Lesson planning


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  • It takes thinking and practice to hone this skill, and it won't happen overnight, but it is a skill that will help to define you as a teacher.
  • All lesson plans begin, or should begin with an objective. This should be developed based upon your state (or school) standards. You also need to be aware of what grade level you are developing the lesson plan for (and keep that in mind of course), and also record a time estimate for your lesson plan to help in time budgeting. Once you have your topic, you can begin determining how you want to teach the topic. your topic
  • Please note that objectives should not be activities that will be used in the lesson plan. They should instead be the learning outcomes of those activities. Objectives should also be directly measurable. In other words, make sure you will be able to tell whether these objectives were met or not. You can certainly have more than one objective for a lesson plan. 
  • This way if someone else were going to use your lesson plan, they would know in advance what materials are required. Be specific here to make sure the teacher will have everything they need. A good example deals with a lesson on fractions. The teacher could start by asking the students how they would divide up a cake to make sure each of their 5 friends got an equal amount of pizza, and tell them that they can do this if they know how to work with fractions.
  • These don’t have to involve every little thing the teacher will say and do, but they should list the relevant actions the teacher needs to perform.
  • Other resources
  • Encourage students to describe any experiences they may have had with static electricity such as their hair standing on end after they have brushed it a lot, or clothes clinging to their bodies when they have been dried in a dryer without conditioner, or shocking themselves when they shuffle across a carpet and touch a doorknob. The shock you can get from rubbing your shoes on the carpet and then touching something metal like a door knob
  • Content Standards – specify the essential knowledge (includes the most important and enduring ideas, issues, principles…) What should students know and be able to do? Performance – express the degree or quality of proficiency that students are expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards. At what level of performance would the studentsbe appropiately qualified or certified.
  • Lesson planning

    2. 2. WHAT IS A LESSON PLAN?WHAT IS A LESSON PLAN? A teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. It is a framework for a lesson.
    3. 3. Lesson planning is a special skill that is learned in much the same way as other skills. When you are able to create your own lesson plans, it means you have taken a giant step toward "owning" the content you teach and the methods you use. Knowing "how to" is far more important than knowing "about" when it comes to lesson plans, and is one of the important markers along the way to becoming a professional teacher.
    4. 4. There is no one "best way" to plan lessons. Regardless of the form or template, there are fundamental components of all lesson plans that you should learn to write, revise, and improve. The old adage, "Practice doesn't make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect" is at the core of learning this skill.
    5. 5. Developing your own lesson plans also helps you "own" the subject matter content you are teaching, and that is central to everything good teachers do. Effective lesson plans communicate, ineffective ones don't. Teachers create lesson plans to communicate their instructional activities regarding specific subject-matter.
    6. 6.  To ensure aims and objectives are met and that learners’ needs are catered.  To facilitate the selection, development and sequencing of relevant activities.  To help the teacher anticipate issues that might arise during lessons. It further allows the teacher to be flexible without losing sight of the main aim of the lesson. Why is planning important?
    7. 7. BASIC PRINCIPLES OFBASIC PRINCIPLES OF LESSON PLANNINGLESSON PLANNING 1.A good lesson has a sense of coherence and flow. -students learn best when there are transitions from one activity to the next. 2.A good lesson exhibits variety. - an important way of getting and keeping the students engaged and interested. 3. A good lesson is flexible. -Lesson plans are not meant to be tools that bind teachers to some preordained plan. Be flexible in your planning so that when the opportunities arise you can go with the flow.
    8. 8. 1. The first thing to consider is what you want to teach. 2. To make sure your lesson plan will teach exactly what you want it to; you need to develop clear and specific objectives.
    9. 9. Example, if you wanted to teach your class how to add 2 and 3, your objective may be that “the students will know how to add 2 and 3″ or more specifically “the students will demonstrate how to add 2 and 3.”
    10. 10. 3. Find out exactly what materials you are going to use later, but they should be shown early in your lesson plan. 4. You may also want to write an Anticipatory Set, which would be a way to lead into the lesson plan and develop the students’ interest in learning what is about to be taught.
    11. 11. 5. Write the step-by-step procedures that will be performed to reach the objectives. 6. After the procedure have been completed, you may want to provide time for independent practice.
    12. 12. 7. Just before moving on to the assessment phase you should have some sort of closure for the lesson plan. A good idea for this is to return to your anticipatory set, i.e. ask students how they would divide up that cake now that they know how to work with fractions (refer to the example in step 4).
    13. 13. 8. Most lesson plans should have some sort of evaluation of whether or not the objectives were reached. The key in developing your assessment is to make sure that the assessment specifically measures whether the objectives were reached or not. Thus, there should be a direct correlation between the objectives and the assessments
    14. 14. 9. Adaptations should also be made for students with learning disabilities and extensions for others. This is best done with specific adaptations for specific students, to take into account their individual differences. 10. It’s also a good idea to include a “Connections” section, which shows how the lesson plan could be integrated with other subjects.
    15. 15. LESSON PLAN INLESSON PLAN IN TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATIONTECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION DRAFTING-INDUSTRIAL ARTSDRAFTING-INDUSTRIAL ARTS I-Objectives: At the end of the lesson the student should be able to: 1. Explain the elements of guidelines 2. Print lower case letters using appropriate guidelines. 3. Observe neatness and accuracy while working.
    16. 16. II - Subject- Matter/Content: Topic: Elements of Guidelines References: Technology and Home Economics I pp.180-181 Materials: Drawing paper, Ruler, Pencil
    17. 17. III-Procedure: A. Preparation 1. Prayer 2. Checking of attendance 3. Unlocking of difficulties lettering, guidelines, lower case letters 4. Motivation: - with the use of cut out letters from the magazines and newspaper, the students will discuss on the styles, styles of letters, spacing ,etc. Assign a reporter to present their work
    18. 18. B. Lesson Proper 1. Randomly group into three. A task card will be distributed. Follow the instruction written on it. 2. Let them analyze/react about the activity made. - What can you say about your work? - How does it differ with the letter coming from the magazines? - Are the heights of the letters uniform?
    19. 19. C. Comparison 3. Compare lettering with guidelines to the work of the students. - Post prepared lettering with guidelines, ask their observation. - Are there differences between the two? What are they? 4. Discussion on the importance of guidelines on the board. Teacher will add input. 5. Call several students to make the guidelines on the board.
    20. 20. D. Generalization - What are the elements of guidelines? Are they all important in lettering? Why? - What will you consider in making guidelines? Why? E. Application - Ask them to print the lower case letters which represent their initials using guidelines. The teacher will roam around the classroom.
    21. 21. IV . Evaluation: - Make lower case letters using guidelines. - Use a score card or scoring rubric. A. Workmanship Perfectly Moderately Poorly Done Done Done (1) (2) (3) 1. Uniformity of letter 2 .Proper spacing of letter 3. Well made letter B. Proper handling of drawing instruments 4. Correct use of pencil 5. Neatness Total Score = 15 V. Assignment
    22. 22. SAMPLE LESSON PLANSAMPLE LESSON PLAN INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITYINTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY I-Objectives: At the end of the lesson the student should be able to: 1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic electricity concepts by discussing the concepts of electricity 2. Demonstrate application of basic electricity concepts by conducting inquiry activities
    23. 23. II - Subject- Matter/Content: Topic: Introduction to Electricity References: Materials: o Colored Styrofoam balls (blue and red)
    24. 24. III-Procedure: A. Preparation 1. Review 2. Motivation
    25. 25. How will the concepts be introduced? What information will be presented to the students? (Use a short inquiry discussion to see how familiar the students are with the concepts of static electricity. ) Ask: How can you tell if static electricity is around you? What is static electricity?
    26. 26. B. Lesson Proper Now that the students have a frame of reference on the topic, transition into the presentation concepts. How is static electricity created? Have the students heard of atoms before? Ask: What is an Atom? The smallest component in all things Made up of three smaller particles o Nucleus  Protons (+)  Neutrons (no charge) o Electrons (-)
    27. 27. C. Discussion: Teacher Notes: discuss attraction and repulsion, emphasizing protons and electrons. Demonstrate atoms using colored Styrofoam balls or some other representation of an atom. Or use Velcro to demonstrate attraction (positive and negative charges) Ask: What does a - charged atom mean?‖ More electrons than protons Electrons flow toward positively charged objects = current Force of attraction = voltage Static electricity = build up of electrons
    28. 28. If necessary continue a short inquiry discussion about the concepts of charge and static electricity. Q: How is static electricity different from an electric current? D. Generalization E. Application IV.Evaluation How will the students’ progress be measured? Include any worksheet or assessment activities within the lesson plan.
    29. 29. V. Assignment
    32. 32. Quarter I: Lettering Topic: Manual Production of Signage, Product Labels/Tags Time Frame; 30 days STAGE 1 Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of concepts and underlying principles of process and delivery in manual lettering. Performance Standard: The learner produces quality and marketable products/services based on existing procedures and techniques in manual lettering. Essential Understanding: Assuring the quality of manually lettered products/services guarantees marketability and profitability. Essential Question: Why does one need to assure the quality, marketability and profitability of products/services in manual lettering?
    33. 33. Learners will know:  evolution of lettering Order of letter strokes Size, proportion and spacing of letters Letter styles, their uses and importance Safety precautions on the proper handling of instruments, tools and materials in lettering Production processes Learners will be able to:  trace the evolution of lettering  estimate the size, proportion and spacing of letters based on the size of materials and number of letters that can be accommodated Lay out basic letter styles using appropriate lettering pens Use appropriate lettering tools and materials in the production of signages Practice safety precautions in handling lettering instruments, tools and materials in manual lettering  assure quality in the production of signages for: - school (offices, classroom, library, canteen, etc.) - community
    34. 34. STAGE 2 Product/Performance Task: The learners produce quality and marketable products/services in manual lettering based on existing procedures and techniques. Evidence at the Level of Understanding The learner should articulate and manifest the six (6) facets of understanding. Explaining the evolution of lettering Criteria: •clarity of content •Flow of thought •Sequence •Delivery/presentation Evidence at the Level of Performance: Assessment of products/services in manual lettering using the following criteria: • appropriateness of letter styles used •Quality output •Safety work habits •Housekeeping and maintenance •Time management •Work attitude/behavior
    35. 35. Analyzing the process involved in manual lettering using the process flow: Criteria: • insight • flow of thought •Delivery/presentation Performing letter techniques using appropriate instruments, tools and materials. Criteria; • appropriateness of letter styles used •Quality output •Safety work habits
    36. 36. •Housekeeping and maintenance •Time management •Work attitude/behavior Narrating thoughts on the choice of concept in manual lettering as an artist over customer’s preference. Criteria; • insight • clarity of content • flow of thought • delivery/presentation •Expressing feelings when a letter is not able to produce/perform product/services as expected.
    37. 37. •Expressing feelings when a letter is not able to produce/perform product/services as expected. Criteria: • Clarity of Content • Flow of thought •Work attitude/behavior • Delivery/presentation •Flow of t
    38. 38. STAGE 3 TEACHING/LEARNING SEQUENCE: Lettering is a fundamental part of drawing. Architectural, engineering, and mechanical drawings have, in general, their own styles of lettering. Characteristics of each style make them different from one another. In conveying ideas and information, notations and specifications, lettering should be done clearly. The essential requirement of good letterings, regardless of the style used, is eased in reading. Hence, the learners shall:
    39. 39. 1. EXPLORE  Guide students in assessing the prior knowledge in manual and computer aided lettering using: • Paper and Pencil Test • Performance Test  Orient students on the following: CP-TLE curriculum framework – Drafting Technology I Assessment tools and criteria - 6 Facets of Understanding - Scoring Rubrics  Guide the students in understanding the concepts and underlying principles of process and delivery in lettering.  Assist the students in tracing the evolution of letters and show sample pictures
    40. 40.  Guide students in observing an art and sign shops in the community producing both manual and computer aided learning.  Lead students through the checklist to verbalize their understanding of the following concepts: Manual Letter Computer-aided lettering Process and delivery Product and Performance  Guide students in viewing pictures/video presentations of the different learning tools, computer software used in the production of signage and print advertisements.  Assist students in raising issues and concerns related to the production of quality lettered products Appropriateness of letter styles used Choice of materials Durability of materials used Features of manual and computer aided lettered products
    41. 41. 2. FIRM UP  Present the evolution of letters. Have students analyze the changes in letter styles.  Have students apply letter styles appropriate to the given job order.  Have students view video presentations on how quality lettered products are commercially produced. (CONTENT OF THE VIDEO: The video should detail the step-by-step procedure in manual and computer –aided lettering)  Process the students’ understanding of the video presentation; guide questions may be given to focus students’ understanding.  Assist students in interviewing a letter artist on the importance of the following factors in the production of quality lettered products:  Order of letter strokes for manual lettering.
    42. 42.  Size, proportion and spacing of letters  Proper handling and maintenance of letter tools, instruments and computer software.  Appropriateness and quality of materials used.  Have students prepare an interview guide to focus the discussion on the aforementioned factors.  Have students check their initial understanding of the concepts in manual and computer-aided lettering.  Have students perform processes involved in the production of manual and computer-aided lettered products based on job order specifications. Have students self-assess their products and performance using the given assessment tools and criteria in Stage 2.
    43. 43. 3. DEEPEN  invite successful commercial artists to talk about their best practices. Have students ask questions about how these artists managed to hone their skills.  encourage students to observe/work with successful commercial artists in the community.  Have students create /innovate designs of various letter products.  Assess students understanding of manual and computer aided lettering through performance test. 4. TRANSFER  Have students produce quality and marketable lettered products.  Have students put up a display/exhibition of various lettered products/services.
    44. 44. 4. TRANSFER  Have students produce quality and marketable lettered products.  Have students put up a display/exhibition of various lettered products/services.  have students market their products/services in the community.  Assess students at the level of performance using the criteria in Stage
    45. 45. Resources (Web sites, Software, etc.) 1.Internet 2.Interactive/Animated CD Materials/Equipment Needed: 1.Pre/post test (written and performance test) in Drafting Technology I – Quarter 1A 2.Handbook on Lettering 3.Manual of specifications and procedure
    46. 46. Mary Queen T. Bernardo Teacher III San Jose National Agricultural and Industrial High School