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  1. 1. INTELLIGENCE “Mind is the great leveller of all things; human thought is the process by which human ends are ultimately answered.” - Daniel Webster
  2. 2. THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence is manifested in many ways within and across cultures. • People can behave intelligently in so many different situations. • Satisfactory performance in school • Knowing how to fix a car • Being able to deliver a speech or recite poems INTELLIGENCE CONSIDERING DIFFERENT SOCIETIES PHILIPPINES – a person who is fluent in English NORTH AMERICANS – one who exhibits verbal fluency Certain AFRICAN COUNTRIES – means expert hunting PACIFIC ISLANDERS – the ability to navigate the seas skilfully (Mussen, Conger and Kagan 1979) •
  3. 3. Psychologists define intelligence based on experiments and investigations: • DAVID WECHSLER – believes that intelligence is the capacity to understand the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its challenges. • ALFRED BINET – defines intelligence as “a general capacity for comprehension and reasoning that manifests itself in various ways.” - This refers to the ability to think, to memorize, to solve problems, to rationalize and to express oneself verbally and nonverbally. • HILGARD, ATKINSON AND ATKINSON – described intelligence as “an aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposely, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.” - It is also referred to as the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.
  4. 4. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE The term “intelligence” was popularized in the late 1800s to 1900s by the following theorists: 1. SIR FRANCIS GALTON – viewed intelligence as a single general factor that provides the basis for the more specific abilities that each of us possesses. ( mechanical, musical, artistic, and other kinds of abilities)
  5. 5. 2. CHARLES SPEARMAN – used the term g to refer to the general factors of intelligent or generally dull. - He described g as a wellspring of mental energy that flows into everything an individual does. However, there are factors for certain functions. These specific factors are labelled the s factors. Performance on a numerical test taps a specific s, while verbal fluency would be a separate s. Thus, a person’s intelligence reflects the g plus the s factors.
  6. 6. – He also held the concept of a g factor of intelligence. He is the author of the most widely-used intelligence tests for children and adults in the United States. 3. DAVID WECHSLER
  7. 7. •VERBAL COMPREHENSION – the ability to understand and comprehend words. •WORD FLUENCY – the ability to express oneself either orally or in writing as well as the ability to think of the proper word fast. •NUMBER – the ability to do arithmetic and other numerical tasks. 4. LOUIS THURSTONE – viewed intelligence as a collection of many separate specific abilities. He developed the Primary Mental Abilities which are:
  8. 8. •MEMORY – the ability to remember facts easily. •PERCEPTUAL – the ability to group visual details and distinguish similarities and differences between pictures. •SPACE – the ability to visualize the figures and objects as well as see relationships of forms. •REASONING – the ability to formulate a general rule based on presented data. Primary Mental Abilities (cont’d)
  9. 9. He provided a three-dimensional structure of intelligence. The components are as follows: OPERATION – what the individual does or the processes involved in knowing such as cognition, memory, and evaluation. This refers to the style or approach one uses. CONTENT – what the individual knows or the nature of the information. PRODUCTS – the end results or the processed information. 5. J. P. GUILFORD – proposed the 150 different abilities that make up intelligence.
  10. 10. Sternberg’s triarchic theory distinguishes three aspects of intelligence. •knowledge-acquisition component – learning new information or creative intelligence. •performance-acquisition component – solving specific problems or analytical intelligence. •motor component – solving problems in general or practical intelligence. 6. ROBERT STERNBERG – proposed a tentative theory which states that intelligence has cognitive components which a person must use in reasoning and solving some kinds of problems.
  11. 11. •Musical – the ability displayed by musicians or child prodigies. •Bodily - kinaesthetic – the ability to control body movements as shown by dancers and athletes. •Logico - mathematical – the ability possessed by scientists; persons with logical- math intelligence; can connect mathematical operations to complex problem- solving activities. •Linguistics – the ability of writers or poets. •Spatial – the ability to visualize spatial scenes as shown by pilots and ship navigators. •Interpersonal – the ability to infer other person’s moods, intention, etc. •Intrapersonal – the ability to have insight over one’s own feelings and emotions. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE - Howard Gardner has identified seven kinds of intelligence.
  12. 12. INTELLIGENCE TESTS - Are tasks formulated to assess mental ability. - Designed either for individuals or groups. - Commonly known as IQ tests which measures our intelligence
  13. 13. Individual Intelligence Test - This type of test furnishes a rich sample of an individual’s behaviour which can be the basis of getting information about person’s mental abilities. - The example of this tests are the STANFORD-BINET TEST and the WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE or WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN.
  14. 14. SIR FRANCIS GALTON – The first psychologist to explore the measurement of intelligence test. His indicators are perceptual, physical attributes, and genetic endowment. He reasoned that if he could determine which physical measurement correspond to intelligence, it can be affirmed that intelligence is passed from one generation to the next. Measurement of Intelligence
  15. 15. Measurement of Intelligence ALFRED BINET – He was interested on how mental abilities differ from one to another. He was commissioned to devise a test that would distinguish children of average intelligence to those who were below normal.
  16. 16. Measurement of Intelligence ALFRED BINET and THEODORE SIMON - devised a 50-item test that became the forerunner of all modern tests of intelligence. It successfully distinguished mentally retarded from normal children, confirming the idea that memory, reasoning, remembering, and imagining are better indicators of intelligence than perception and physical attributes developed by Galton. They also identified the average performance of children ranging from 3 – 13 years old.
  17. 17. Age Level Task Performed 3 Repeat two digits Point to nose, eyes, mouth 4 Identify own sex Repeat three digits 5 Copy a square Repeat a sentence with ten syllables 6 Copy a diamond Count 13 pieces 7 Show right hand and left ear Name four colours 8 Count backward from 20 – 0 Note omissions from pictures of familiar objects 9 Recognize nine common coins Name the months of the year in order 10 Arrange the books in order of weight 11 Discover the meaning of a disarranged sentence 12 Define three abstract words 13 Name three rhymes for a given word in one minute Interpret pictures
  18. 18. Intelligence Factors: Heredity and The Environment - One extreme view of intelligence is that it is hereditary, transmitted from parents to offspring through the genes. Another extreme view is that intelligence is totally a function of the environment and experience. However, it can be safely stated that intelligence is a product of both. Sex Differences - There are performance differences between the sexes in certain intellectual abilities due to hormonal differences and in the way parents treat boys and girls. Female - Good in simple, repetitive clerical tasks - Possesses language or verbal ability Male - Good in jobs requiring higher cognitive processes such as solving problems, puzzles - Possesses numerical ability and spatial ability
  19. 19. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT The formula for obtaining the IQ is: IQ = 𝑀𝐴 𝐶𝐴 × 100 Binet and Simon created the concept of mental age (MA), the index of the child’s problem solving ability that is independent of the child’s actual age or chronological age (CA). For example, If the 10-year-old child’s mental age is 12 then his IQ is 120. He is above average than other children. If this child’s mental age is 8, then his IQ is 80; which indicates that he is below average.
  20. 20. The following table presents a descriptive classification of IQs: IQ Description 180 – above Genius 140 – 179 Very Superior 120 – 139 Superior 110 – 119 High Average 90 – 109 Average or Normal 80 – 89 Low Average or Low Normal 70 – 79 Borderline Below 70 Mentally Retarded The classification is a rough measure of intelligence. However, an individual’s IQ tends to remain approximately stable throughout his life.
  21. 21. Test Construction - there are certain criteria to be considered before an intelligence test can be accepted for use by the public. 1. STANDARDIZATION 2. RELIABILITY a. Test – retest reliability b. Split – half reliability 3. VALIDITY a. Predictive validity b. Concurrent validity c. Content validity
  22. 22. Test Performance - there are two factors that can influence the outcome of many situation: COMPETENCE is the knowledge or skill that a person possesses or the sum total of what an individual knows. PERFORMANCE is the knowledge a person demonstrates in particular setting at a given moment in time. PERFORMANCE CAN SOMETIMES OBSCURE COMPETENCE.
  23. 23. Cultural Biases in Tests Intelligence test may reflect values and experiences that are common to some people and not to others. Examinations to be given to clients should be culture free to avoid biases. Uses of Intelligence Tests Intelligence test results are used primarily in schools as basis for screening and selecting students for admission. Applicants for work, whether clerical or managerial positions, are also given intelligence tests.