80; which
indicates that he is below average.
The following table presents a descriptive classification of IQs:
180 – above Genius
140 – 179 Very Superior
120 – 139 Superior
110 – 119 High Average
90 – 109 Average or Normal
80 – 89 Low Average or Low Normal
70 – 79 Borderline
Below 70 Mentally Retarded
The classification is a rough measure of intelligence.
However, an individual’s IQ tends to remain approximately
stable throughout his life.
Test Construction - there are certain criteria to be
considered before an intelligence test can be accepted for use
by the public.
a. Test – retest reliability
b. Split – half reliability
a. Predictive validity
b. Concurrent validity
c. Content validity
Test Performance - there are two
factors that can influence the outcome of
COMPETENCE is the knowledge or skill that a
person possesses or the sum total of what an individual
PERFORMANCE is the knowledge a
person demonstrates in particular setting at a
given moment in time.
PERFORMANCE CAN SOMETIMES OBSCURE
Cultural Biases in Tests
Intelligence test may reflect values and
experiences that are common to some people and
not to others. Examinations to be given to clients
should be culture free to avoid biases.
Uses of Intelligence Tests
Intelligence test results are used
primarily in schools as basis for screening and
selecting students for admission.
Applicants for work, whether clerical or
managerial positions, are also given