SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 29
I. Brief Description of the Thai Higher Education System
II. Financing Higher Education in Thailand
The higher education system in Thailand is
administered by the Commission on Higher Education in
the Ministry of Education.
Higher education is provided at universities, technical
institutes, colleges, vocational institutes and teacher
colleges and includes both public and private institutions.
These institutes are also divided into two levels – lower
than degree level and degree level.
 Higher Education is divided into 3 levels:
a. Lower Than Bachelor’s Degree Level – aims to promote
learner’s knowledge and vocational skills at middle level ,
including their ability to initiate jobs and develop
entrepreneurship.
b. Bachelor’s Degree Level – aims to promote learners’ higher
level of knowledge and vocational skills in various
disciplines, especially the ability to apply theories to practices
for both academic and professional development.
c. Graduate Level – aims to promote learners’ specialized
knowledge and skills.
 As of 2008, there were 78 public universities and 89 private
higher education institutions with more than 2.2 million
students (approximately 40 percent of university aged
students). Of these, more than half are in public institutions
and 87 percent are in bachelor degree programs (Ministry of
Education 2008).
 Starting in 2006, admission to higher education is based on the
following:
on a student’s grade point average
performance on the O-Net exam, which tests his/her
knowledge of general subjects,
Performance on the A-Net exam, which tests special skills.
Only some university faculties require
that applicants take the A-Net exam. The
Council of University Presidents has
decided that starting in 2010 only the O-
Net exam will be used as part of the
centralized university admissions scheme
together with accumulated grade point
average and a standardized aptitude test
(Noppakunthong 2007; The Nation
2009).
 In 2010, about one-third of the students in state-run universities come from
this central admission system and the other two-thirds are screened directly
by the universities.
 ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
Having completed 12 years of education at primary and secondary
schools and having obtained a grade 12 certificate or equivalent by the
Ministry of Education
Having sufficient financial security for the duration of the education
Not having expelled from any other institution or learning on grounds of
misconduct
Not having concurrently enrolled in more than one institution of higher
education(except open universities)
Being able to serve in any Thai government agency as assigned after
graduation, for those who complete courses in
medicine, nursing, dentistry and pharmacy
Thai Baht Philippine Peso
Tuition Fees 1,000-2,000/credit
hour
1,330.00 – 2,660.00
Other Fees
(Student Activities/Health
Services)
4,0000 -10,000 5,320.00 – 13,300.00
Other Expenses (Student
Registration/ID
Card/Graduation Fee)
1,0000-6,0000 1,330.00 – 7,980.00
P
U
B
L
I
C
Thai Baht Philippine Peso
Tuition Fees (Master’s
Degree Level)
40,000-80,000/year 53,200 – 106,400
Doctoral Degree Program About 200,000/year 266,000.00
P
U
B
L
I
C
Thai Baht Philippine Peso
Undergraduate -Tuition
Fees
1,000-3,000/credit
hour
1,330.00 – 3,990.00
Graduate Programs 3,000-5,000/credit
hour
3,990.00 -6,650.00
Other Fees 10,000/annum 13,300.00
Other Expenses 3,000-6,000/annum 3,990.00 – 7,980.00
 Fees vary between universities but most are based on
the credit system.
 Generally quoted “per credit”
 Each subject/course is worth a certain number of
credits.
To determine the cost per course:
Fee x no. of credits
 Privately-owned studios
3,500 – 5,000 baht
per month
Single/double bedrooms (PHP 4,661.65 – 6,659.5)
 Though scholarships are awarded to outstanding and
needy students, they are also available to other
disadvantaged Thai students.
 Scholarship schemes are now being implemented for
approved courses in accordance with the manpower
requirements of the country
 The aims of these schemes is to ensure the relevance
(cost/investment) of university education to the
economy with the hope of minimizing the rate of
unemployment among university graduates.
 Since the 1997 economic crisis, Thailand has seen
some far reaching reforms across sectors –
including reforms in higher education such as
deregulation and the granting of additional
autonomy (Savatsomboon 2006).
 The government in Thailand spends about one-
quarter of its total public expenditure on education,
which translated to 4.3 percent of GDP in 2005. As
of 2004, 15 percent of the education resources were
allocated to higher education (World Bank 2006).
 The SLF loans cover tuition fees, educational-related expenses
and other living expenses.
 Only high-school or tertiary-level students whose families’
incomes are less than B150 000 per annum are eligible to
apply for the loan.
 During the first 10 years of its operation, the SLF has lent to
more than 2.6 million students, with the loan value totaling
nearly B200 billion.
 Repayments were spread over fifteen years following a two
year grace period, with the repayment percentage fixed at very
low rates initially and rising progressively over time.
Repayments were in nominal terms and the loans carried an
interest rate of 1 percent (Ziderman, 2003). The central
institution for administering loans in Thailand was the Student
Loan Scheme Committee (SLSC) and its administrative office,
the Krumg Thai Bank (KTB).
 Household income; and the ceiling defining a low income
family was set at 120,000 Baht in 1996. This was later raised
to 300,000 Baht in 1997 and then reduced again to 150,000
Baht in 1999 (Ziderman, 2003).
 Repayment data of the first two cohorts (start of repayment
from 1999 or 2000) indicates that while a quarter of the
borrowers made payments considerably in excess of the
amounts due, some even paying off the total loan and closing
the account, another quarter of all borrowers failed to make a
single repayment (Ziderman, 2003, p.65). In 2003 Matichon
newspaper reported that 33 percent of the 464,565 students
whose loans were due were not making payments (Cited in
Savatsomboon, 2004).
 According to Ziderman (2006), the scheme had a number of
major shortcomings and was not effective in reaching
adequately assisting the poor.
Official family income ceiling - was set at nearly three
times the family income ceiling officially designated to
define poverty
◦ Implication: Allowing many non-poor students to
receive loans (Ziderman, 2006).
Allocation of loans to universities - was based on the
number of students in the university rather than the socio-
economic composition of the student body.
◦ Implication: Some institutions with large numbers of
poor students received inadequate funds, while others with
few poor students but a large number of aggregate students,
received more than they needed (Ziderman, 2006).
Autonomy - some institutions were able to determine the
allocation of loans according to their needs. For example,
some institutions provided loans only for tuition for a
larger number of students in order to attract more students.
◦ Implication: Poorer students were still denied access
because they were not able to cover their living expenses
(Ziderman, 2006).
 The loan scheme expanded very rapidly and eventually led to
budgetary cutbacks. This led to a situation where institutions
preferred spreading the allocated loan budget quite thinly to
cover the maximum number of students.
o Implication: The amount of loan that each individual
received was below recommended levels, further affecting
the economically disadvantaged. (Ziderman, 2006).
2. Thailand Income Contingent and Allowance Loan
Scheme (TICAL)
 an attempt to move towards more cost sharing
 closely modeled on the highly successful Australian
Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS).
 Under this format, repayment collection was to be
assigned to the tax authorities and repayments were
to be set as a percentage of current income, with a
higher percentage being due on larger incomes.
(Ziderman, 2006).
 Under the TICAL scheme,
 the Government decided on the basic and
reference fees for all subjects taught in public and
private higher education institutes.
The reference fees indicated how much the
Government was willing to provide and how much
the student was responsible for and were adjusted
according to cost of the discipline or on a group of
institutions having similar standards.
 .
The respective government/student breakdown was
contingent on several factors such as demand for the
profession, labor market demand, social benefits, and
earning potential. For the academic year 2006, the
breakdown was set at 50:50 for the government with the
government bearing a larger portion for disciplines like
medicine, science, history or archeology in order to
encourage more students to enter them. Poor students
were eligible to receive financial assistance in addition
to the loans to cover their living costs. The scheme
guaranteed that institutions would receive the full tuition
fees upfront whether the student paid the full amount or
availed of discounts or income contingent loans.
 The Department of Revenue was charged with keeping
track of student borrowers, updating the status of their
debts and collecting repayments when the threshold
income was reached.
 All students were eligible to receive loans and guarantors
were not required. Repayment began when the student
reached the earning threshold level income (10,000 or
16,000 Baht per month) following graduation.
 If the student was unemployed, he or she could request a
deferral on repayment. Generally there was no interest rate
applied however the Government had the right to impose
interest depending on the fluctuations in the rate of
inflation.
2005 1 THB = 0.74 PHP
As of November 30, 2012
1 THB = 1.33016 PHP
PHP 22,200 Php 103,600PHP 103,600 PHP 44,400
PHP 25,900 Php 107,300PHP 107,300 PHP 48,100
PHP 57,720 PHP 175,380PHP 204,980 PHP 286,380
3. Following the coup in 2007, the TICAL scheme was
replaced with a new form of the Student Loan Fund
managed by the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of
Education and the Commission for Higher Education
that provides loans of up to 100,000 Baht (US$6,277)
per year to cover tuition fees and living costs to
needy students whose family income does not exceed
150,000 Baht per year [US$9,416] (Chapman et. al.
2009).
4. The nominal interest rate is fixed at a very
subsidized 1 percent and borrowers are not required
to pay interest for seven years (in-school years
plus two year grace period). Following the grace
period, the borrowers have 15 years to repay
according to a loan repayment schedule that ranges
from a low proportion of the total loan in the early
years (1.5 percent in year one of repayment) to
higher proportions in later years (13 percent by
year 15). The SLF has hired the Krung Thai Bank, a
government-owned bank, to carry out loan approval
and collection processes.
Chaired by the
Permanent
Secretary of MOE
Set student loan
policies
Decide the amount of budgets
and administrative costs to
allocate to related agencies
Disburse and approve loan and
collect repayments
Financing Education in Thailand
Financing Education in Thailand
Financing Education in Thailand

More Related Content

What's hot

Practice teaching certificate
Practice teaching certificatePractice teaching certificate
Practice teaching certificateDepEd Philippines
 
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-plan
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-planLCOP learning-continuity-operational-plan
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-planJordan Ventura
 
Alternative learning system program
Alternative learning system programAlternative learning system program
Alternative learning system programmaryjune Jardeleza
 
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)Marianne Seras
 
South korea's Educational system
South korea's Educational systemSouth korea's Educational system
South korea's Educational systemMykel Tuazon
 
Assessment of student learning 1
Assessment of student learning 1Assessment of student learning 1
Assessment of student learning 1joeri Neri
 
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptx
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptxINSET - DMOS 2023.pptx
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptxWinsomeNenaCa
 
K to 12 Salient Point
K to 12 Salient PointK to 12 Salient Point
K to 12 Salient PointLyra Joy Tan
 
A narrative report on teaching experiences
A narrative report on teaching experiencesA narrative report on teaching experiences
A narrative report on teaching experiencesYuna Lesca
 
ALS BY DEPED
ALS BY DEPEDALS BY DEPED
ALS BY DEPEDEd Ebreo
 
Legal foundation of education
Legal foundation of educationLegal foundation of education
Legal foundation of educationAloy Salas
 
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptxJanryNinoCaisedo
 
Legal bases of special and inclusive education
Legal bases of special and inclusive educationLegal bases of special and inclusive education
Legal bases of special and inclusive educationFlipped Channel
 
Problems and Issues in private schools
Problems and Issues in private schoolsProblems and Issues in private schools
Problems and Issues in private schoolsLira Lei Ann Bondoc
 
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptx
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptxAnti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptx
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptxCeciliaLazaro3
 
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachers
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachersR.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachers
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachersRhodora Cataluna
 
Unpacking Strands to Learning Competencies
Unpacking Strands to Learning CompetenciesUnpacking Strands to Learning Competencies
Unpacking Strands to Learning CompetenciesLheo Fronda
 
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomes
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomesPrinciples of good practice in assessing learning outcomes
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomesRommel Luis III Israel
 

What's hot (20)

Practice teaching certificate
Practice teaching certificatePractice teaching certificate
Practice teaching certificate
 
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-plan
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-planLCOP learning-continuity-operational-plan
LCOP learning-continuity-operational-plan
 
Alternative learning system program
Alternative learning system programAlternative learning system program
Alternative learning system program
 
Legal Foundation of Education
Legal Foundation of EducationLegal Foundation of Education
Legal Foundation of Education
 
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)
N.C.B.T.S.-National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard (2013)
 
South korea's Educational system
South korea's Educational systemSouth korea's Educational system
South korea's Educational system
 
Assessment of student learning 1
Assessment of student learning 1Assessment of student learning 1
Assessment of student learning 1
 
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptx
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptxINSET - DMOS 2023.pptx
INSET - DMOS 2023.pptx
 
K to 12 Salient Point
K to 12 Salient PointK to 12 Salient Point
K to 12 Salient Point
 
A narrative report on teaching experiences
A narrative report on teaching experiencesA narrative report on teaching experiences
A narrative report on teaching experiences
 
ALS BY DEPED
ALS BY DEPEDALS BY DEPED
ALS BY DEPED
 
Phil iri
Phil iriPhil iri
Phil iri
 
Legal foundation of education
Legal foundation of educationLegal foundation of education
Legal foundation of education
 
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx
12-SAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSALS FROM BERF APPROVED RESEARCHES.pptx
 
Legal bases of special and inclusive education
Legal bases of special and inclusive educationLegal bases of special and inclusive education
Legal bases of special and inclusive education
 
Problems and Issues in private schools
Problems and Issues in private schoolsProblems and Issues in private schools
Problems and Issues in private schools
 
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptx
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptxAnti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptx
Anti - Bullying Act of 2013.pptx
 
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachers
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachersR.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachers
R.a.4670 magna carta for public school teachers
 
Unpacking Strands to Learning Competencies
Unpacking Strands to Learning CompetenciesUnpacking Strands to Learning Competencies
Unpacking Strands to Learning Competencies
 
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomes
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomesPrinciples of good practice in assessing learning outcomes
Principles of good practice in assessing learning outcomes
 

Viewers also liked

The Future of Career and Vocational Education
The Future of Career and Vocational EducationThe Future of Career and Vocational Education
The Future of Career and Vocational EducationDekker/Perich/Sabatini
 
Finance presentation 2011 2012
Finance presentation 2011 2012Finance presentation 2011 2012
Finance presentation 2011 2012jhunpineda
 
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915Ricardo Reich
 
Financing Higher Education
Financing Higher EducationFinancing Higher Education
Financing Higher EducationRhodes College
 
DMP Online: A Brief Background
DMP Online: A Brief BackgroundDMP Online: A Brief Background
DMP Online: A Brief BackgroundMartin Donnelly
 
Strategic Finance For A University System
Strategic Finance For A University SystemStrategic Finance For A University System
Strategic Finance For A University SystemEllen Chaffee
 
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideo
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideoNordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideo
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideoMeiji University
 
Financing Educational System in the US
Financing Educational System in the USFinancing Educational System in the US
Financing Educational System in the USMary Queen Bernardo
 
Towards the future of higher education economics
Towards the future of higher education economicsTowards the future of higher education economics
Towards the future of higher education economicsBryan Alexander
 
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...IIEP-UNESCO
 
PPD - the concern of education system in Thailand
PPD - the concern of education system in ThailandPPD - the concern of education system in Thailand
PPD - the concern of education system in ThailandArare Davidson
 
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016Peerasak C.
 
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in India
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in IndiaPotential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in India
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in IndiaDivya Narain
 
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like Hell
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like HellReasons Thailand Education Suck like Hell
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like HellMatumit Sombunjaroen
 
BSc Finance at Queen's University Belfast
BSc Finance at Queen's University BelfastBSc Finance at Queen's University Belfast
BSc Finance at Queen's University BelfastQUBFinance
 
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016OECD, Economics Department
 
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015OECD, Economics Department
 
Education Policy In The Philippines
Education Policy In The PhilippinesEducation Policy In The Philippines
Education Policy In The Philippinesguestc6841cb
 

Viewers also liked (20)

The Future of Career and Vocational Education
The Future of Career and Vocational EducationThe Future of Career and Vocational Education
The Future of Career and Vocational Education
 
Finance presentation 2011 2012
Finance presentation 2011 2012Finance presentation 2011 2012
Finance presentation 2011 2012
 
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915
Competitive-TE-Financing-Chile-Brief 160915
 
Financing Higher Education
Financing Higher EducationFinancing Higher Education
Financing Higher Education
 
DMP Online: A Brief Background
DMP Online: A Brief BackgroundDMP Online: A Brief Background
DMP Online: A Brief Background
 
Strategic Finance For A University System
Strategic Finance For A University SystemStrategic Finance For A University System
Strategic Finance For A University System
 
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideo
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideoNordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideo
NordiCHI2016_yamanaka_novideo
 
Financing Educational System in the US
Financing Educational System in the USFinancing Educational System in the US
Financing Educational System in the US
 
Towards the future of higher education economics
Towards the future of higher education economicsTowards the future of higher education economics
Towards the future of higher education economics
 
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...
Financing the Education 2030 agenda - Key issues and challenges for national ...
 
PPD - the concern of education system in Thailand
PPD - the concern of education system in ThailandPPD - the concern of education system in Thailand
PPD - the concern of education system in Thailand
 
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016
Thailand Wanted A Quality Education for All Report 2016
 
Status and Trend Teacher Education in Thailand
Status and Trend Teacher Education in ThailandStatus and Trend Teacher Education in Thailand
Status and Trend Teacher Education in Thailand
 
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in India
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in IndiaPotential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in India
Potential for Biodiversity Offsets as a Biodiversity Finance Mechanism in India
 
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like Hell
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like HellReasons Thailand Education Suck like Hell
Reasons Thailand Education Suck like Hell
 
BSc Finance at Queen's University Belfast
BSc Finance at Queen's University BelfastBSc Finance at Queen's University Belfast
BSc Finance at Queen's University Belfast
 
Country Presentation Thailand (2)
Country Presentation Thailand (2)Country Presentation Thailand (2)
Country Presentation Thailand (2)
 
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016
Finlands challenges-for-growth-oecd-economic-survey-2016
 
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015
Reigniting inclusive-growth-oecd-economic-survey-brazil-2015
 
Education Policy In The Philippines
Education Policy In The PhilippinesEducation Policy In The Philippines
Education Policy In The Philippines
 

Similar to Financing Education in Thailand

C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Edition
C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 EditionC:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Edition
C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Editiondenan
 
Higher education policy in indonesia
Higher education policy in indonesia Higher education policy in indonesia
Higher education policy in indonesia Hye Ri Baek
 
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social JusticeDr. Subir Maitra
 
2011 gs indian econ handout 16
2011 gs indian econ handout 162011 gs indian econ handout 16
2011 gs indian econ handout 16Dr. Subir Maitra
 
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...University of Battambang (UBB)
 
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions in Kenya...
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions  in Kenya...Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions  in Kenya...
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions in Kenya...IJMER
 
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...University of Battambang (UBB)
 
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPoint
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPointIDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPoint
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPointccleadership
 
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...Nupur Srivastava
 
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeria
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeriaExploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeria
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeriaAlexander Decker
 
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...Sam Rany
 
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...University of Battambang (UBB)
 
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College StudentsA Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College StudentsAJSSMTJournal
 
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...University of Battambang (UBB)
 
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...Sam Rany
 
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)Economics of education 04.11.11(3)
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)Dan Curtis
 
Funding Higher Education in Nigeria
Funding Higher Education in NigeriaFunding Higher Education in Nigeria
Funding Higher Education in Nigeriaiosrjce
 
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptx
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptxTRENDS&ISSUES.pptx
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptxJovyTuting1
 
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docx
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docxScreenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docx
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docxjeffsrosalyn
 

Similar to Financing Education in Thailand (20)

Talk2012
Talk2012Talk2012
Talk2012
 
C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Edition
C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 EditionC:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Edition
C:\Fakepath\Ed D 415 Higher Education In Cambodia 1997 2003 Edition
 
Higher education policy in indonesia
Higher education policy in indonesia Higher education policy in indonesia
Higher education policy in indonesia
 
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice
2011 Civil Services Exam GS Indian Economics Handout 16: Social Justice
 
2011 gs indian econ handout 16
2011 gs indian econ handout 162011 gs indian econ handout 16
2011 gs indian econ handout 16
 
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...
1. establishment of institutional policies for enhancing education quality in...
 
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions in Kenya...
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions  in Kenya...Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions  in Kenya...
Effectiveness of Internal Audits in Public Educational Institutions in Kenya...
 
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...
3. investigating the institutional policies that contribute toward the studen...
 
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPoint
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPointIDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPoint
IDSL 855 - Student Financial Aid PowerPoint
 
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...
An Increasing Cost of Higher Education...
 
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeria
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeriaExploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeria
Exploration of pragmatic funding sources in funding higher education in nigeria
 
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...
National strategies and policies for promoting educational quality in Cambodi...
 
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...
The National Strategies and Policies that contribute toward the Enhancement o...
 
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College StudentsA Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
 
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...
4. conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in c...
 
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...
Conceptualizing institutional policies for students’ academic success in camb...
 
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)Economics of education 04.11.11(3)
Economics of education 04.11.11(3)
 
Funding Higher Education in Nigeria
Funding Higher Education in NigeriaFunding Higher Education in Nigeria
Funding Higher Education in Nigeria
 
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptx
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptxTRENDS&ISSUES.pptx
TRENDS&ISSUES.pptx
 
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docx
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docxScreenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docx
Screenplay Written by Yongyi CaiFADE INEXT. RAI.docx
 

More from Mary Queen Bernardo

More from Mary Queen Bernardo (13)

Progress report Oplan Balik Eskwela Occidental Mindoro
Progress report   Oplan Balik Eskwela Occidental MindoroProgress report   Oplan Balik Eskwela Occidental Mindoro
Progress report Oplan Balik Eskwela Occidental Mindoro
 
Progress report - Oplan Balik Eskwela
Progress report - Oplan Balik Eskwela Progress report - Oplan Balik Eskwela
Progress report - Oplan Balik Eskwela
 
Understanding Monitoring & Evaluation
Understanding Monitoring & EvaluationUnderstanding Monitoring & Evaluation
Understanding Monitoring & Evaluation
 
Tips on Effective Job Interview
Tips on Effective Job InterviewTips on Effective Job Interview
Tips on Effective Job Interview
 
Jacques Maritain - Educational Philosophy
Jacques Maritain - Educational PhilosophyJacques Maritain - Educational Philosophy
Jacques Maritain - Educational Philosophy
 
Lesson planning
Lesson planningLesson planning
Lesson planning
 
Art of Questioning
Art of QuestioningArt of Questioning
Art of Questioning
 
Educational Innovations
Educational InnovationsEducational Innovations
Educational Innovations
 
Feature Writing
Feature  WritingFeature  Writing
Feature Writing
 
Radio Script writing and Broadcasting
Radio Script writing and BroadcastingRadio Script writing and Broadcasting
Radio Script writing and Broadcasting
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Forgetting and Remembering
Forgetting and RememberingForgetting and Remembering
Forgetting and Remembering
 
Red Tide Phenomenon
Red Tide PhenomenonRed Tide Phenomenon
Red Tide Phenomenon
 

Recently uploaded

MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?Olivia Kresic
 
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607dollysharma2066
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCRashishs7044
 
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith PereraKenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Pereraictsugar
 
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample Report
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample ReportIndia Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample Report
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample ReportMintel Group
 
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdf
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdfDigital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdf
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdfJos Voskuil
 
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncr
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / NcrCall Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncr
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncrdollysharma2066
 
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfNewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfKhaled Al Awadi
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCRashishs7044
 
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdf
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdfIntro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdf
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdfpollardmorgan
 
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...Seta Wicaksana
 
PSCC - Capability Statement Presentation
PSCC - Capability Statement PresentationPSCC - Capability Statement Presentation
PSCC - Capability Statement PresentationAnamaria Contreras
 
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menza
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu MenzaYouth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menza
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menzaictsugar
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCRashishs7044
 
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis UsageNeil Kimberley
 
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in Islamabad
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in IslamabadIslamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in Islamabad
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in IslamabadAyesha Khan
 
Organizational Structure Running A Successful Business
Organizational Structure Running A Successful BusinessOrganizational Structure Running A Successful Business
Organizational Structure Running A Successful BusinessSeta Wicaksana
 
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detail
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detailCase study on tata clothing brand zudio in detail
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detailAriel592675
 
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMMemorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMVoces Mineras
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
 
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607
(Best) ENJOY Call Girls in Faridabad Ex | 8377087607
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
 
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith PereraKenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
 
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample Report
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample ReportIndia Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample Report
India Consumer 2024 Redacted Sample Report
 
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdf
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdfDigital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdf
Digital Transformation in the PLM domain - distrib.pdf
 
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncr
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / NcrCall Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncr
Call Girls in DELHI Cantt, ( Call Me )-8377877756-Female Escort- In Delhi / Ncr
 
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
 
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfNewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Tughlakabad Delhi NCR
 
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdf
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdfIntro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdf
Intro to BCG's Carbon Emissions Benchmark_vF.pdf
 
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...
Ten Organizational Design Models to align structure and operations to busines...
 
PSCC - Capability Statement Presentation
PSCC - Capability Statement PresentationPSCC - Capability Statement Presentation
PSCC - Capability Statement Presentation
 
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menza
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu MenzaYouth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menza
Youth Involvement in an Innovative Coconut Value Chain by Mwalimu Menza
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
 
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage
2024 Numerator Consumer Study of Cannabis Usage
 
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in Islamabad
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in IslamabadIslamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in Islamabad
Islamabad Escorts | Call 03070433345 | Escort Service in Islamabad
 
Organizational Structure Running A Successful Business
Organizational Structure Running A Successful BusinessOrganizational Structure Running A Successful Business
Organizational Structure Running A Successful Business
 
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detail
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detailCase study on tata clothing brand zudio in detail
Case study on tata clothing brand zudio in detail
 
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMMemorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
 

Financing Education in Thailand

  • 1. I. Brief Description of the Thai Higher Education System II. Financing Higher Education in Thailand
  • 2.
  • 3. The higher education system in Thailand is administered by the Commission on Higher Education in the Ministry of Education. Higher education is provided at universities, technical institutes, colleges, vocational institutes and teacher colleges and includes both public and private institutions. These institutes are also divided into two levels – lower than degree level and degree level.
  • 4.  Higher Education is divided into 3 levels: a. Lower Than Bachelor’s Degree Level – aims to promote learner’s knowledge and vocational skills at middle level , including their ability to initiate jobs and develop entrepreneurship. b. Bachelor’s Degree Level – aims to promote learners’ higher level of knowledge and vocational skills in various disciplines, especially the ability to apply theories to practices for both academic and professional development. c. Graduate Level – aims to promote learners’ specialized knowledge and skills.
  • 5.  As of 2008, there were 78 public universities and 89 private higher education institutions with more than 2.2 million students (approximately 40 percent of university aged students). Of these, more than half are in public institutions and 87 percent are in bachelor degree programs (Ministry of Education 2008).  Starting in 2006, admission to higher education is based on the following: on a student’s grade point average performance on the O-Net exam, which tests his/her knowledge of general subjects, Performance on the A-Net exam, which tests special skills.
  • 6. Only some university faculties require that applicants take the A-Net exam. The Council of University Presidents has decided that starting in 2010 only the O- Net exam will be used as part of the centralized university admissions scheme together with accumulated grade point average and a standardized aptitude test (Noppakunthong 2007; The Nation 2009).
  • 7.  In 2010, about one-third of the students in state-run universities come from this central admission system and the other two-thirds are screened directly by the universities.  ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES Having completed 12 years of education at primary and secondary schools and having obtained a grade 12 certificate or equivalent by the Ministry of Education Having sufficient financial security for the duration of the education Not having expelled from any other institution or learning on grounds of misconduct Not having concurrently enrolled in more than one institution of higher education(except open universities) Being able to serve in any Thai government agency as assigned after graduation, for those who complete courses in medicine, nursing, dentistry and pharmacy
  • 8. Thai Baht Philippine Peso Tuition Fees 1,000-2,000/credit hour 1,330.00 – 2,660.00 Other Fees (Student Activities/Health Services) 4,0000 -10,000 5,320.00 – 13,300.00 Other Expenses (Student Registration/ID Card/Graduation Fee) 1,0000-6,0000 1,330.00 – 7,980.00 P U B L I C
  • 9. Thai Baht Philippine Peso Tuition Fees (Master’s Degree Level) 40,000-80,000/year 53,200 – 106,400 Doctoral Degree Program About 200,000/year 266,000.00 P U B L I C
  • 10. Thai Baht Philippine Peso Undergraduate -Tuition Fees 1,000-3,000/credit hour 1,330.00 – 3,990.00 Graduate Programs 3,000-5,000/credit hour 3,990.00 -6,650.00 Other Fees 10,000/annum 13,300.00 Other Expenses 3,000-6,000/annum 3,990.00 – 7,980.00
  • 11.  Fees vary between universities but most are based on the credit system.  Generally quoted “per credit”  Each subject/course is worth a certain number of credits. To determine the cost per course: Fee x no. of credits
  • 12.  Privately-owned studios 3,500 – 5,000 baht per month Single/double bedrooms (PHP 4,661.65 – 6,659.5)
  • 13.  Though scholarships are awarded to outstanding and needy students, they are also available to other disadvantaged Thai students.  Scholarship schemes are now being implemented for approved courses in accordance with the manpower requirements of the country  The aims of these schemes is to ensure the relevance (cost/investment) of university education to the economy with the hope of minimizing the rate of unemployment among university graduates.
  • 14.  Since the 1997 economic crisis, Thailand has seen some far reaching reforms across sectors – including reforms in higher education such as deregulation and the granting of additional autonomy (Savatsomboon 2006).  The government in Thailand spends about one- quarter of its total public expenditure on education, which translated to 4.3 percent of GDP in 2005. As of 2004, 15 percent of the education resources were allocated to higher education (World Bank 2006).
  • 15.
  • 16.  The SLF loans cover tuition fees, educational-related expenses and other living expenses.  Only high-school or tertiary-level students whose families’ incomes are less than B150 000 per annum are eligible to apply for the loan.  During the first 10 years of its operation, the SLF has lent to more than 2.6 million students, with the loan value totaling nearly B200 billion.  Repayments were spread over fifteen years following a two year grace period, with the repayment percentage fixed at very low rates initially and rising progressively over time. Repayments were in nominal terms and the loans carried an interest rate of 1 percent (Ziderman, 2003). The central institution for administering loans in Thailand was the Student Loan Scheme Committee (SLSC) and its administrative office, the Krumg Thai Bank (KTB).
  • 17.  Household income; and the ceiling defining a low income family was set at 120,000 Baht in 1996. This was later raised to 300,000 Baht in 1997 and then reduced again to 150,000 Baht in 1999 (Ziderman, 2003).  Repayment data of the first two cohorts (start of repayment from 1999 or 2000) indicates that while a quarter of the borrowers made payments considerably in excess of the amounts due, some even paying off the total loan and closing the account, another quarter of all borrowers failed to make a single repayment (Ziderman, 2003, p.65). In 2003 Matichon newspaper reported that 33 percent of the 464,565 students whose loans were due were not making payments (Cited in Savatsomboon, 2004).
  • 18.  According to Ziderman (2006), the scheme had a number of major shortcomings and was not effective in reaching adequately assisting the poor. Official family income ceiling - was set at nearly three times the family income ceiling officially designated to define poverty ◦ Implication: Allowing many non-poor students to receive loans (Ziderman, 2006). Allocation of loans to universities - was based on the number of students in the university rather than the socio- economic composition of the student body. ◦ Implication: Some institutions with large numbers of poor students received inadequate funds, while others with few poor students but a large number of aggregate students, received more than they needed (Ziderman, 2006).
  • 19. Autonomy - some institutions were able to determine the allocation of loans according to their needs. For example, some institutions provided loans only for tuition for a larger number of students in order to attract more students. ◦ Implication: Poorer students were still denied access because they were not able to cover their living expenses (Ziderman, 2006).  The loan scheme expanded very rapidly and eventually led to budgetary cutbacks. This led to a situation where institutions preferred spreading the allocated loan budget quite thinly to cover the maximum number of students. o Implication: The amount of loan that each individual received was below recommended levels, further affecting the economically disadvantaged. (Ziderman, 2006).
  • 20. 2. Thailand Income Contingent and Allowance Loan Scheme (TICAL)  an attempt to move towards more cost sharing  closely modeled on the highly successful Australian Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS).  Under this format, repayment collection was to be assigned to the tax authorities and repayments were to be set as a percentage of current income, with a higher percentage being due on larger incomes. (Ziderman, 2006).
  • 21.  Under the TICAL scheme,  the Government decided on the basic and reference fees for all subjects taught in public and private higher education institutes. The reference fees indicated how much the Government was willing to provide and how much the student was responsible for and were adjusted according to cost of the discipline or on a group of institutions having similar standards.
  • 22.  . The respective government/student breakdown was contingent on several factors such as demand for the profession, labor market demand, social benefits, and earning potential. For the academic year 2006, the breakdown was set at 50:50 for the government with the government bearing a larger portion for disciplines like medicine, science, history or archeology in order to encourage more students to enter them. Poor students were eligible to receive financial assistance in addition to the loans to cover their living costs. The scheme guaranteed that institutions would receive the full tuition fees upfront whether the student paid the full amount or availed of discounts or income contingent loans.
  • 23.  The Department of Revenue was charged with keeping track of student borrowers, updating the status of their debts and collecting repayments when the threshold income was reached.  All students were eligible to receive loans and guarantors were not required. Repayment began when the student reached the earning threshold level income (10,000 or 16,000 Baht per month) following graduation.  If the student was unemployed, he or she could request a deferral on repayment. Generally there was no interest rate applied however the Government had the right to impose interest depending on the fluctuations in the rate of inflation.
  • 24. 2005 1 THB = 0.74 PHP As of November 30, 2012 1 THB = 1.33016 PHP PHP 22,200 Php 103,600PHP 103,600 PHP 44,400 PHP 25,900 Php 107,300PHP 107,300 PHP 48,100 PHP 57,720 PHP 175,380PHP 204,980 PHP 286,380
  • 25. 3. Following the coup in 2007, the TICAL scheme was replaced with a new form of the Student Loan Fund managed by the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Education and the Commission for Higher Education that provides loans of up to 100,000 Baht (US$6,277) per year to cover tuition fees and living costs to needy students whose family income does not exceed 150,000 Baht per year [US$9,416] (Chapman et. al. 2009). 4. The nominal interest rate is fixed at a very subsidized 1 percent and borrowers are not required to pay interest for seven years (in-school years plus two year grace period). Following the grace period, the borrowers have 15 years to repay according to a loan repayment schedule that ranges from a low proportion of the total loan in the early years (1.5 percent in year one of repayment) to higher proportions in later years (13 percent by year 15). The SLF has hired the Krung Thai Bank, a government-owned bank, to carry out loan approval and collection processes.
  • 26. Chaired by the Permanent Secretary of MOE Set student loan policies Decide the amount of budgets and administrative costs to allocate to related agencies Disburse and approve loan and collect repayments

Editor's Notes

  1. Organizational Structure of the SLFFigure 9.13 shows the administrative structure of the SLF. At the top of the structure is the SLF Board, chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Finance. The board has the authority to set student loan policies and related regulations, and to decide the amount of budgets and administrative costs to allocate to related agencies. The SLF budget for loans is then divided into two portions: one for upper secondary level (high school and vocational school), which is supervised by the Sub-Committee on the First Expense Account; another for undergraduate level, which is supervised by the Sub-Committee on the Second Expense Account. The Krung Thai Bank, a major commercial bank owned by the government, has been hired to disburse the approved loans and collect repayments.