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Remembering
and
Forgetting
Mary Queen T. Bernardo
OUTLINE
 Organization of Memories
 Forgetting Curves
 Reasons for Forgetting
 Biological Bases of Memory
 Mnemonics: Memorizations Methods
 Cultural Diversity: Aborigines Versus White Australians
 Research Focus; False Memories
 Application: Eyewitness Testimony
ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES
 Network Theory
 We store related ideas in separate categories or files called
nodes.
 As we make associations among information, we create links
among thousands of nodes
 Cognitive map (Donald Norman)
 Personal associations that are followed in order to remember
something
FORGETTING CURVES
 The earliest that people in different cultures can recall
personal memories averages 3 ½ years old (Q. Wang,
2003).
 Researchers did find that children as young as 13 months
can recall visual event, such as a sequence of moving toys.
 Cognitive map (Donald Norman)
 Personal associations that are followed in order to remember
something
 Forgetting
Curve/Law-
Ebbinghaus
forgetting curve
over 30 days--
initially rapid,
then levels off
with time
12345 10 15 20 25 30
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
Time in days since learning list
Percentage of
list retained
when
relearning
Forgetting Curve
<<rem Ebbinghaus gave us this>>
 The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school
Retention
drops,
then levels off
1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½
Time in years after completion of Spanish course
100%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Percentage of
original
vocabulary
retained
Why we rarely
remember
personal
events before
age 3 ½?
1. Children have little or
no language skills
(Sicock & Hayne,
2002)
2. Children have not yet
developed a complete
memory circuit in the
brain (Bauer, 2002).
Remembering
 Network Hierarchy
 Arrangement of nodes in a certain order
 Top- Abstract information
 Animal
 Middle- More specific information
 Bird or fish
 Bottom- concrete information
 Blue jay, rooster, shark or guppy
REASONS FOR FORGETTING
 Repression
 Poor Retrieval Cues/Retrieval Failure
 Amnesia
 Interference
Info enters the sensory
memory where we have to
pay attention to it or it is
lost
It moves into STM/working
memory where there is
limited capacity and
duration. To increase
capacity we can chunk info.
To increase duration we can
rehearse info
We must then move
this info into LTM by
connecting it to stuff we
already know,
encoding.
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
After information enters STM, a copy may or may not be sent to
LTM.
Soon, however, that information will disappear from STM.
Two processes could cause information to disappear from STM:
decay and displacement.
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
Decay: information that is not rehearsed disappears as time passes.
Displacement: information being held in STM is pushed out by newly
arriving information.
Displacement is most likely to occur when the capacity limit of STM
has been reached (about 7 units of information).
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
Displacement is most likely to occur when the capacity limit of STM
has been reached (about 7 units of information).
R D Q L T H JB
Decay Theory of Forgetting
100%
Rehearsal
Day 1 Day 2 Day 7 Day 30
• Example: reviewing notes after class
Amountofinformation
• Memory fades away with time
• unless there is rehearsal
Poor Retrieval Cues/Poor Encoding
 Retrieval cues are mental reminders that we create by
forming vivid mental images or creating associations
between new information and information we already know.
Motivated Forgetting
One explanation is REPRESSION:
 in psychoanalytic theory, the basic
defense mechanism that banishes
anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and
memories from consciousness.
Emotional process that automatically
hides emotionally threatening or
anxiety-producing information in the
unconscious
Sexual abuse
Retrieval Failure
 The memory was encoded and stored, but
sometimes you just cannot access the memory.
Retrieval Failure
 Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory
External
events
Attention
Encoding
Encoding
Retrieval failure
leads to forgetting
Retrieval
Sensory
memory
Short-term
memory
Long-term
memory
 The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the
memory.
DECAY THEORY
Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused
Research, however, has demonstrated that even
memories which have not been rehearsed or
remembered are remarkably stable in long-term
memory.
Factors Influencing Retrieval
 Serial position effect
 The tendency to remember the beginning and ending
items of a sequence or list better than the middle items
 Primacy effect
 The tendency to recall the first items on a list more
readily than the middle items
 Recency effect
 The tendency to recall the last items on a list more
readily than the middle items
Factors Influencing Retrieval
 Environmental context and memory
 any elements of the physical setting in which a person
learns information are encoded along with the information
and become part of the memory trace
 Memories are better recalled in the environment they
were learned
Encoding Failure
 Information may never be encoded into LTM
EncodingX Long-term
memory
Encoding failure
leads to forgetting
Short-term
memory
 Information never enters the long-term memory
 Age effects: As age inc, encoding dec – Brain less responsive w/ age
External
events
Sensory
memory
Short-
term
memory
Long-
term
memory
Attention
Encoding
Encoding
Encoding
failure leads
to forgetting
Encoding Failure
Examples of Encoding Failure
What letters accompany the number 5
on your mobile phone?
Where is the key “y” in a computer
keyboard?
Amnesia
 Organic Amnesia
 Physical trauma to brain
structure.
 Anterograde: Can’t recall event
after injury
 Retrograde: Can’t recall events
that occurred before
Loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the brain, or after
disease, general anesthesia, certain drugs, or severe psychological trauma
 Functional Amnesia
 Due to psychological trauma
 Psychogenic amnesia
 Dissociative Fugue: Forget
“selves” for a time…identity,
life, etc
 Infantile Amnesia
 Remember very little
about 1st
years of life
 Why?
 Structure
 Language
 Memories:
 3/4th
birthday
 Narrative 7yrs
 Proactive: Old info interferes
with new learning
 Retroactive: New info makes
people forget old info
INTERFERENCE
 People forget info because other learned info interferes.
Interference
Retroactive: New info
makes people
forget old info
Proactive: Old info
interferes with new
learning
Proactive Interference
EXAMPLES:
If you call your new girlfriend your old
girlfriend’s name.
Memories of where you have seen a friend last week
interfere your ability to remember where you saw him
today.
Example: When new phone number
interferes with ability to remember old
phone number
Retroactive Interference
.
Forgetting
 Distortion
 Caused by bias or suggestibility
 Amnesia
 Loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the
brain, or after disease, general anesthesia, certain drugs, or
severe psychological trauma
 Distortion
 Caused by bias or suggestibility
Random Retrieval Phenomena
 Tip of the Tongue
 Try to retrieve familiar
piece of info but can’t
quite do it
 Blocking Theory
 Partial Activation
Random Retrieval Phenomenon
 “I Froze”
 Stress hormones inhibit
hippocampus
 Cognitive function and
LTM retrieval fail
Random Retrieval Phenomena
 Priming-
 Preparing networks to remember...
 Hte plpae si edr
 Grandma is buying an apple.
 Hte plpae si edr.
 The apple is red
Random Retrieval Phenomena
 Déjà vu
 “Seen before”
 Current event provokes similar
retrieval cues, but you haven’t
done it.
 Jamais Vu
 “Never before”
 Event doesn’t match earlier
encoded clues, but know
you’ve done it
MNEMONICS (new-MON-ick)
 are ways to improve encoding and create better
retrieval cues by forming vivid associations or
images which improve recall
Two Common Methods
1. Method of Loci (LOW-sigh)
- an encoding technique that creates visual
associations between already memorized places and
new items to be meorized.
2. Peg Method
 - an encoding technique that creates associations
between number-word rhymes and items to be
memorized.
Example: One is a bun
Two is a shoe
CULTURAL DIVERSITY
 Survival in the aboriginal culture depends on
encoding and remembering visual information, while
surviving in an industrial culture depends on encoding
and remembering verbal (written0 information.
 This cultural difference predicts that people would
perform differently on tests, depending on whether
the test s emphasized visual or verbal retrieval clues.
FALSE MEMORIES
 condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around
a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience
 sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
False Memories
 Lest you be overconfident:
“In a 1992 op-ed piece for the New York Times, Garry Trudeau recollected some of his
experiences related to the draft for the Vietnam War. Trudeau remembered receiving calls of
concern from friends and family on the night of the draft lottery, after they had heard about his low
number. He then recalled a series of events involving his attempts to gain a draft deferment:
requesting a national security deferment from the draft board for his work with a magazine;
deciding not to apply for conscientious objector status because he could imagine circumstances in
which he would take another’s life; preparing for his interview with the draft board by receiving a
“memorable haircut”; and finally, gaining a medical deferment from the board after sending them,
upon his physician father’s advice, X-rays revealing a past ulcer. This recollection, he reported,
remained unchanged for 20 years.
However, after talking to others and examining the records of his draft correspondence,
Trudeau uncovered some notable discrepancies between his recollection and what actually
happened. No family member or friend remembers making a call of concern. Trudeau now
believes he imagined their concerns, because the act ov examining this recollection led him to
remember that he was in fact out having a few beers that night. He discovered that he actually
applied for an occupational deferment and, upon reflection, wonders how he could have believed
that working for a “glorified travel magazine” was justification for a national security deferment. He
also neer received a “memorable haircut”, not did he apply for conscientious objector status in part
because of the prohibitive paperwork” (Dodson & Schacter)
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The original version of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model emphasized decay
as the main cause of forgetting in STM. Their later version
emphasized displacement. Here is a study that compared decay to
displacement and showed a much greater effect of displacement.
B R D Q L T H
J
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
You are read a list of 16 digits:
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8
After the last digit, you hear a tone...
TONE
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8The tone is a signal to recall one of the digits. The last digit before the
tone (8) occurs only once at an earlier point in the list.
TONE
This is called the “probe”.
Probe
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8
Which is more important in causing forgetting, time or the additional
digits?
TONE
Probe
4
Recall
The decay principle implies time; the displacement principle implies
digits.
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8
Time and digits are correlated (confounded). To separate them,
Waugh & Norman used two rates of presentation: slow (1 digit per
second) and fast (4 digits per second).
TONE
Probe
4
Recall
+1+ 1 +1 +1 + 1 +1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 +1 +1 = 12
Slow Presentation (Seconds)
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8More time passes between the digit and the tone with slow presentation (12
seconds) than with fast presentation (3 seconds). According to the decay
principle, the chances of recalling the digit should be lower with slow than with
fast presentation.
TONE
Probe
4
Fast Presentation (Seconds)
1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8According to the displacement principle, the chances of recalling the digit
should be the same with fast and slow presentation because the number of
digits before the tone is the same in both conditions.
TONE
Probe
4
Fast Presentation (Seconds)
1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8Waugh & Norman made this comparison with the probe digit in each of the
following positions: 3 (shown here), 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, or 14.
TONE
Probe
4
Fast Presentation (Seconds)
1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Both decay and displacement predict an increase in recall as the probe gets
closer to the tone.
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8
There was slightly (but not significantly) higher recall with fast than with slow
presentation when the probe was near the beginning of the list. Recall
dropped sharply as the probe was moved from the end toward the beginning.
TONE
Probe
4
Fast Presentation (Seconds)
1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Results
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory:
Decay or Displacement?
ST
M
LT
M
The Probe-Digit Procedure
(Waugh & Norman, 1965)
7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4
7 8
As time passes, what mainly causes forgetting from short-term
memory is exposure to additional information, not the passage of
time.
TONE
Probe
4
Fast Presentation (Seconds)
1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Conclusion

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Forgetting and Remembering

  • 2. OUTLINE  Organization of Memories  Forgetting Curves  Reasons for Forgetting  Biological Bases of Memory  Mnemonics: Memorizations Methods  Cultural Diversity: Aborigines Versus White Australians  Research Focus; False Memories  Application: Eyewitness Testimony
  • 3. ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES  Network Theory  We store related ideas in separate categories or files called nodes.  As we make associations among information, we create links among thousands of nodes  Cognitive map (Donald Norman)  Personal associations that are followed in order to remember something
  • 4. FORGETTING CURVES  The earliest that people in different cultures can recall personal memories averages 3 ½ years old (Q. Wang, 2003).  Researchers did find that children as young as 13 months can recall visual event, such as a sequence of moving toys.  Cognitive map (Donald Norman)  Personal associations that are followed in order to remember something
  • 5.  Forgetting Curve/Law- Ebbinghaus forgetting curve over 30 days-- initially rapid, then levels off with time 12345 10 15 20 25 30 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 Time in days since learning list Percentage of list retained when relearning
  • 6. Forgetting Curve <<rem Ebbinghaus gave us this>>  The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school Retention drops, then levels off 1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½ Time in years after completion of Spanish course 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of original vocabulary retained
  • 7. Why we rarely remember personal events before age 3 ½? 1. Children have little or no language skills (Sicock & Hayne, 2002) 2. Children have not yet developed a complete memory circuit in the brain (Bauer, 2002).
  • 8. Remembering  Network Hierarchy  Arrangement of nodes in a certain order  Top- Abstract information  Animal  Middle- More specific information  Bird or fish  Bottom- concrete information  Blue jay, rooster, shark or guppy
  • 9. REASONS FOR FORGETTING  Repression  Poor Retrieval Cues/Retrieval Failure  Amnesia  Interference
  • 10. Info enters the sensory memory where we have to pay attention to it or it is lost It moves into STM/working memory where there is limited capacity and duration. To increase capacity we can chunk info. To increase duration we can rehearse info We must then move this info into LTM by connecting it to stuff we already know, encoding.
  • 11. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M After information enters STM, a copy may or may not be sent to LTM. Soon, however, that information will disappear from STM. Two processes could cause information to disappear from STM: decay and displacement.
  • 12. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M Decay: information that is not rehearsed disappears as time passes. Displacement: information being held in STM is pushed out by newly arriving information. Displacement is most likely to occur when the capacity limit of STM has been reached (about 7 units of information).
  • 13. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M Displacement is most likely to occur when the capacity limit of STM has been reached (about 7 units of information). R D Q L T H JB
  • 14. Decay Theory of Forgetting 100% Rehearsal Day 1 Day 2 Day 7 Day 30 • Example: reviewing notes after class Amountofinformation • Memory fades away with time • unless there is rehearsal
  • 15.
  • 16. Poor Retrieval Cues/Poor Encoding  Retrieval cues are mental reminders that we create by forming vivid mental images or creating associations between new information and information we already know.
  • 17. Motivated Forgetting One explanation is REPRESSION:  in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness. Emotional process that automatically hides emotionally threatening or anxiety-producing information in the unconscious Sexual abuse
  • 18. Retrieval Failure  The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory.
  • 19. Retrieval Failure  Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory External events Attention Encoding Encoding Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory  The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory.
  • 20. DECAY THEORY Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused Research, however, has demonstrated that even memories which have not been rehearsed or remembered are remarkably stable in long-term memory.
  • 21. Factors Influencing Retrieval  Serial position effect  The tendency to remember the beginning and ending items of a sequence or list better than the middle items  Primacy effect  The tendency to recall the first items on a list more readily than the middle items  Recency effect  The tendency to recall the last items on a list more readily than the middle items
  • 22. Factors Influencing Retrieval  Environmental context and memory  any elements of the physical setting in which a person learns information are encoded along with the information and become part of the memory trace  Memories are better recalled in the environment they were learned
  • 23. Encoding Failure  Information may never be encoded into LTM EncodingX Long-term memory Encoding failure leads to forgetting Short-term memory
  • 24.  Information never enters the long-term memory  Age effects: As age inc, encoding dec – Brain less responsive w/ age External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding Encoding Encoding failure leads to forgetting Encoding Failure
  • 25. Examples of Encoding Failure What letters accompany the number 5 on your mobile phone? Where is the key “y” in a computer keyboard?
  • 26. Amnesia  Organic Amnesia  Physical trauma to brain structure.  Anterograde: Can’t recall event after injury  Retrograde: Can’t recall events that occurred before Loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the brain, or after disease, general anesthesia, certain drugs, or severe psychological trauma  Functional Amnesia  Due to psychological trauma  Psychogenic amnesia  Dissociative Fugue: Forget “selves” for a time…identity, life, etc
  • 27.  Infantile Amnesia  Remember very little about 1st years of life  Why?  Structure  Language  Memories:  3/4th birthday  Narrative 7yrs
  • 28.  Proactive: Old info interferes with new learning  Retroactive: New info makes people forget old info INTERFERENCE  People forget info because other learned info interferes.
  • 29. Interference Retroactive: New info makes people forget old info Proactive: Old info interferes with new learning
  • 30. Proactive Interference EXAMPLES: If you call your new girlfriend your old girlfriend’s name. Memories of where you have seen a friend last week interfere your ability to remember where you saw him today.
  • 31. Example: When new phone number interferes with ability to remember old phone number Retroactive Interference .
  • 32. Forgetting  Distortion  Caused by bias or suggestibility
  • 33.  Amnesia  Loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the brain, or after disease, general anesthesia, certain drugs, or severe psychological trauma  Distortion  Caused by bias or suggestibility
  • 34. Random Retrieval Phenomena  Tip of the Tongue  Try to retrieve familiar piece of info but can’t quite do it  Blocking Theory  Partial Activation
  • 35. Random Retrieval Phenomenon  “I Froze”  Stress hormones inhibit hippocampus  Cognitive function and LTM retrieval fail
  • 36. Random Retrieval Phenomena  Priming-  Preparing networks to remember...  Hte plpae si edr  Grandma is buying an apple.  Hte plpae si edr.  The apple is red
  • 37. Random Retrieval Phenomena  Déjà vu  “Seen before”  Current event provokes similar retrieval cues, but you haven’t done it.  Jamais Vu  “Never before”  Event doesn’t match earlier encoded clues, but know you’ve done it
  • 38. MNEMONICS (new-MON-ick)  are ways to improve encoding and create better retrieval cues by forming vivid associations or images which improve recall Two Common Methods 1. Method of Loci (LOW-sigh) - an encoding technique that creates visual associations between already memorized places and new items to be meorized.
  • 39. 2. Peg Method  - an encoding technique that creates associations between number-word rhymes and items to be memorized. Example: One is a bun Two is a shoe
  • 40. CULTURAL DIVERSITY  Survival in the aboriginal culture depends on encoding and remembering visual information, while surviving in an industrial culture depends on encoding and remembering verbal (written0 information.  This cultural difference predicts that people would perform differently on tests, depending on whether the test s emphasized visual or verbal retrieval clues.
  • 41. FALSE MEMORIES  condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience  sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
  • 42. False Memories  Lest you be overconfident: “In a 1992 op-ed piece for the New York Times, Garry Trudeau recollected some of his experiences related to the draft for the Vietnam War. Trudeau remembered receiving calls of concern from friends and family on the night of the draft lottery, after they had heard about his low number. He then recalled a series of events involving his attempts to gain a draft deferment: requesting a national security deferment from the draft board for his work with a magazine; deciding not to apply for conscientious objector status because he could imagine circumstances in which he would take another’s life; preparing for his interview with the draft board by receiving a “memorable haircut”; and finally, gaining a medical deferment from the board after sending them, upon his physician father’s advice, X-rays revealing a past ulcer. This recollection, he reported, remained unchanged for 20 years. However, after talking to others and examining the records of his draft correspondence, Trudeau uncovered some notable discrepancies between his recollection and what actually happened. No family member or friend remembers making a call of concern. Trudeau now believes he imagined their concerns, because the act ov examining this recollection led him to remember that he was in fact out having a few beers that night. He discovered that he actually applied for an occupational deferment and, upon reflection, wonders how he could have believed that working for a “glorified travel magazine” was justification for a national security deferment. He also neer received a “memorable haircut”, not did he apply for conscientious objector status in part because of the prohibitive paperwork” (Dodson & Schacter)
  • 43. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The original version of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model emphasized decay as the main cause of forgetting in STM. Their later version emphasized displacement. Here is a study that compared decay to displacement and showed a much greater effect of displacement. B R D Q L T H J
  • 44. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure You are read a list of 16 digits: (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8 After the last digit, you hear a tone... TONE
  • 45. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8The tone is a signal to recall one of the digits. The last digit before the tone (8) occurs only once at an earlier point in the list. TONE This is called the “probe”. Probe
  • 46. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8 Which is more important in causing forgetting, time or the additional digits? TONE Probe 4 Recall The decay principle implies time; the displacement principle implies digits.
  • 47. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8 Time and digits are correlated (confounded). To separate them, Waugh & Norman used two rates of presentation: slow (1 digit per second) and fast (4 digits per second). TONE Probe 4 Recall +1+ 1 +1 +1 + 1 +1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 +1 +1 = 12 Slow Presentation (Seconds)
  • 48. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8More time passes between the digit and the tone with slow presentation (12 seconds) than with fast presentation (3 seconds). According to the decay principle, the chances of recalling the digit should be lower with slow than with fast presentation. TONE Probe 4 Fast Presentation (Seconds) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
  • 49. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8According to the displacement principle, the chances of recalling the digit should be the same with fast and slow presentation because the number of digits before the tone is the same in both conditions. TONE Probe 4 Fast Presentation (Seconds) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
  • 50. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8Waugh & Norman made this comparison with the probe digit in each of the following positions: 3 (shown here), 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, or 14. TONE Probe 4 Fast Presentation (Seconds) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 Both decay and displacement predict an increase in recall as the probe gets closer to the tone.
  • 51. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8 There was slightly (but not significantly) higher recall with fast than with slow presentation when the probe was near the beginning of the list. Recall dropped sharply as the probe was moved from the end toward the beginning. TONE Probe 4 Fast Presentation (Seconds) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 Results
  • 52. Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? ST M LT M The Probe-Digit Procedure (Waugh & Norman, 1965) 7 0 8 4 1 6 0 9 5 5 3 7 2 4 7 8 As time passes, what mainly causes forgetting from short-term memory is exposure to additional information, not the passage of time. TONE Probe 4 Fast Presentation (Seconds) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 Conclusion

Editor's Notes

  1. 2 2
  2. 2 2
  3. 1924: Study and go to sleep vs. study right when wake up… Decay Theory said remembering/forgetting would have been same, but study found that those who learned then slept remembered more than those who learned and went about day. What caused forgetting was interference from activities and events occurring over time!