Refer to written guideUsing Excel to Create Visual Data and possibly refer them to a handout with all information; data collection
DATA COLLECTION SHEETS!
Handout 4 - Felix
Handout 5 - Felix
Handout 6 - Felix
Handout 7 - FelixReference & Home Data Collection Sheets (2)
Handout 8 - Felix
Handout 9 – Felix
Handout 11 - Felix
Handout 13 - Felix
Handout 13 – Felixrefer to lower section on Felix’s completed Intervention Plan with completed Crisis Management PlanRefer to lower section on Lexi’s Behavior Intervention Plan and have participants complete the Crisis Management Plan
Handout 14 - Felix
Handout 15 - Felix
Handout 42 Monitoring-- Plan for Intervention OutcomeRemind them that this is where we may write a goal that thought about during hypothesis buildingTeach to the form………………….this guides you.
HANDOUT/TOOL: Monitoring Handout 43From South Florida . . . Giving examples of the kind of outcomes you may want to monitor . . . Cannot do everything . . . Choose what you want to see improving!
Monitoring Handout 44
Handout: Elements in Progress monitoring behavior
Handout 45: ChartMary - can refer to the graph paper in the progress monitoring section as a way to take data or graph progress
Mary or Karen
This is Felix, an 8 year old boy referred forepisodes involving refusal, tantrums andfleeing; sent home often. 1
Step One: Problem Identification a. Define the problem behavior b. Review existing data c. Generate list of concerns d. Prioritize behaviors for intervention 2
Frequency of Tantrums Over 56 Days 43% Tantrum 57% No TantrumInitial Problem Identified:Felix had a tantrum during the first hour of the morning 24 times in 56 days.
Peer Difficulties Poke Taking Things Hit/KickPoke 9Hit/Kick 9Taking Things 12 4
Data on Ignoring1614121086420 Total After Recess On Way To Class If Redirected Other After On Way To If Total Recess Class Redirected Other 15 8 5 2 0 5
Data Collection Sheet Name: _____________________ Teacher______________ Day__________________ Date__________T ime_________ Antecedent Behavior Maintaining Consequence Working Ignore Directive Avoided taskHard/Fatigued After Recess Carry Over Chased On Way To Class Preferred activity If Redirected Lots of Attention Non-Preferred Activity Peer Difficulties Card Turned Poke Hit/kick Taking things 6
Tallying Data From All Sheets n=45 Antecedent Behavior Maintaining Consequence Working Ignore Directive Avoided taskHard/Fatigued 15 20 After Recess 35 8 On Way To Class Carry Over Chased 5 If Redirected 11 18 2 Preferred activity Peer Difficulties Lots of Attention 30 4 Poke 12 9 hit/kick Card Turned Non-Preferred Activity 9 10 taking things 6 12 7
Felix No Days With Social Performances Tantrum 5% Frequency of Tantrums 19 days Felix: 42 Days of Morning Routine Tantrums By Time 30 25 Tantrum 95% 20 1520 1018 19 1916 18 18 18 Some Points14 5 45%1210 No Points 8 0 55% 6 8-9:00 9-10:00 10-11:00 11-12:00 12-1:00 1-2:00 2-3:00 3-4:00 4 2 2 0 Setting Events/Tantrums 19 tantrums over 42 days 8
Defining Target BehaviorsDirections: Please describe the target behaviors including their frequency, intensity, and resultsStudent: Teacher: Class: Date: Describe what the student’s problem behavior looks like: Estimate how often the behavior occurs: Describe how intense or severe the behavior is: Determine what skills appear to be lacking: 9
Profile of Student’s Strengths and Needs Academic Movement: Gross/ Emotional Communication Social Medical/ Affinities/ Other Fine/Repetitive Vision/Hearing Special InterestsStrengths Math Gross Motor is fine Affectionate Receptive Relates well Vision Listening to VIQ 105 Listening with adults language in with adults hearing fine stories PIQ 129 comprehens superior Interested Computers Good attendance ion range in peers Video games Good memory Creative Has many Puzzlews Understands abstract Imaginative ideas and Creative story- concepts Reading wants to telling skills at share grade level Challenges Writing Small motor Regresses expressive doesn’t ADHD Many phobias: Language challenges with stress language read social Anxiety statues, masks, expression (buttons, snaps, Tantrums well below situations bees, soap, Reading zippers, pencils) anxious average well Limited range comprehensio serious tends to of foods n below grade articulation obssess level difficulties over one friend can’t easily share inflexibleData Observations Interviews Attendance Formal Testing Report Cards Class AssignmentsResources Work Samples Grade Level Testing Anecdotal Records IEP/Progress Report Medical Records Office Discipline Referral OTHER: 10
What do we know What do we need to know? How will we get it?Setting Events Anxiety When? Data collection sheet tailored Sleep problems Which tasks? Issues negotiating morning routine Is it lack of skill or is it dislike? Verbal outflowAntecedents Transitions Does he handle any transitions well? Data collection sheet Change in routine Will he transition to anything? Lack of functional support (regression) Does “loss of pts” bother him? Receiving CRT directive Can he do the things we ask of him? Others: bees, statues, masks, hand washing, Why the regression? public performance Directives: Can’t or won’t?Consequences Zero points on chart Do points/office matter? Data collection sheet Sent to office Peer reaction? Negative pee reaction The activity: can’t or won’t? Ends engagement in activityOther POHI certified with speech Is this the best diagnosis? Psychiatric requested Can he verbalize frustration? Does he have a script?> Teaching Does he recognize what a good day feels like? 12
Teacher Data Collection Sheet Day___________________ Date_________________________ ________ Morning Routine At SchoolSLEEP: JOBS/Morning Routine: Before Start of Day: Beha Came in Independently: vior Yes No Char t:Decent Night’s Sleep Yes No Difficulty interacting with peers in hall area: Yes No Thre e dom Completed Sequence Alone Difficulty at locker: yes no Verbal Overflow: ains All Zeros War Did not complete/passiveWAKING UP: Mild Moderate Morning Routine/Jobs: complete Severe ning Give n Thre Did not complete/resistive incomplete e area At Carpet: s On time Late NOTOn Time Late Early With Prompts Group Time: Participated All Zeros Yes No Retu Notes: r nMOOD upon arising: Note about “before” t o R o o W/O Permission mHappy Hyper Touchy cam e b a c W/O Permission k r eNotes About Affect/State Upon Waking Up: a d y t o l e a r n still p e r s e v e r a t i n g Note s :VERBAL OVERFLOW In Car: TRANSITION INTO BUILDING:Mild Med Severe Exited Car On Cue W / O With “big” Kids P e r m With Peers i s s iDROP OFF At SCHOOL: Late o n On TimeExit Independently Some Assistance Staye dNotes: Notes: a t s c h o o l a l l d a y Upon Removal to Mrs.Smith: Calmed down Processed event Tone of Voice off Complied w/redirection Returned to room after how many minutes? 13 Notes about removal
Name: FelixDay___________________ Date_________HOME Data SheetSLEEP: JOBS/Morning Routine:Decent Night’s Sleep Yes No Completed Sequence Alone Did not complete/passiveWAKING UP: Did not complete/resistiveOn Time Late Early Notes:MOOD upon arising:Happy Hyper TouchyNotes About Affect/State Upon Waking Up:VERBAL OVERFLOW In Car: TRANSITION INTO BUILDING:Mild Med Severe Exited Car On Cue With “big” Kids With PeersDROP OFF At SCHOOL: Late On TimeExit Independently Some AssistanceNotes: Notes: 14
ANALYZING PATTERNSActivity:Analyze the patterns evident in the data collected and recordrelevant information below. Analyzing Patterns Circumstances in which the behavior is most likely: First hour of day When transition into building is difficult When morning routine at home and school is difficult When he sleeps poorly On the day of a public performance Circumstances in which the behavior is least likely: When he sleeps well When he does not procrastinate in AM routine at house or locker When in cooperative, shared group task When his morning routine and transition into school is done independently Possible functions of the behavior To avoid fear (of social performance) which lead to avoidance 15
Summary (Hypothesis) StatementProblem Definition Revised:Patterns: What patterns were identified in the data collected (i.e. circumstances in which behavior is most likely or least likely;possible functions of the behavior)When this occurs…. (describe the student does… (describe behavior) to get/to avoid… (describe consequences)circumstances)Moderating Variables: Are there other variables that appear to be affecting the student’s behavior (e.g., medical problems,curricular issues)?We can make it better if…We can make it worse if… 16
• Prompt compliance • Receives contingent to CRT directive positive CRT • Stay in classroom attention • Engage in • Positive peer classroom activities attention • Finishes his work • Gets Point Chart rewards Desired Behavior Consequence• Anxiety • Loss of points• Sleep • Transitions problems • Public performance • Removed from room;• Fatigue • Tantrum: (i.e.) • To avoid that which • Change in routine • earn “0” points on chart• Difficult cry, kick, scream, y he fears, like • CRT Directive • Sent to office ell, throw individual “public morning at • Lack of functional • negative peer reaction school and things, adamant performance” support • ends engagement in home refusals • Bees, statues, etc. • Work/task refusal activity• Verbal • miss social function overflow Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence Function • Use self-soothing coping skills • Communicate frustration adaptively Alternative Behavior 17
Felix: Completed Modification ToolPreventative: What environmental adjustments can be used to make the student’s problem Educative: What skills can be taught to Functional: How can consequences behavior unnecessary? replace or meet the same function be managed to ensure the as the student’s problem behavior student receives reinforcers for and improve his or her ability to positive behavior, not problem function more effectively? behavior? Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Behavior Teaching Consequence Strategies StrategiesBehavior plan initiated Social stories to Teach Felix how Felix is creative & at home to address: help set to use a visual imaginative; he Sleep routines expectations and schedule that he will receive Morning routine ease transitions & controls positive Transportation to anxiety Help him to reinforcement school Choices given develop social (verbal praise, “If/Then” stories for earn desired statements used anxiety provoking activities, star in giving directives situations chart, etc.) for Visual schedule Create a chart of his that Felix feeling “faces;” participation in manipulates to he can then pick visual enhance feelings one that matches schedule, & control his feeling. If social stories, Select feelings frustrated, he & coping “face” symbol to can go to a strategy use match his current designated area (e.g. books on tape, feeling. Then self- to self-soothe computers, soothe as needed Felix likes video games, creative story- puzzles, etc.) telling; slowly develop this into public performance in the classroom 18
Felix’s Completed Behavior Plan BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION PLAN SUMMARYIntervention components: What strategies will be used (based on the hypotheses)?Goal: 50% decrease in problem behaviors identified ______ See attached implementation planPreventative: What environmental adjustments will be used Educative: What behaviors (skills) will be taught to replace Functional: How will consequences be managed to insure the student receives reinforcers for positive,to make the student’s problem behavior unnecessary? (meet the same function as) the student’s problem behavior and not problem, behavior?Behavioral plan to be implemented at home to address setting improve his or her ability to function more effectively? When the student does . . . Adults will do . . .events and establish predictable routines: sleep; morning; Felix will help develop social stories and use them to decreasetransportation. anxiety levels.Social stories will be used to help with transitions and to reduce Manipulation of a visual schedule should enhance Felix’s feelingsanxiety levels. of control and decrease anxiety levels related to transitions andChoices will be given. public performances.If, then statements will be used. Felix will be taught to identify his feelings by using feeling facesA visual schedule will be implemented to enhance feelings of and utilize a designated area to self soothe.control. Slowly increase Felix’s ability to participate in public performancesFeeling faces will be used to identify feelings. by using graduated steps to reduce anxiety.A designated area will be used for self soothing activities. Felix likes creative story telling. This may be used to help transition into public performances. ________ goals integrated student’s IEP within the /ISP Acknowledge and encourage Felix to use “Cool Down” spot. HoldIdentifies feelings utilizing feeling faces (i.e. frustration). up a green card to indicate visual permission.Exhibits frustration. Use appropriate social story and allow 5 minutes for Felix to adjust.Follows the preventative and educative components of his plan. Provide reinforcements: Books on tape; computers; video games; puzzles; verbal praise.Completes cool down. Teacher will provide a compliance task which must be completed prior to Felix joining the class activities.Crisis Management: Are crisis management procedures needed to insure safety and de-escalation of the student’s behavior in emergency situations? X YES NOIf so, describe strategies:Proactive: Reactive:Use behavioral strategies described above. Ensure safety of students by removing them from the classroom if Felix shouldNCI Strategies to be utilized tantrum. Follow Crisis Plan. 19
Felix’s Completed Behavior Plan (highlighting Crisis Plan) BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION PLAN SUMMARYIntervention components: What strategies will be used (based on the hypotheses)? ______ See attached implementation planPreventative: What environmental adjustments will be used to Educative: What behaviors (skills) will be taught to replace (meet the same function Functional: How will consequences be managed to insure the student receives reinforcers for positive, not problem, behavior? as) the student’s problem behavior and improve his or her ability to function more When the student does . . . Adults will do . . .make the student’s problem behavior unnecessary? effectively?Behavioral plan to be implemented at home to address setting Felix will help develop social stories and use them to decrease anxiety levels.events and establish predictable routines: sleep; morning; Manipulation of a visual schedule should enhance Felix’s feelings of control and decrease anxiety levels related to transitions and public performances.transportation. Felix will be taught to identify his feelings by using feeling faces and utilize a designatedSocial stories will be used to help with transitions and to reduce area to self soothe.anxiety levels. Slowly increase Felix’s ability to participate in public performances by using graduated steps to reduce anxiety.Choices will be given. Felix likes creative story telling. This may be used to help transition into publicIf, then statements will be used. performances.A visual schedule will be implemented to enhance feelings of control. ________ goals integrated student’s IEP within the /ISPFeeling faces will be used to identify feelings.A designated area will be used for self soothing activities. Acknowledge and encourage Felix to use “Cool Down” spot. Hold up a green card to indicate visual permission.Identifies feelings utilizing feeling faces (i.e. frustration). Use appropriate social story and allow 5 minutes for Felix to adjust.Exhibits frustration. Provide reinforcements: Books on tape; computers; video games; puzzles; verbalFollows the preventative and educative components of his plan. praise. Teacher will provide a compliance task which must be completed prior to Felix joiningCompletes cool down. the class activities.Crisis Management: Are crisis management procedures needed to insure safety and de-escalation of the student’s behavior inemergency situations? X YES NOIf so, describe strategies:Proactive: Reactive:Use behavioral strategies described above. Ensure safety of students by removing them from theNCI Strategies to be utilized classroom if Felix should tantrum. 20 Follow Crisis Plan.
Felix: Monitoring Plan MONITORING PLAN FOR INTERVENTION OUTCOMESGoal: 50% decrease Types of Outcomes: Methods: Timelines:in frequency of What Will Be Measured? How Will It Be Measured? When/How Often Will Itproblem behavior Be Measured?Decrease in Problem 1. Decrease in frequency of 1. Tally incidence of tantrums 1. Assess tantrums andBehavior: tantrums 2. Collect intensity ratings and office referrals daily Tantrums 2. Decrease in intensity of duration of tantrums until further notice; Anxiety tantrums 3. Tally compliance to initial review after one week Office referrals 3. Decrease in reported anxiety teacher directives then monthly 4. Increase in time spent in class 4. Use ratings on Faces chart 2. Assess anxiety asap or Anxiety Thermometer to quantify level of anxietyIncrease in 1. Increase in self-soothing 1. Ratio of tantrums to removal 1. Assess with eachAlternative Skills 2. Increase in verbalizing anxiety 2. Anecdotal records tantrum Self-soothing 2. Document in writingstrategies as it happens Communication/Stor 3. Meet after one weeky Board device and then monthly Choice-makingOther (Lifestyle 1. At home, Felix will follow a 1. Parent report 1. Weekly emailChanges) behavior plan which will help update address expectations and 2. Monthly update routines 2. Create visual sequence of tasks for night and morning routines 21
Weekly Progress Monitoring Data Collection FormFelix: Week/Date:Notes F R E Q U E N C Y T O T O T O T O T O Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 22
Felix monitoring form F R E Q U E N C Y T O T O T O T O T O Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Progress Monitoring: Tantrums Progress Monitoring: Office Intervention 3.5 Referrals Intervention8 37 2.565 24 1.53 12 0.51 00 -0.5 Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6-1 Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week3 Week 4 -1
Felix Felix: Points Earned Progress Monitoring87654 Points (six is possible)3 Linear ( Points (six is possible))210 Date P oi nts ( si x is possi bl e ) 1- Oct 0 2- Oct 1 3- Oct 2 4- Oct 1 5- Oct 2 8- Oct 0 9- Oct 1 10- Oct 1 11- Oct 4 12- Oct 5 15- Oct 3 16- Oct 5 17- Oct 6 18- Oct 6 19- Oct 6 22- Oct 4 23- Oct 6 24- Oct 5 25- Oct 5 24
The Problem Solving Process Problem Identification Progress Problem Monitoring Clarification Intervention Problem Planning Analysis 27
Big Idea: Did the intervention work and what is next? A schedule for ongoing monitoring Data are interpreted, in of the response toStep 5. relation to predetermined intervention data isProgress Monitoring and criteria, to evaluate the set.Evaluation effectiveness of interventions Level of ongoing and supports provided. support necessary Intervention strategies are for student success adjusted to improve results is reevaluated. as needed.
Monitoring• Where are you?• Where do you want to be?• You need to see progress headed in the right direction! 29
MonitoringBig Idea: Did the Intervention work and what is next?a) Collect and analyze data to confirm or reject the hypothesis.b) Refine the hypothesis and adjust interventions.c) Continue to collect and evaluate data about intervention. 30
a) Collect and analyze data to confirm or reject the hypotheses.b) Refine the hypotheses and adjust interventions.c) Continue to collect and evaluate data about intervention. 31
MONITORING PLAN FOR INTERVENTION OUTCOMES Types of Outcomes: Methods: Timelines:Goal What Will Be Measured? How Will It Be Measured? When/How Often Will It Be Measured?Decrease in Problem Behavior uIncrease in Alternative SkillsOther (Lifestyle Changes) 32
MONITORING POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF SUCCESSFUL INTERVENTION Possible Outcomes Examples DocumentationSignificant reduction in target behaviors Aggression decreased to near zero levels; remains in Frequency count of target behaviors; attendance assigned area recordsAcquisition of adaptive skills (replacement skills) Asks for break rather than throwing materials; Log of activities and breaks requested; length of time participates in group games engagedImprovements across many behaviors; absence of Improvements in academic performance; medications Grades; medical reportsside effects discontinuedReduced need for crisis intervention Decreased referrals or decreased use of crisis Referrals; incident reports managementBehavior changes across settings or circumstances Improvements seen on bus, in cafeteria, with Reports from adults in other settings babysitterParticipation in integrated community settings Changes in placement; attends field trips or outings IEP (time in ESE reduced); schedule of activitiesExpansion of relationships and friendships More frequent phone conversations or outings with Diary; activity or contact log; reports from peers peers; expanded network of social relationshipsIncreased independence in daily routines Diminished adult supervision; completed aspects of Reduced staff-student ratio; schedule or activity log daily schedule unpromptedInvolvement in broader range of meaningful activities Participates in broader range of activities (e.g., goes to Schedule of activities movies, art projects)Personal satisfaction with behavior or lifestyle Increased smiling; reports satisfaction with changes Observation and reports 33
a) Collect and analyze data to confirm or reject the hypotheses.b) Refine the hypotheses and adjust interventions.c) Continue to collect and evaluate data about intervention. 34
Best Practices in Progress Monitoring Elements in Progress Monitoring Behavior1. Visual display should be plotted with time (x-axis) and the dimension of behavior (y-axis).2. Frequency, rate, latency (response delay), duration, percentage correct, responses compared with number of opportunities to respond are all things that are measurable and can be recorded but must relate to target behavior.3. Mark Intervention lines.4. If multiple graphs are used, be sure to have behaviors on the same scale, i.e. Y-axis is consistent.5. Establish baseline data. Baseline data must consist of more than one data point (3- 7 is average).6. Plot the goal or aim line. Goal should be based on local norms, research-based benchmarks, or classroom/peer comparison.7. Goals must have an expected timeline to reach the goal. Adjustments to the goal (decision rules) can be applied in a flexible manner based on the student’s individual needs. 35
Evaluating Examples- Good, Better, Best?• Using the 7-point check system (see Elements of Progress Monitoring: Handout 44) , what elements of progress monitoring are exhibited in the following examples?• Should the intervention change based on data? What questions do you have? 36
Does this have all the Elements of Progress Monitoring? Is this student improving? Incidents 350 300 250 200frequency Incidents 150 100 50 0 9/12-9/19 9/26-10/9 10/10-11/8 11/9-12/6 12/6/06- 1/16/07- 2/21/07-3/9/07 3/10/07- 1/12/07 2/16/07 4/17/07 data collection dates 37
Low Tech Example:Does this have the qualities of BestPractice in Progress Monitoring? 38
Pitfalls at this stage (1)Missing in Strategy to Overcome Pitfall Invite all team members and key personnel..Action (MIA): Schedule meetings in advance at regular intervals. PlannedThe people Behavior Review Meetings help control anxiety, manage stress level and prevent need for reactive, unpredictable meetings.that need to The more severe the problem, the more frequent the meetings.be at the Never leave a meeting without having the next meeting scheduled.meeting are Be sure that there is commitment from an administrator to attend.missing Decide the norms for the group. (If key members are not present, reschedule to be more effective with time?)leaving noforum toregularlydiscussstudentproblems.
Pitfalls at this stage (2) Strategy to Overcome Pitfall Decide roles: facilitator, data person, timer, and note-Disorganized taker in advance for the meeting . Discuss up front the length of the meeting and the endMeeting: time. Start and end on time. Use technology like a data projector so that everyone isMeetings are looking at the same information at the same time.endless with Take group notes so that note-taking is visible either with poster board or computer with data projector.no agenda and Leave 15 minutes at the end of the meeting to summarize, assign roles, review action plans.participantswho are notsure why theyare there.
Pitfalls at this stage (3)Where’s the data?• Meetings with no data lead to guessing Strategy to Overcome Pitfall Data must be ready for the meeting- that at the problem when is, it must be summarized and visually making adjustments. displayed prior to starting the meeting Compare data collected with the problem• Not reviewing how statement and goal you are collecting Step back to be sure that you are collecting the right data - does this make sense? data - is the assessment telling us the information that we thought we wanted when we designed it.
Pitfalls at this stage (4)Failing to intervene or Strategy to Overcome Pitfallintervening tooquickly: Cornerstone of Progress monitoring is making adjustments based on data.• Designing Determine how much progress is enough before intervention with no making a change. baseline. Rule of thumb: Collecting data over 4 to 6 weeks• Either the team is (progress). making changes too How many data points do you need? Depends - the frequently (not severity of behavior may require an intervention be implemented very quickly. enough time to have it work) or making What is the baseline; do we need it or do we have it already? To determine a pattern, 80% of the data changes too late. points should fall within 15% of the mean line or three• Implementation Dip- to five data points. a reaction by the student to the intervention that usually means the behavior gets worse before it gets better.
Pitfalls in this stage (5) Strategy to Overcome Pitfall Have scripts included with the intervention toPoor integrity of encourage consistency when the intervention is verbal.the Intervention Use implementation checklists–Not implementing Use signals that are consistent among staffthe intervention during intervention to make sure that verbal direction and tone are in check.–Not implementing Use visual signals to avoid problems in communication when possible.the intervention Take attendance and track the frequency of thethe way we intervention.designed it to bedone.
Pitfalls at this stage (6)Lack of a clearly specified goal• No goal linked to objectives or a standard Strategy to Overcome Pitfall• Unclear of what behavior is Use local norms to determine goal. being targeted. Do you always aim to zero? What is a reasonable, realistic goal for a• Is there a mismatch between student? the intervention and the Revisit the initial problem and goal initially identified need statement.• Overlooking the obvious- have we overlooked tried and true intervention strategies?• Is there a mismatch between the intensity of the behavior and the intensity of intervention?
Planning for pitfalls• Based on these pitfalls, what concerns do you have for your district teams?• Discuss how you plan to trouble shoot pitfalls. 48