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  1. 1. Phonetics & Phonology An Introduction Sarmad Hussain Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing, NUCES, Lahore, Pakistan sarmad.hussain@nu.edu.pk
  2. 2. www.PANL10n.net 2 Levels of Linguistic Analysis Pragmatics Semantics Syntax Morphology Phonology Phonetics
  3. 3. www.PANL10n.net 3 Overview Phonetics Phonology Computational Phonology
  4. 4. Phonetics
  5. 5. www.PANL10n.net 5 What is Phonetics ? Study of human speech as a physical phenomenon Articulation Acoustics Perception
  6. 6. www.PANL10n.net 6 Articulatory Phonetics Study of how speech sounds are produced by human vocal apparatus Anatomy of vocal organs Air stream Mechanism Voicing Articulation
  7. 7. www.PANL10n.net 7 Anatomy of Vocal Organs [2]
  8. 8. www.PANL10n.net 8 Air-stream Mechanisms Pulmonic Glottic Velaric
  9. 9. www.PANL10n.net 9 Pulmonic Sounds Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity Pressure built by compression of lungs English [p], [n], [s], [l], [e]
  10. 10. www.PANL10n.net 10 Glottic Egressive Sounds Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity Pressure built by pushing up closed glottis Georgian [p’], [t’], [k’]
  11. 11. www.PANL10n.net 11 Glottic Ingressive Sounds Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavity Pressure reduced by pulling down closed glottis Hausa, Sindhi [ɓ,ɠ ]
  12. 12. www.PANL10n.net 12 Velaric Sounds Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavity Pressure reduced by forming velaric and alveolar closure and pulling down tongue clicks
  13. 13. www.PANL10n.net 13 Articulatory Phonetics Study of how speech sounds are produced by human vocal apparatus Anatomy of vocal organs Air stream Mechanism Voicing Articulation
  14. 14. www.PANL10n.net 14 Bernoulli Effect Air pumped from the lungs applies pressure on closed glottis High pressure opens vocal cords High velocity air flow creates low pressure region pulling vocal cords together again Process is repeated, producing vibrations in the vocal cords [3]
  15. 15. www.PANL10n.net 15 Voicing Whisper Creak bhBreathy Voice ph Aspirated bVoice pVoicelessness [4]
  16. 16. www.PANL10n.net 16 Articulation Manners of Articulation Places of Articulation
  17. 17. www.PANL10n.net 17 Consonants – Manners of Articulation Lateral Trill Tap mNasal jApproximant dʒtʃAffricate Fricative pStop [4] Flap
  18. 18. www.PANL10n.net 18 Places of Articulation [2] Labial Alveolar Dental Labio- dental Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Laryngeal
  19. 19. www.PANL10n.net 19 Consonants – Places of Articulation [9]
  20. 20. www.PANL10n.net 20 Consonants – Places of Articulation Multiple Places of Articulation Glottal Pharyngeal Uvular Velar dʒʃPalatal Retroflex Alveolar Dental Labio-dental Bilabial [4]
  21. 21. www.PANL10n.net 21 Consonantal Sounds [10]
  22. 22. www.PANL10n.net 22 Vowel – Features Low / High Back / Front Round Nasal Long
  23. 23. www.PANL10n.net 23 Vowel – Minimal Pairs Bag Big (English) /bæg/ /bɪg/ Beat bit /bit/ /bɪt/ Boot bait /but/ /bet/
  24. 24. www.PANL10n.net 24 /a/ Vocal Tract Outline [11]
  25. 25. www.PANL10n.net 25 Vocalic Inventory ɒɑaLow ʌæHigher-low ɔʌœƐLower-mid ΩɚəEMean-mid oɤø=öeHigher-mid ʊƗɪLower-high uɯɨ=ʉy=üiHigh RoundedUnroundedRoundedUnroundedRoundedUnrounded BackCentralFront
  26. 26. www.PANL10n.net 26 Vocalic Quadrilateral [12]
  27. 27. www.PANL10n.net 27 Diphthongs Combination of two vocalic sounds English: [aj] I, eye [aj] [aw] cow [kaw]
  28. 28. www.PANL10n.net 28 Gemination of Consonants Double/long consonants English: “misspell”, “unknown” Urdu “ê 6”,“ 6”
  29. 29. www.PANL10n.net 29 What is Phonetics ? Study of human speech as a physical phenomenon Articulation Acoustics Perception
  30. 30. www.PANL10n.net 30 Periodic Sine Wave Period Time to complete one cycle (sec) Frequency Number of cycles per second (Hertz) Amplitude Maximum displacement of a periodic wave (dB)
  31. 31. www.PANL10n.net 31 Complex Periodic Waves Sinewaves contain a single frequency Complex waves contain multiple frequency waves added together Complex periodic waves contain only Sine waves at base (fundamental) frequency (F0) and integral multiples of F0 (Fourier’s Theorem) F0 Amplitude Time
  32. 32. www.PANL10n.net 32 Resonance Response of a system is not constant for signals at all frequencies. The frequency which gives largest response is called Resonance (frequency). F
  33. 33. www.PANL10n.net 33 Sound Wave Sound waves are formed by longitudinal movement of particles creating high and low pressure regions called compressions and rarefactions Graph of pressure at each point in time 1 2 3 4
  34. 34. www.PANL10n.net 34 Acoustic Phonetics Source-Filter Model Source Filter
  35. 35. www.PANL10n.net 35 Source-Filter Theory: Filter Response curve with tongue in neutral position Resonances are called Formants (F1, F2, F3, …) [15] F2 F3 F1
  36. 36. www.PANL10n.net 36 Source-Filter Theory: Source Waveform and spectrum of the glottal pulse [15] Time Amplitude
  37. 37. www.PANL10n.net 37 Source-Filter Theory Combining the two results in results in spectrum of short vowel ‘ə’ (schwa)
  38. 38. www.PANL10n.net 38 Spectrogram A spectrogram is a time-frequency-amplitude graph representing sound “ a bab” “a dad” “a gag” [16]
  39. 39. www.PANL10n.net 39 Spectrogram [17][16]
  40. 40. www.PANL10n.net 40 What is Phonetics ? Study of human speech as a physical phenomenon Articulation Acoustics Perception
  41. 41. www.PANL10n.net 41 Speech Perception Acoustic signal is highly variable but perception is very stable (invariant) How do map physical variance to perceptual invariance? Intrinsic vs. extrinsic normalization Categorical perception Articulatory Invariance - recreation of articulatory gestures Acoustic Invariance - stable regions in speech within articulatory variability …?
  42. 42. Phonology
  43. 43. www.PANL10n.net 43 What is Phonology? Study of how sounds interact in various languages (phonetics conceptual representation) Segmental phenomena Phonemic Inventory and Allophony Sound-change rules and ordering Supra-segmental phenomena Syllabification Prominence Tones Intonation
  44. 44. www.PANL10n.net 44 Phoneme? Mental concept representing a physical sound Many to many mapping between phoneme and a phone within a language English /t/ aspirated in “tunafish” unaspirated in “starfish” dental before labio-dental flapped in “buttercup”
  45. 45. www.PANL10n.net 45 Phonological Features Phoneme = set of features that are true at a given time for a particular phonemic unit (phonological features) (Auto- segmental theory) Values of features can by unary or binary ( +/- for present/absent) [18]
  46. 46. www.PANL10n.net 46 Phonological Features Contrastive function: Each phoneme differs from others in at least one feature Descriptive function: Accurately describes phonetic nature of a sound (may include redundant, non-contrastive features) Classificatory function: Explains and allows generalizations and common phonological processes [18]
  47. 47. www.PANL10n.net 47 English Consonant Features [18]
  48. 48. www.PANL10n.net 48 English Vowel Features [18]
  49. 49. www.PANL10n.net 49 Phonological Rules Humans are lazy so compromise articulation to reduce effort Compromise in Articulation changes the sound Constituents of a phonological rules are Phonemes to be modified due to a rule Conditioning context in which the rule has to be fired Change that occurs in a sound after the rule has been fired Rules are sometimes ordered in a language
  50. 50. www.PANL10n.net 50 Types of Phonological Rules Assimilation Addition of features due to neighboring phonemes n [+bilabial] / __ [+bilabial, +voiced, +stop] Dissimilation Deletion of features due to neighboring phonemes [7]
  51. 51. www.PANL10n.net 51 Types of Phonological Rules Insertion / Deletion Addition or deletion of an entire phone Metathesis Change order of phonemes prescribe => perscribe ask => aks [7]
  52. 52. www.PANL10n.net 52 Syllable A syllable is a unit of sound composed of A central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and Consonants that cluster around this central peak
  53. 53. www.PANL10n.net 53 Syllable Structure Syllable structure of Urdu word ‫ن‬ † /pɑkɪst̪ɑn/
  54. 54. www.PANL10n.net 54 Syllabification Syllabification is the process of dividing words into syllables Nuclear Projection Maximal Onset Principle Sonority Sequencing Principle Template based Matching Templates: V, CV, CVC, CVCC Direction of largest template application: RTL, LTR
  55. 55. www.PANL10n.net 55 Prominence Syllable(s) in a word may be more prominent than others Prominence can change meaning Spanish: término, 'end' (noun), termíno, 'I'm finishing' terminó, 'she/he finished’ English ‘ob.ject, ob.’ject ‘con.tent, con.’tent Syllable vs. stress timed languages Final heavy syllable is stressed, no secondary stress Sensitive to segmental “quantity” or moras Every odd syllable is stress, First has primary stress
  56. 56. www.PANL10n.net 56 Intonation You are going! You are going. You are going? Intonation carries linguistic meaning, e.g. emotion, intention, etc. Realized primarily through variation of F0 over a sentence Multiple theories of how intonation is computed and realized, e.g. Pierrehumbert (TOBI), IPO, Fujisaki, etc.
  57. 57. www.PANL10n.net 57 Computational Phonology Letter-to-sound rules (?) Regular, heuristic, statistical Sound change rules FST Rule base Syllabification algorithm Template or sonority based algorithm Stress-assignment algorithm Stress-assignment algorithm Intonation assignment algorithm Rule-based algorithm – based on syntactic parse (?) Corpus based (Machine Learning) algorithm Other corpus based approaches
  58. 58. Thank you
  59. 59. www.PANL10n.net 59 References 1. http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-language-map.htm 2. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Spring_2001/ling001/phonetics.html 3. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/linguistics/russell/138/sec5/phonatio .htm 4. http://web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/ 5. http://www.ling.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonetics/airstream_laryngeal /vot.html 6. http://www.indiana.edu/~hlw/PhonUnits/consonants2.html 7. http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~xflu/201/phonology.pdf 8. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/IPA%20in%20Unicode 9. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Summer_2003/ling001/lecture4.html 10. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/International%20Phonetic%20Al phabet
  60. 60. www.PANL10n.net 60 References 11. http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Haskins/MISC/ASY/VOWELS/ah.html 12. http://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/E005ei-VowelsChart.htm 13. http://people.deas.harvard.edu/~jones/cscie129/nu_lectures/lecture3%20/ formants1.gif 14. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/linguistics/russell/138/sec4/formant s.htm 15. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/linguistics/russell/138/sec4/src- filt.htm 16. A Course in Phonetics by Peter Ladefoged http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonant s/course/contents.html 17. http://web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/ 18. Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by Clark and Yallop http://ifla.uni-stuttgart.de/~jilka/teaching/intro1/i3_features.pdf